Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Reviews or summaries of the recent literature are posted here.

EAORC Bulletin 562

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Apr 18, 2014 5:17 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 562 – 23 March 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – No Adultery in Owl Monkeys. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity. 1

NATURE REPORTS – The Simple Rules of Social Contagion. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Elephants Recognize the Voices of Their Enemies. 2

SCIAM NEWS – Rise of the Human Predator. 2

SCIAM NEWS – Different Brain Regions Handle Different Music Types. 2

SCIAM NEWS – What Science Tells Us about Why We Lie. 2

SCINEWS.COM – Little Foot: Scientists Discover 3-Million-Year-Old Australopithecus prometheus. 2

SCINEWS.COM – Linguist Deciphers 1,800-Year-Old Letter from Egyptian Soldier. 2

WORLD SCIENCE – Europeans may have evolved lighter skin in past 5,000 years. 2

WORLD SCIENCE – Elephants “console” distressed pals. 2

WORLD SCIENCE – Money makes people more right-wing. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 3

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 3

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 May 2014. 3

New Scientist – 22 March 2014. 3

Science – 21 March 2014. 3

Nature – 20 March 2014. 4

PLOS One – 19 March 2014. 4

PNAS – 18 March 2014. 5

PLOS Biology – March 2014. 5

Frontiers in Neuroscience – 14 March 2014. 5

Scientific American Mind – November/December 2013. 6

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 6




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – No Adultery in Owl Monkeys

You won’t catch an owl monkey sneaking off and philandering. Aotus azarae, also known as night monkeys, win the prize for being the finest dads in the primate world; researchers have found that they’re the first primate species—besides humans—to demonstrate real faithfulness and monogamy.

http://news.sciencemag.org/signal-noise ... wl-monkeys




NATURE REPORTS – Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity

R Russo, H J Herrmann & L de Arcangelis

“The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140313/ ... P-20140318




NATURE REPORTS – The Simple Rules of Social Contagion

Nathan O Hodas & Kristina Lerman

“It is commonly believed that information spreads between individuals like a pathogen, with each exposure by an informed friend potentially resulting in a naive individual becoming infected. However, empirical studies of social media suggest that individual response to repeated exposure to information is far more complex. As a proxy for intervention experiments, we compare user responses to multiple exposures on two different social media sites, Twitter and Digg. We show that the position of exposing messages on the user-interface strongly affects social contagion. Accounting for this visibility significantly simplifies the dynamics of social contagion. The likelihood an individual will spread information increases monotonically with exposure, while explicit feedback about how many friends have previously spread it increases the likelihood of a response. We provide a framework for unifying information visibility, divided attention, and explicit social feedback to predict the temporal dynamics of user behavior.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140311/ ... P-20140318




SCIAM NEWS – Elephants Recognize the Voices of Their Enemies

African elephants can distinguish human languages, genders and ages associated with danger.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20140317




SCIAM NEWS – Rise of the Human Predator

By Kate Wong

For decades anthropologists have debated when and how our ancestors became skilled hunters. Recent discoveries have yielded surprising new insights

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... A_20140318




SCIAM NEWS – Different Brain Regions Handle Different Music Types

Allie Wilkinson

Functional MRI of the listening brain found that different regions become active when listening to different types of music and instrumental versus vocals.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podca ... B_20140319




SCIAM NEWS – What Science Tells Us about Why We Lie

By Michael Shermer

When are we most (and least) likely to lie?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... hy-we-lie/




SCINEWS.COM – Little Foot: Scientists Discover 3-Million-Year-Old Australopithecus prometheus

The nearly complete skeleton of the Australopithecus prometheus named Little Foot discovered in the Sterkfontein caves in South Africa is the oldest complete Australopithecus ever found, say anthropologists led by Dr Laurent Bruxelles of the French National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCINEWS.COM – Linguist Deciphers 1,800-Year-Old Letter from Egyptian Soldier

A 1,800-year-old private letter from the Egyptian recruit Aurelius Polion of legio II Adiutrix stationed in Pannonia Inferior (modern day Hungary) has been translated into English by Rice University Religious Studies graduate student Mr Grant Adamson.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




WORLD SCIENCE – Europeans may have evolved lighter skin in past 5,000 years

Anthropologists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany and geneticists at University College London, working with archaeologists from Berlin and Kiev, reached the conclusions based on analysis of ancient DNA from skeletons. The findings, published this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggest the changes weren’t random, but were the result of natural selection—natural pressures that drive evolution, possibly including mating preferences.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... igment.htm




WORLD SCIENCE – Elephants “console” distressed pals

Asian elephants console other elephants who are in distress, using physical touches and vocalizations, finds a study to be published in the research journal PeerJ.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... phants.htm




WORLD SCIENCE – Money makes people more right-wing

Lottery winners tend to switch towards support for a right-wing political party and to become less egalitarian, according to new research in the U.K.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... ottery.htm




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 May 2014

PAPERS

HYEONG-DONG PARK & CATHERINE TALLON-BAUDRY – The neural subjective frame: from bodily signals to perceptual consciousness [“The report ‘I saw the stimulus’ operationally defines visual consciousness, but where does the ‘I’ come from? To account for the subjective dimension of perceptual experience, we introduce the concept of the neural subjective frame. The neural subjective frame would be based on the constantly updated neural maps of the internal state of the body and constitute a neural referential from which first person experience can be created. We propose to root the neural subjective frame in the neural representation of visceral information which is transmitted through multiple anatomical pathways to a number of target sites, including posterior insula, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and somatosensory cortex. We review existing experimental evidence showing that the processing of external stimuli can interact with visceral function. The neural subjective frame is a low-level building block of subjective experience which is not explicitly experienced by itself which is necessary but not sufficient for perceptual experience. It could also underlie other types of subjective experiences such as self-consciousness and emotional feelings. Because the neural subjective frame is tightly linked to homeostatic regulations involved in vigilance, it could also make a link between state and content consciousness”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 8.abstract



SIMON VAN GAAL et al with STANISLAS DEHAENE – Can the meaning of multiple words be integrated unconsciously? [“What are the limits of unconscious language processing? Can language circuits process simple grammatical constructions unconsciously and integrate the meaning of several unseen words? Using behavioural priming and electroencephalography (EEG), we studied a specific rule-based linguistic operation traditionally thought to require conscious cognitive control: the negation of valence. In a masked priming paradigm, two masked words were successively (Experiment 1) or simultaneously presented (Experiment 2), a modifier (‘not’/‘very’) and an adjective (e.g. ‘good’/‘bad’), followed by a visible target noun (e.g. ‘peace’/‘murder’). Subjects indicated whether the target noun had a positive or negative valence. The combination of these three words could either be contextually consistent (e.g. ‘very bad - murder’) or inconsistent (e.g. ‘not bad - murder’). EEG recordings revealed that grammatical negations could unfold partly unconsciously, as reflected in similar occipito-parietal N400 effects for conscious and unconscious three-word sequences forming inconsistent combinations. However, only conscious word sequences elicited P600 effects, later in time. Overall, these results suggest that multiple unconscious words can be rapidly integrated and that an unconscious negation can automatically ‘flip the sign’ of an unconscious adjective. These findings not only extend the limits of subliminal combinatorial language processes, but also highlight how consciousness modulates the grammatical integration of multiple words”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 2.abstract




New Scientist – 22 March 2014

NEWS

Your voice betrays your personality in a split second [People take less than a second to judge your personality – including attractiveness, dominance and trustworthiness – based on just your voice] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... y65SX5FCUk



DNA evidence points to humans for demise of moas [New Zealand's flightless birds showed no sign of a population decline until humans arrived, suggesting we really were responsible for their extinction] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... y68tn5FCUk



ARTICLES

MICHAEL RAMSCAR & HARALD BAAYEN – Why our brains work better with age [Cognitive decline is a myth. The research behind the idea uses flawed models of how we learn in the real world] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... h-age.html



SALLY ADEE – Invisible: How to see through lies [From liar's smirk to telltale pupils, your face is the blind spot that betrays you] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -lies.html




Science – 21 March 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 20 March 2014

NEWS

Hominin explorers were poor planners [Hominin migrations, such as those out of Africa, might have been led by individuals with low levels of foresight] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140320



REVIEWS

RICHARD G ROBERTS – Human evolution: Just add water [Review of “The Improbable Primate: How water shaped human evolution‘’ by Clive Finlayson] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140320



PAPERS

SRIRAM SANKARARAMAN et al with SVANTE PÄÄBO – The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans [“We systematically infer Neanderthal haplotypes in the genomes of 1,004 present-day humans9. Regions that harbour a high frequency of Neanderthal alleles are enriched for genes affecting keratin filaments, suggesting that Neanderthal alleles may have helped modern humans to adapt to non-African environments. We identify multiple Neanderthal-derived alleles that confer risk for disease, suggesting that Neanderthal alleles continue to shape human biology. An unexpected finding is that regions with reduced Neanderthal ancestry are enriched in genes, implying selection to remove genetic material derived from Neanderthals. Genes that are more highly expressed in testes than in any other tissue are especially reduced in Neanderthal ancestry, and there is an approximately fivefold reduction of Neanderthal ancestry on the X chromosome, which is known from studies of diverse species to be especially dense in male hybrid sterility genes10, 11, 12. These results suggest that part of the explanation for genomic regions of reduced Neanderthal ancestry is Neanderthal alleles that caused decreased fertility in males when moved to a modern human genetic background”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140320



...

[Message clipped] View entire message
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 563

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Apr 18, 2014 5:19 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 563 – 30 March 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Label-Free Characterization of Emerging Human Neuronal Networks. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Biased imitation in coupled evolutionary games in interdependent networks. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – To Spot a Liar, Trust Your Instinct 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Watch: For Vervet Monkeys, Mom Knows Best 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Dolphin Says 'Seaweed' 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 May 2014. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

New Scientist – 22 March 2014. 2

Science – 21 March 2014. 2

Nature – 20 March 2014. 2

PLOS One – 19 March 2014. 2

PNAS – 18 March 2014. 3

PLOS Biology – March 2014. 3

Frontiers in Neuroscience – 14 March 2014. 3

Frontiers in Psychology – 14 March 2014. 4

Animal Behaviour – March 2013. 5

Current Anthropology – April 2014. 5

Biolinguistics – March 2014. 6

Actual Archaeology Magazine – Spring 2014. 6

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 6




NOTICES


NATURE REPORTS – Label-Free Characterization of Emerging Human Neuronal Networks

Mustafa Mir et al

“Little is known about the dynamic behavior of a developing network (especially in a human model) primarily due to a lack of practical and non-invasive methods to measure and quantify the process. Here we demonstrate that by using a novel optical interferometric technique, we can non-invasively measure several fundamental properties of neural networks from the sub-cellular to the cell population level. We applied this method to quantify network formation in human stem cell derived neurons and show for the first time, correlations between trends in the growth, transport, and spatial organization of such a system.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140324/ ... P-20140325




NATURE REPORTS – Biased imitation in coupled evolutionary games in interdependent networks

M D Santos, S N Dorogovtsev & J F F Mendes

“We explore the evolutionary dynamics of two games—the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game—played within distinct networks (layers) of interdependent networks. In these networks imitation and interaction between individuals of opposite layers is established through interlinks. We explore an update rule in which revision of strategies is a biased imitation process: individuals imitate neighbors from the same layer with probability p, and neighbors from the second layer with complementary probability 1 − p. We demonstrate that a small decrease of p from p = 1 (which corresponds to forbidding strategy transfer between layers) is sufficient to promote cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma subpopulation. This, on the other hand, is detrimental for cooperation in the Snowdrift Game subpopulation.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140324/ ... P-20140325




SCIENCE NEWS – To Spot a Liar, Trust Your Instinct

Unfortunately, spotting a liar isn’t as easy as checking to see if they have their fingers crossed behind their back. Yet, some scientists are saying we’re better at detecting a lie than we think.

http://news.sciencemag.org/signal-noise ... r-instinct




SCIENCE NEWS – Watch: For Vervet Monkeys, Mom Knows Best

Monkey see, monkey do; but who exactly do monkeys watch to learn how to act? Scientists have found that for young vervet monkeys, mom is the role model.

http://news.sciencemag.org/signal-noise ... knows-best




SCIENCE NEWS – Dolphin Says 'Seaweed'

Prototype software created to interpret certain dolphin whistles has performed its first real-time translation.

http://news.sciencemag.org/signal-noise ... ys-seaweed




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 May 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




New Scientist – 22 March 2014

NEWS

Dolphin whistle instantly translated by computer [Software has performed the first real-time translation of a dolphin whistle – and better data tools are giving fresh insights into primate communication too] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... puter.html



ARTICLES

ALISON GEORGE – Stuff: Humans as hunters and mega-gatherers [How did we evolve from indigent apes with no possessions into hoarding humans with more stuff than we can track? Our urge to accumulate has deep roots] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... erers.html



GEOFFREY MILLER – Stuff: The bare necessities, then and now [What is the smallest set of things that we need in a modern consumer society? Evolutionary psychologist Geoffrey Miller delves for insights] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... d-now.html



MICHAEL BOND – Stuff: The psychological power of possessions [We invest emotion and memories in our possessions, giving them deep meaning, but that doesn't necessarily make us happy – it may drive us slightly mad] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... sions.html




Science – 21 March 2014

NEWS

Oldest Homo sapiens Genome Pinpoints Neandertal Input [Researchers have announced the oldest sequenced genome of a modern human, taken from the thighbone of a man who lived in Siberia 45,000 years ago. The as-yet unpublished bone and genome are yielding new insight into when moderns interbred with our extinct cousins, the Neandertals] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6178/1417.short




Nature – 20 March 2014

NEWS

Human evolution: The Neanderthal in the family [Thirty years after the study of ancient DNA began, it promises to upend our view of the past] http://www.nature.com/news/human-evolut ... E-20140327




PLOS One – 19 March 2014

PAPERS

SATORU YOKOYAMA, KEI TAKAHASHI & RYUTA KAWASHIMA - Animacy or Case Marker Order?: Priority Information for Online Sentence Comprehension in a Head-Final Language [“It is well known that case marker information and animacy information are incrementally used to comprehend sentences in head-final languages. However, it is still unclear how these two kinds of information are processed when they are in competition in a sentence's surface expression. The current study used sentences conveying the potentiality of some event (henceforth, potential sentences) in the Japanese language with theoretically canonical word order (dative–nominative/animate–inanimate order) and with scrambled word order (nominative–dative/inanimate–animate order). In Japanese, nominative–first case order and animate–inanimate animacy order are preferred to their reversed patterns in simplex sentences. Hence, in these potential sentences, case information and animacy information are in competition”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0093109



LEILEI MEI et al – Artificial Language Training Reveals the Neural Substrates Underlying Addressed and Assembled [“Here, we designed an artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) that can be read either through addressed (i.e., whole word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. Two matched groups of native English-speaking participants were trained in one of the two conditions, one hour per day for eight days. Behavioral results showed that both groups correctly named more than 90% of the trained words after training. At the neural level, we found a clear dissociation of the neural pathways for addressed and assembled phonologies: There was greater involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, right orbital frontal cortex, angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus for addressed phonology, but stronger activation in the left precentral gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus for assembled phonology”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0093548





ALEŠ ANTONÍN KUBĚNA et al – Justine Effect: Punishment of the Unduly Self-Sacrificing Cooperative Individuals [“Allowing players to punish their opponents in Public Goods Game sustains cooperation within a group and thus brings advantage to the cooperative individuals. However, the possibility of punishment of the co-players can result in antisocial punishment, the punishment of those players who contribute the most in the group. To better understand why antisocial punishment exists, it must be determined who are the anti-social punishers and who are their primary targets”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0092336




PNAS – 18 March 2014

PAPERS

ERIK TRINKAUS, TRENTON W HOLLIDAY & BENJAMIN M AUERBACH – Neandertal clavicle length [“Neandertal clavicle length, relative to that of modern humans, has long been considered distinctive. It has been invoked with respect to their ecogeographic body proportions, thoracic shape, scapular posture and biomechanics, temporal labyrinthine shape, and ancient DNA, as well as their trait polarities and phylogenetic status. Appropriate scaling of clavicle length to estimated body mass reveals that there is a consistent pattern of clavicle length to body mass proportions across early and recent modern humans, Neandertals, and probably most of the genus Homo. It is the relative abbreviation of Neandertal humeri, a reflection of ecogeographical body proportions and population history, that distinguishes the Neandertals from many modern humans. It is therefore inappropriate to use Neandertal clavicular length to assess their biology and evolutionary relationships”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/12/4438.abstract




PLOS Biology – March 2014

PAPERS

ANIRUDDH D PATEL – The Evolutionary Biology of Musical Rhythm: Was Darwin Wrong? [“In The Descent of Man, Darwin speculated that our capacity for musical rhythm reflects basic aspects of brain function broadly shared among animals. Although this remains an appealing idea, it is being challenged by modern cross-species research. This research hints that our capacity to synchronize to a beat, i.e., to move in time with a perceived pulse in a manner that is predictive and flexible across a broad range of tempi, may be shared by only a few other species. Is this really the case? If so, it would have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of human musicality”] http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info ... io.1001821




Frontiers in Neuroscience – 14 March 2014

PAPERS

SHANNON L M HEALD & HOWARD C NUSBAUM – Speech perception as an active cognitive process [“One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming relatively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processing with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience”] http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/ ... e-w13-2014



MARY ANN RAGHANTI et al – Humans and great apes share increased neocortical neuropeptide Y innervation compared to other haplorhine primates [“Humans and great apes showed increased cortical NPY innervation relative to monkey species for ALv/Nv [total neuron density] and Vv/Nv [varicosity density to neuron density]. Furthermore, humans and great apes displayed a conserved pattern of varicosity spacing across cortical areas and layers, with no differences between cortical layers or among cortical areas. These phylogenetic differences may be related to shared life history variables and may reflect specific cognitive abilities”] http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/ ... e-w13-2014




Frontiers in Psychology – 14 March 2014

PAPERS

KONSTANTINOS TSAGKARIDIS et al – The role of action representations in thematic object relations [“In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions relevant to object relationship processing. First, we assessed whether participants tended to favor thematic relations including action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle—corkscrew), thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle—cheese), or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle—water bottle) when choosing between them in an association judgment task with manipulable artifacts. Second, we assessed whether the underlying constructs of event relatedness, action relatedness, and categorical relatedness determined the choices that participants made. Third, we assessed the hypothesis that degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex, a region of the brain associated with the representation of action knowledge, would reduce the influence of action on the choice task”] http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/ ... y-w13-2014



PAUL GIMENEZ et al – Neuroimaging correlates of handwriting quality as children learn to read and write [“The main goal of the current preliminary study was to examine individual differences in neurofunctional and neuroanatomical patterns associated with handwriting in beginning writers/readers. In 46 5–6 year-old beginning readers/writers, ratings of handwriting quality, were rank-ordered from best to worst and correlated with brain activation patterns during a phonological task using functional MRI, and with regional gray matter volume from structural T1 MRI. Results showed that better handwriting was associated negatively with activation and positively with gray matter volume in an overlapping region of the pars triangularis of right inferior frontal gyrus. This region, in particular in the left hemisphere in adults and more bilaterally in young children, is known to be important for decoding, phonological processing, and subvocal rehearsal”] http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/ ... y-w13-2014


YOSHIFUMI IKEDA, HIDEYUKI OKUZUMI & MITSURU KOKUBUN – Age-related trends of inhibitory control in Stroop-like big–small task in 3 to 12-year-old children and young adults [“This study examined age-related trends of Stroop-like interference in 3 to 12-year-old children and young adults by administration of a computerized Stroop-like big–small task with reduced working memory demand. This task used a set of pictures displaying a big and small circle in black and included the same condition and the opposite condition. In the same condition, each participant was instructed to say “big” when viewing the big circle and to say “small” when viewing the small circle. In the opposite condition, each pa
...

[Message clipped] View entire message
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 564

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Apr 18, 2014 5:20 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 564 – 6 April 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Did Europeans Get Fat From Neandertals?. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Hunting Was a Driving Force in Human Evolution. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Fooling Ourselves: The Everyday role of Ritual 1

SCI-NEWS.COM – Genetic Scientists Identify Key Gene for Human Brain Development 1

CONFERENCE – 51st Annual Conference of the Animal Behavior Society. 1

GROUP – Construction Grammar. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 May 2014. 2

New Scientist – 5 April 2014. 3

Science – 4 April 2014. 3

Nature – 3 April 2014. 3

PLOS One – 2 April 2014. 4

PNAS – 1 April 2014. 4

Animal Behaviour – March 2013. 5

New Scientist the Collection – Issue 1. 6

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 6




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Did Europeans Get Fat From Neandertals?

Genetic analysis suggests that modern Europeans—but not Asians—inherited fat-processing genes from our extinct relatives

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... a3b59c0598




SCIAM NEWS – Hunting Was a Driving Force in Human Evolution

Just how significant a role did hunting play in human evolution?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20140331




SCIAM NEWS – Fooling Ourselves: The Everyday role of Ritual

April Fools’ Day is not unique to Western cultures. People all over the world and all throughout history have celebrated the coming of Spring with ritualistic festivals of deception and lightheartedness.

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ant ... of-ritual/




SCI-NEWS.COM – Genetic Scientists Identify Key Gene for Human Brain Development

A new study, reported in the American Journal of Human Genetics, confirms that a gene called USP9X is critical to the earliest stages of the human brain development. USP9X has been investigated researchers for more than a decade, but in recent years scientists have begun to understand its particular importance to brain development.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




CONFERENCE – 51st Annual Conference of the Animal Behavior Society

Princeton, New Jersey

Saturday, August 9 to Thursday, August 14, 2014.

http://abs2014.princeton.edu/

Registration and abstract submission are now both OPEN. Talks slots are limited on a first-come first-served basis so claim your spot NOW. Lightning talk and poster formats are also available.

PLENARY SPEAKERS

• Iain Couzin, Princeton University, “Collective sensing and decision making in animal groups"

• David Whyte Macdonald, University of Oxford, “From Groundedness to Geopolitics in Pursuit of Conservation”

• Sarah Brosnan, Georgia State University, “Comparative Economics: Decision-making across the primates”

• President’s Symposium: How the Evolution of Sociality Shapes the Brain, Behavior, and Cognition. Organized by Robert Seyfarth.

Warder Clyde Allee Session for Best Graduate Student Paper. For submission details, see Awards section on the meeting website. Deadline has been extended to April 15.

Turner Travel Award for Undergraduates. Students who are members of groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences are particularly urged to apply. Deadline has been extended to April 15.

• Diversity Fund Student Registration Fee Awards. Graduate students of under-represented minorities are encouraged to apply (in some cases post-PhD individuals are eligible). See Awards page for details. Awards will be made by lottery. Deadline has been extended to April 15.




GROUP – Construction Grammar

Many of you who are interested in cognitive linguistics will also like to know what's going on in construction grammar. There is now a new Facebook group devoted to construction grammar where construction grammarians can meet and interact digitally.

https://www.facebook.com/groups/constructiongrammar/

You are most warmly invited to join this new online community!

Evie Coussé, University of Gothenburg




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 May 2014

PAPERS

LAURENT LEHMANN & FRANÇOIS ROUSSET – The genetical theory of social behaviour [“We reach three conclusions pertaining to selection on social behaviours under broad conditions. (i) Selection can be understood by focusing on a one-generation change in mean allele frequency, a computation which underpins the utility of reproductive value weights; (ii) in large populations under the assumptions of additive gene action and weak selection, this change is of constant sign for any allele frequency and is predicted by a phenotypic selection gradient; (iii) under the assumptions of trait substitution sequences, such phenotypic selection gradients suffice to characterize long-term multi-dimensional stochastic evolution, with almost no knowledge about the genetic details underlying the coevolving traits”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 7.abstract



JOEL W MCGLOTHLIN et al – Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications [“Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 8.abstract



DAVID C QUELLER – Joint phenotypes, evolutionary conflict and the fundamental theorem of natural selection [“Here, I describe the evolution of joint phenotypes in quantitative genetic terms. A joint phenotype for multiple species evolves as the sum of additive genetic variances in each species, weighted by the selection on each species. Selective conflict between the interactants occurs when selection takes opposite signs on the joint phenotype. The mean fitness of a population changes not just through its own genetic variance but also through the genetic variance for its fitness that resides in other species, an update of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 3.abstract



PETER D TAYLOR & WES MACIEJEWSKI – Hamilton's inclusive fitness in finite-structured populations [“Hamilton's formulation of inclusive fitness has been with us for 50 years. During the first 20 of those years attention was largely focused on the evolutionary trajectories of different behaviours, but over the past 20 years interest has been growing in the effect of population structure on the evolution of behaviour and that is our focus here”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 0.abstract



HISASHI OHTSUKI – Evolutionary dynamics of n-player games played by relatives [“Here, I provide a general framework to analyse multiplayer interactions among relatives. Two important results follow from my analysis. First, it is generally necessary to know the n-tuple genetic association of family members when n individuals are engaged in social interactions. However, as a second result, I found that, for a special class of games, we need only measures of lower-order genetic association to fully describe its evolutionary dynamics”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 9.abstract



GEOFF WILD & CODY KOYKKA – Inclusive-fitness logic of cooperative breeding with benefits of natal philopatry [“We use two inclusive-fitness models to study the advantage of this kind of helpful behaviour in social groups with high reproductive skew. Our first model does not allow for competition among relatives to occur but our second model does. Specifically, our second model assumes a competitive hierarchy among nest-mates, with non-breeding helpers ranked higher than their newborn siblings. For each model, we obtain an expression for the change in inclusive fitness experienced by a helpful individual in a selfish population. The prediction suggested by each expression is confirmed with computer simulation. When model predictions are compared to one another, we find that helping emerges under a broader range of conditions in the second model”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 1.abstract



ANDREW F G BOURKE – Hamilton's rule and the causes of social evolution [“This review provides evidence for Hamilton's rule by presenting novel syntheses of results from two kinds of study in diverse taxa, including cooperatively breeding birds and mammals and eusocial insects. These are, first, studies that empirically parametrize Hamilton's rule in natural populations and, second, comparative phylogenetic analyses of the genetic, life-history and ecological correlates of sociality. Studies parametrizing Hamilton's rule are not rare and demonstrate quantitatively that (i) altruism (net loss of direct fitness) occurs even when sociality is facultative, (ii) in most cases, altruism is under positive selection via indirect fitness benefits that exceed direct fitness costs and (iii) social behaviour commonly generates indirect benefits by enhancing the productivity or survivorship of kin. Comparative phylogenetic analyses show that cooperative breeding and eusociality are promoted by (i) high relatedness and monogamy and, potentially, by (ii) life-history factors facilitating family structure and high benefits of helping and (iii) ecological factors generating low costs of social behaviour”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 2.abstract



NICOLAS CLAIDIÈRE, THOMAS C SCOTT-PHILLIPS & DAN SPERBER – How Darwinian is cultural evolution? [“Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 8.abstract




New Scientist – 5 April 2014

NEWS

Born to chat: Humans may have innate language instinct [People organise a new language according to a logical hierarchy, not by learning which words go together – adding support to the idea of "universal grammar" {“Chomsky says the study adds little evidence to what is obvious. It's like adding a toothpick to a mountain, he said” – the toothpick metaphor only works if you’re building a bonfire, not a mountain}] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... 0E83n5waUk



Yum, Lego… Human babies born to move hands to mouth [Our brains seem to have a circuit dedicated to grabbing stuff and putting it in our mouths, an
...

[Message clipped] View entire message
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 571

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Wed May 28, 2014 2:37 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 571 – 25 May 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIAM NEWS – In a Foreign Language, “Killing 1 to Save 5” May Be More Permissible. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Does Rice Farming Lead to Collectivist Thinking?. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Discovery of Mexican Skeleton Connects Siberian Ancestors to Native Americans. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Orangutans Share Their Future Plans with Others. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Dogs Follow the Gaze of Humans, Especially When There’s Food Involved. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Many Animals Can Think Abstractly. 1

SCI-NEWS.COM – Paleolithic Tools Unearthed at U.S. Embassy in London. 2

WORLDSCIENCE – Favoritism, not hostility, seen behind much discrimination. 2

WORLDSCIENCE – Revenge not satisfying without attitude change. 2

CONFERENCE – Mental Fictionalism.. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

New Scientist – 24 May 2014. 2

Science – 23 May 2014. 3

Nature – 22 May 2014. 3

PLoS One – 21 May 2014. 3

PNAS – 20 May 2014. 3

Frontiers in Neuroscience – 22 May 2014. 3

Frontiers in Psychology – 23 May 2014. 4

The Quarterly Review of Biology – June 2014. 7

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 8




NOTICES


SCIAM NEWS – In a Foreign Language, “Killing 1 to Save 5” May Be More Permissible

Language shapes our moral judgments

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20140521




SCIAM NEWS – Does Rice Farming Lead to Collectivist Thinking?

Psychologists find that the agricultural region in China where people grew up predicted whether they have an individualistic or communal outlook

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20140519




SCIAM NEWS – Discovery of Mexican Skeleton Connects Siberian Ancestors to Native Americans

DNA from the skeleton shows similarities to modern Native Americans, while its skull structure matches those of Paleoamericans that came across the Bering land bridge

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20140519




SCIAM NEWS – Orangutans Share Their Future Plans with Others

The apes can draft a plan and communicate it with their troop

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20140519




SCIAM NEWS – Dogs Follow the Gaze of Humans, Especially When There’s Food Involved

By Felicity Muth

I recently wrote about how humans and other primates follow the gaze of others. This week I read about two more interesting findings relating to gaze-following, the first in dogs, the second in robins.


...
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Previous

Return to Reviews of the Literature

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest