Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Reviews or summaries of the recent literature are posted here.

EAORC Bulletin 540

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Tue Nov 05, 2013 9:57 am

EAORC BULLETIN 540 – 20 October 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Stunning Skull Gives Early Humans a New Look. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Marmosets Chat Like We Do. 1

NATURE NEWS – How Peer Pressure Shapes Consensus, Leadership, and Innovations in Social Groups. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Important New Theory Explains Where Old Memories Go. 1

SCIAM NEWS – A New Frontier in Animal Intelligence. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 1

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 20 October 2013. 2

New Scientist – 19 October 2013. 2

Science – 18 October 2013. 2

Nature – 17 October 2013. 2

PLOS One – 16 October 2013. 2

PNAS – 15 October 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 3




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Stunning Skull Gives Early Humans a New Look

Amazingly complete ancient skull is changing researchers’ views of human origins

http://news.sciencemag.org/evolution/20 ... s-new-look




SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Marmosets Chat Like We Do

Small monkeys take turns when communicating

http://news.sciencemag.org/evolution/20 ... chat-we-do




NATURE NEWS – How Peer Pressure Shapes Consensus, Leadership, and Innovations in Social Groups

Ernesto Estrada, Eusebio Vargas-Estrada

What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences—peer pressure (PP)—on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131009/ ... P-20131015




SCIAM NEWS – Important New Theory Explains Where Old Memories Go

Why some memories disappear, some remain, and others blend with fiction

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131016




SCIAM NEWS – A New Frontier in Animal Intelligence

Evidence that some animals are capable of “mental time travel,” suggests they have a deeper understanding of the world around them

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20131014




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week

PAPERS




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week

PAPERS




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 20 October 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 19 October 2013

NEWS

Elephants understand what it means to point [Chimps and seals can learn to understand human arm gestures, but only with training. For African elephants, there is no training required] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... mQW1n5waUk



Hunter-gatherers got on fine with Europe's first farmers [After the first farmers colonised Europe, local hunter-gatherers hung around for two millennia, living alongside their agricultural competitors] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... mQW2X5waUk



ARTICLES

INGFEI CHEN – Hidden depths: Brain science is drowning in uncertainty [The edifice of research being built with brain scans is flawed. It's time to rethink the approach to build a more complete understanding of the mind] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ainty.html




Science – 18 October 2013

NEWS

Stunning Skull Gives a Fresh Portrait of Early Humans [The most complete early Homo skull ever found, from Dmanisi, Georgia, gives our genus a new look] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6156/297.short



ARTICLES

A COOPER & C B STRINGER – Did the Denisovans Cross Wallace's Line? [The distribution of Denisovan DNA in modern human populations raises questions about where these ancient humans lived and where they interbred with modern humans] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6156/321.short



PAPERS

DAVID LORDKIPANIDZE et al – A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo [“Here we report on a new cranium from Dmanisi (D4500) that, together with its mandible (D2600), represents the world's first completely preserved adult hominid skull from the early Pleistocene. D4500/D2600 combines a small braincase (546 cubic centimeters) with a large prognathic face and exhibits close morphological affinities with the earliest known Homo fossils from Africa. The Dmanisi sample, which now comprises five crania, provides direct evidence for wide morphological variation within and among early Homo paleodemes. This implies the existence of a single evolving lineage of early Homo, with phylogeographic continuity across continents”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6156/326.abstract



DAVID COMER KIDD & EMANUELE CASTANO – Reading Literary Fiction Improves Theory of Mind [“We present five experiments showing that reading literary fiction led to better performance on tests of affective ToM (experiments 1 to 5) and cognitive ToM (experiments 4 and 5) compared with reading nonfiction (experiments 1), popular fiction (experiments 2 to 5), or nothing at all (experiments 2 and 5). Specifically, these results show that reading literary fiction temporarily enhances ToM. More broadly, they suggest that ToM may be influenced by engagement with works of art”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6156/377.abstract




Nature – 17 October 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




PLOS One – 16 October 2013

PAPERS

CATHERINE SAINT-GEORGES et al – Motherese in Interaction: At the Cross-Road of Emotion and Cognition? (A Systematic Review) [“Two databases were screened and 144 relevant studies were retained. General linguistic and prosodic characteristics of IDS were found in a variety of languages, and IDS was not restricted to mothers. IDS varied with factors associated with the caregiver (e.g., cultural, psychological and physiological) and the infant (e.g., reactivity and interactive feedback). IDS promoted infants’ affect, attention and language learning. Cognitive aspects of IDS have been widely studied whereas affective ones still need to be developed. However, during interactions, the following two observations were notable: (1) IDS prosody reflects emotional charges and meets infants’ preferences, and (2) mother-infant contingency and synchrony are crucial for IDS production and prolongation”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0078103



ROMAIN J G CLÉMENT et al – Collective Cognition in Humans: Groups Outperform Their Best Members in a Sentence Reconstruction Task [“Here we investigated collective cognition of human groups regarding language use in a realistic situation. Individuals listened to a public announcement and had to reconstruct the sentence alone or in groups. This situation is often encountered by humans, for instance at train stations or airports. Using recent developments in machine speech recognition, we analysed how well individuals and groups reconstructed the sentences from a syntactic (i.e., the number of errors) and semantic (i.e., the quality of the retrieved information) perspective. We show that groups perform better both on a syntactic and semantic level than even their best members”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0077943



ANNE MARIJKE SCHEL et al with KLAUS ZUBERBÜHLER & KATIE E SLOCOMBE – Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality [“We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0076674



ZIQIANG XIN & GUOFANG LIU – Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust [“As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0076671



ANDREA PICIN et al – San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the Appearance of Levallois Technology in Europe: Results of a Radiometric and Technological Reassessment [“In this paper we report a series of combined electron spin resonance/U-series dates on mammal bones and teeth recovered from the lower units of San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the technological analyses of the lithic assemblages. The San Bernardino Cave has yielded the earliest evidence of Levallois production on the Italian Peninsula recovered to date. In addition to our results and the review of the archaeological record, we describe the chronological and geographical differences between European territories and diversities in terms of technological developments. The belated emergence of Levallois technology in Italy compared to western Europe corresponds to the late Italian Neanderthal speciation event”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0076182




PNAS – 15 October 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 541

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Tue Nov 05, 2013 9:58 am

EAORC BULLETIN 541 – 27 October 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Babies Are Born With Some Math Skills. 1

SCI AM NEWS – East Africa's Small Carnivores Flourished While Large Ones Died Out 1

LECTURE – Reviewer meets reviewed: RAI seminar series. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 1

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 27 October 2013. 1

New Scientist – 26 October 2013. 2

Science – 25 October 2013. 2

Nature – 24 October 2013. 2

PLOS One – 23 October 2013. 2

PNAS – 22 October 2013. 3

Animal Behaviour – October 2013. 3

Biolinguistics – 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 3




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Babies Are Born With Some Math Skills

Number sense of 6-month-olds translates into math ability in preschool

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavi ... ath-skills




SCI AM NEWS – East Africa's Small Carnivores Flourished While Large Ones Died Out

Comparison of small carnivore diversity over time with that of large carnivores points to an unexpected culprit

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20131021




LECTURE – Reviewer meets reviewed: RAI seminar series

Seminar series at the British Museum's Anthropology Library and Research Centre

Hunter-gatherer behaviour: human response during the Younger Dryas

Thursday 14 November at 10.00 am (tea & coffee served from 9.30 am)

Anthropology Library and Research Centre, British Museum

THIS IS A FREE EVENT

The British Museum’s Anthropology Library and Research Centre, in conjunction with the Royal Anthropological Institute, is pleased to present the second seminar in the 2013-14 series of ‘Reviewer meets Reviewed’, a discussion between Dr Metin Eren, author of ‘Hunter-gatherer behavior: human response during the Younger Dryas’ and Dr Kevan Edinborough, who reviewed the book for the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.

A major global climate event called the Younger Dryas dramatically affected local environments and human populations at the end of the Pleistocene. This volume is the first book in fifteen years to comprehensively address key questions regarding the extent of this event and how hunter-gatherer populations adapted behaviorally and technologically in the face of major climatic change. An integrated set of theoretical articles and important case studies, written by well-known archaeologists, provide an excellent reference for researchers studying the end of the Pleistocene, as well as those studying hunter-gatherers and their response to climate change.

Bookings/enquiries: Ted Goodliffe ( TGoodliffe@britishmuseum.org)




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 27 October 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 26 October 2013

NEWS

Complete skull of 1.8-million-year-old hominin found [A full skull of a Homo erectus has been unearthed in Georgia, and it suggests a radical rethink of our evolutionary history] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... m0BuX5FCUk



Chimp calls suggest language evolved from a song [A stuffed python on a fishing line has revealed that chimpanzee alarm calls have intentional meaning rather than being involuntary expressions of emotion] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... m0CzH5FCUk



ARTICLES

STEVEN ROSE – School achievement isn't just in your genes [“is intelligence genetically determined? You might think so, if you saw the headline-grabbing report from UK education advisor Dominic Cummings. The 240-page essay was a parting gift to his boss, education minister Michael Gove. In claiming that educational ability is largely inherited, he reignited an old controversy that many thought had been put to rest”] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... m0D5n5FCUk



REVIEWS

Babies know good from evil – is this morality? [Review of ‘Just Babies: The origins of good and evil’ by Paul Bloom] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... m0K2n5FCUk




Science – 25 October 2013

NEWS

Ancient DNA Links Native Americans With Europe [Ancient DNA from a Siberian boy offers surprising clues to the identity of the first Americans] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6157/409.short



PAPERS

RUTH BOLLONGINO et al – 2000 Years of Parallel Societies in Stone Age Central Europe [“Debate on the ancestry of Europeans centers on the interplay between Mesolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. Foragers are generally believed to have disappeared shortly after the arrival of agriculture. To investigate the relation between foragers and farmers, we examined Mesolithic and Neolithic samples from the Blätterhöhle site. Mesolithic mitochondrial DNA sequences were typical of European foragers, whereas the Neolithic sample included additional lineages that are associated with early farmers. However, isotope analyses separate the Neolithic sample into two groups: one with an agriculturalist diet and one with a forager and freshwater fish diet, the latter carrying mitochondrial DNA sequences typical of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. This indicates that the descendants of Mesolithic people maintained a foraging lifestyle in Central Europe for more than 2000 years after the arrival of farming societies”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6157/479.abstract



C C RUFF, G UGAZIO & E FEHR – Changing Social Norm Compliance with Noninvasive Brain Stimulation [“We show that the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC) is involved in both voluntary and sanction-induced norm compliance. Both types of compliance could be changed by varying the neural excitability of this brain region with transcranial direct current stimulation, but they were affected in opposite ways, suggesting that the stimulated region plays a fundamentally different role in voluntary and sanction-based compliance”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6157/482.abstract




Nature – 24 October 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




PLOS One – 23 October 2013

PAPERS

NIKLAS K STEFFENS & S ALEXANDER HASLAM – Power through ‘Us’: Leaders’ Use of We-Referencing Language Predicts Election Victory [“we analyzed the official election campaign speeches of successful and unsuccessful Prime Ministerial candidates in all 43 Australian Federal elections since independence from Britain in 1901 and measured candidates' use of personal (‘I’, ‘me’) and collective pronouns (‘we’, ‘us’). Victors used more collective pronouns than their unsuccessful opponents in 80% of all elections. Across all elections, victors made 61% more references to ‘we’ and ‘us’ and used these once every 79 words (vs. every 136 words for losers)”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0077952




PNAS – 22 October 2013

PAPERS

ANN MARGVELASHVILI et al with DAVID LORDKIPANIDZE – Tooth wear and dentoalveolar remodeling are key factors of morphological variation in the Dmanisi mandibles [“Here we quantify the effects of heavy tooth wear and wear-related bone remodeling on mandibular variation. Using modern hunter–gatherer populations as a reference, we show that features such as dental arcade form, mandibular corpus height, and symphyseal inclination change substantially with progressive tooth wear. These data indicate that the Dmanisi mandibles reflect normal within-population variation augmented by interindividual differences in wear-related bone remodeling”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/43/17278.abstract




Animal Behaviour – October 2013

PAPERS

IAN M HELGESEN, STEVEN HAMBLIN & PETER L HURD – Does cheating pay? Re-examining the evolution of deception in a conventional signalling game [“The study of reliability, or ‘honesty’, in communication between individuals with conflicting interests has been a major focus of game theoretical modelling in evolutionary biology. It has been proposed that mixed populations of honest and deceptive signallers can be evolutionarily stable in a model of conventional, or ‘minimal cost’, signals of competitive ability, and evolutionary simulations have been presented to support this hypothesis. However, we find that these results are questionable on both theoretical and methodological grounds. Here, we examine the theoretical issues raised by this model and examine the proposed ‘cheating’ strategy through the use of a genetic algorithm. Our evolutionary simulations do not support the hypothesis that deception can be evolutionarily stable in this game”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004272




Biolinguistics – 2013

PAPERS

ERAN ASOULIN – The Creative Aspect of Language Use and the Implications for Linguistic Science [“The creative aspect of language use provides a set of phenomena that a science of language must explain. It is the “central fact to which any significant linguistic theory must address itself” and thus “a theory of language that neglects this ‘creative’ aspect is of only marginal interest” (Chomsky 1964: 7–8). Therefore, the form and explanatory depth of linguistic science is restricted in accordance with this aspect of language. In this paper, the implications of the creative aspect of language use for a scientific theory of language will be discussed, noting the possible further implications for a science of the mind. It will be argued that a corollary of the creative aspect of language use is that a science of language can study the mechanisms that make language use possible, but that such a science cannot explain how these mechanisms enter into human action in the form of language use”] http://www.biolinguistics.eu/index.php/ ... ew/308/309



SVERKER JOHANSSON – Biolinguistics or Physicolinguistics? Is The Third Factor Helpful Or Harmful In Explaining Language? [“Noam Chomsky (2005) proposed that a ‘third factor’, consisting of general principles and natural laws, may explain core properties of language in a principled manner, minimizing the need for either genetic endowment or experience. But the focus on third-factor patterns in much recent bio-linguistic work is misguided for several reasons: First, ‘the’ third factor is a vague and disparate collection of unrelated components, useless as an analytical tool. Second, the vagueness of the third factor, together with the desire for principled explanations, too often leads to sweeping claims, such as syntax “coming for free, directly from physics”, that are unwarranted without a case-by-case causal analysis. Third, attention is diverted away from a proper causal analysis of language as a biological feature. The point with biolinguistics is to acknowledge the language faculty as a biological feature. The best way forward towards an understanding of language is to take the biology connection seriously, instead of dabbling with physics”] http://www.biolinguistics.eu/index.php/ ... e/view/268
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 542

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Tue Nov 05, 2013 9:59 am

EAORC BULLETIN 542 – 3 November 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Cleaning Up Ancient Human DNA.. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – 'Language Gene' Has a Partner. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Video: What Tail Wagging Means to Other Dogs. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – The Human Language–Associated Gene SRPX2 Regulates Synapse Formation and Vocalization in Mice. 1

NATURE NEWS – Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks. 1

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Marmoset monkeys chat politely. 2

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Findings could simplify human lineage. 2

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Elephants get pointing, with no help. 2

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Human relationship to Neanderthals remains murky. 2

EMPLOYMENT – Five-year postdoctoral project at the Australian National University. 2

FUNDING – Animal Behavior Society Student Research Grant & Developing Nations Research Grant 2

PUBLICATIONS. 3

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 December 2013. 3

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 December 2013. 3

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 3 November 2013. 3

New Scientist – 2 November 2013. 3

Science – 1 November 2013. 4

Nature – 31 October 2013. 4

PLOS One – 30 October 2013. 4

PNAS – 29 October 2013. 5

Animal Behaviour – November 2013. 5

PLOS Biology – November 2013. 6

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 6




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Cleaning Up Ancient Human DNA

New method for filtering out contaminants could make it cheaper and easier to analyze important finds

http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/ ... -human-dna




SCIENCE NEWS – 'Language Gene' Has a Partner

Researchers identify new player in pathway that may have given humans the gift of gab

http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2013 ... as-partner




SCIENCE NEWS – Video: What Tail Wagging Means to Other Dogs

A wag to the right means very different things from a wag to the left

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavi ... other-dogs




SCIENCE NEWS – The Human Language–Associated Gene SRPX2 Regulates Synapse Formation and Vocalization in Mice

G M Sia, R L Clem & R L Huganir

“Synapse formation in the developing brain depends on the coordinated activity of synaptogenic proteins, some which have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we show that the sushi repeat-containing domain protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) gene encodes a protein that promotes synaptogenesis in the cerebral cortex. In humans, SRPX2 is an epilepsy- and language-associated gene that is a target of the foxhead box protein P2 (FoxP2) transcription factor. We also show that FoxP2 modulates synapse formation through regulating SRPX2 levels, and that SRPX2 reduction impairs development of ultrasonic vocalization in mice. Our results suggest FoxP2 modulates the development of neural circuits through regulating synaptogenesis and that SRPX2 is a synaptogenic factor that plays a role in the pathogenesis of language disorders”

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early ... ce.1245079




NATURE NEWS – Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

Zhen Wang, Cheng-Yi Xia, Sandro Meloni et al.

“Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131028/ ... P-20131029




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Marmoset monkeys chat politely

Marmoset monkeys take turns when they vocalize, engaging each other that way for up to 30 minutes, a study finds.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... sation.htm




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Findings could simplify human lineage

Several ancestral forms of humans were really one species, not separate ones as previously thought, according to new research.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... rectus.htm




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Elephants get pointing, with no help

Elephants spontaneously get the gist of human pointing and can use it as a cue for finding food, researchers report.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... inting.htm




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Human relationship to Neanderthals remains murky

“None of the species that have been previously suggested as the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans has a dental morphology [shape] that is fully compatible with the expected morphology of this ancestor,” said Aida Gómez-Robles (George Washington University), lead author of a paper on the work.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... erthal.htm




EMPLOYMENT – Five-year postdoctoral project at the Australian National University

The School of Philosophy, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, seeks to appoint a research-intensive Postdoctoral Research Associate (Level B). The Research Associate will be appointed in association with a project directed by Professor Kim Sterelny. Candidates should hold a Ph.D. in philosophy or a related discipline prior to appointment, The project is on The Origins of Inequality, Hierarchy, and Social Complexity, and those interested in the position should e-mail Kim Sterelny at Kim.Sterelny@anu.edu.au for a copy of the project description. The successful candidate will be expected to pursue a program of research that contributes to the research agenda of the project, and their application should address that expectation, as well as containing the normal application materials. Those with an expertise in evolutionary game theory, or related formal methods for investigating social behaviour and its evolution are especially invited to apply, but candidates with other interests relevant to the project are welcome to apply. This might include (but is not restricted to) candidates with a background in philosophy of biology, philosophy of the social and behavioural sciences, philosophy of cognitive science, philosophy of the historical sciences. Appointment will be up to five years.

The formal application should be made through the ANU on-line system, at http://jobs.anu.edu.au/PositionDetail.aspx?p=3618. Please be aware that the closing date is relatively soon: November 21; the conditions of the grant requires the School of Philosophy to fill the position with some celerity.




FUNDING – Animal Behavior Society Student Research Grant & Developing Nations Research Grant

The deadlines for Student Grant submissions are:

· Grant site activation of accounts: Monday, 11 November 2013.

· Grant Site closes: Thursday, 14 November 2013 (midnight, Eastern Standard Time).

The grant site is NOW OPEN at: http://animalbehaviorsociety.org/ABSGrants/

Submissions will not be accepted after the closing date. Students who have paid their society dues in full prior to Monday, 11 November 2013 will be eligible to submit a grant application. All students must contact the ABS Central Office prior this date so we can verify and activate their account on the grants submission site or they will not be able to log in and submit their materials.

Application instructions are available on the grant application website, http://animalbehaviorsociety.org/ABSGrants

If you have any questions about your membership or the submission process, contact the ABS Central Office (aboffice@indiana.edu) prior to Monday, 11 November 2013.

More information about the Student Research Grants can be found on the Animal Behavior Society website, http://animalbehaviorsociety.org/centra ... nouncement




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 December 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 December 2013

PAPERS

T H CLUTTON-BROCK & E HUCHARD – Social competition and selection in males and females [“During the latter half of the last century, evidence of reproductive competition between males and male selection by females led to the development of a stereotypical view of sex differences that characterized males as competitive and aggressive, and females as passive and choosy, which is currently being revised. Here, we compare social competition and its consequences for selection in males and females and argue that similar selection processes operate in both sexes and that contrasts between the sexes are quantitative rather than qualitative”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 4.abstract



ANDREW J YOUNG & NIGEL C BENNETT – Intra-sexual selection in cooperative mammals and birds: why are females not bigger and better armed? [“In cooperatively breeding mammals and birds, intra-sexual reproductive competition among females may often render variance in reproductive success higher among females than males, leading to the prediction that intra-sexual selection in such species may have yielded the differential exaggeration of competitive traits among females. However, evidence to date suggests that female-biased reproductive variance in such species is rarely accompanied by female-biased sexual dimorphisms. We illustrate the problem with data from wild Damaraland mole-rat, Fukomys damarensis, societies: the variance in lifetime reproductive success among females appears to be higher than that among males, yet males grow faster, are much heavier as adults and sport larger skulls and incisors (the weapons used for fighting) for their body lengths than females, suggesting that intra-sexual selection has nevertheless acted more strongly on the competitive traits of males”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 5.abstract



ANNE E PUSEY & KARA SCHROEPFER-WALKER – Female competition in chimpanzees [“Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 7.abstract



TING JI et al – Reproductive competition between females in the matrilineal Mosuo of southwestern China [“The matrilineal Mosuo of southwestern China live in communal households where brothers and sisters of three generations live together (duolocal residence), and men visit their wives, who reside elsewhere, only at night in ‘visiting’ marriages. Here we show that these communally breeding sisters are in reproductive conflict, in the sense that they share the resources needed to reproduce. We analyse determinants of reproductive success in females and males, and show that co-resident female kin are in competition; the more female kin reside in the household, the more reproductive success is reduced. Male reproductive success, however, is not determined by the kin in his natal household; duolocal males are not in reproductive conflict with their siblings. Competition with female cousins can be worse than that between sisters. We also find that female work on the farm (which is the main communal resource) is not equal”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 1.abstract




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 3 November 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 2 November 2013

NEWS

Brain stimulation boosts social skills in autism [Magnetic pulses to a part of the brain involved in empathy have improved the social skills of people with autism in the first clinical trial of its kind] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... naHNH5FCUk




Science – 1 November 2013

ARTICLES

NICHOLAS B TURK-BROWNE – Functional Interactions as Big Data in the Human Brain [“Noninvasive studies of human brain function hold great potential to unlock mysteries of the human mind. The complexity of data generated by such studies, however, has prompted various simplifying assumptions during analysis. Although this has enabled considerable progress, our current understanding is partly contingent upon these assumptions. An emerging approach embraces the complexity, accounting for the fact that neural representations are widely distributed, neural processes involve interactions between regions, interactions vary by cognitive state, and the space of interactions is massive. Because what you see depends on how you look, such unbiased approaches provide the greatest flexibility for discovery”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6158/580.abstract



ROBERT J ZATORRE – Predispositions and Plasticity in Music and Speech Learning: Neural Correlates and Implications [“Speech and music are remarkable aspects of human cognition and sensory-motor processing. Cognitive neuroscience has focused on them to understand how brain function and structure are modified by learning. Recent evidence indicates that individual differences in anatomical and functional properties of the neural architecture also affect learning and performance in these domains. Here, neuroimaging findings are reviewed that reiterate evidence of experience-dependent brain plasticity, but also point to the predictive validity of such data in relation to new learning in speech and music domains. Indices of neural sensitivity to certain stimulus features have been shown to predict individual rates of learning; individual network properties of brain activity are especially relevant in this regard, as they may reflect anatomical connectivity. Similarly, numerous studies have shown that anatomical features of auditory cortex and other structures, and their anatomical connectivity, are predictive of new sensory-motor learning ability. Implications of this growing body of literature are discussed”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6158/585.abstract



SOPHIE J C CARON – Brains Don't Play Dice—or Do They? [“Life is often unpredictable. The brain thus needs to draw on past experience to prepare for future events. It does so by associating sensory stimuli, such as an odor, with desirable or undesirable outcomes. The smell of burning wood, for example, can evoke the soothing recollection of a cozy campfire or the traumatic memory of a burning house. It is through such associations that sensory stimuli that are a priori neutral become endowed with meaning. But life is full of possibilities. So how are associative brain centers able to account for an infinite number of possible associations?”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6158/574.2.short




Nature – 31 October 2013

NEWS

Human ancestor had small thumbs [Fossil analysis reveals that the hominin Australopithecus afarensis had reduced thumbs] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20131031



REVIEWS

JOHN WHITFIELD – Psychology: The appetite for right [Reviews of ‘Just Babies: The Origins of Good and Evil’ by Paul Bloom; & ‘Moral Tribes: Emotion, Reason, and the Gap Between Us and Them’ by Joshua Greene] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20131031



ARTICLES

VALERIE F REYNA – Psychology: Good and bad news on the adolescent brain [“In response to bad news about risk, young adolescents alter estimates of their own vulnerability to adverse events less accurately than older people. The finding has implications for managing risk-taking behaviour in young people”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20131031




PLOS One – 30 October 2013

PAPERS

ALEX B FINE et al – Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension [“Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0077661



SHOHEI HIDAKA – Computational Model Associating Learning Process, Word Attributes, and Age of Acquisition [“We propose a new model-based approach linking word learning to the age of acquisition (AoA) of words; a new computational tool for understanding the relationships among word learning processes, psychological attributes, and word AoAs as measures of vocabulary growth. The computational model developed describes the distinct statistical relationships between three theoretical factors underpinning word learning and AoA distributions. Simply put, this model formulates how different learning processes, characterized by change in learning rate over time and/or by the number of exposures required to acquire a word, likely result in different AoA distributions depending on word type”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0076242




PNAS – 29 October 2013

PAPERS

EMILY B FALK et al – What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science [“nearly all social science disciplines, including social demography, sociology, political science, economics, communication science, and psychology, make assumptions about processes that involve the brain, but have incorporated neural measures to differing, and often limited, degrees; many still treat the brain as a black box. In this article, we describe and promote a perspective—population neuroscience—that leverages interdisciplinary expertise to (i) emphasize the importance of sampling to more clearly define the relevant populations and sampling strategies needed when using neuroscience methods to address such questions; and (ii) deepen understanding of mechanisms within population science by providing insight regarding underlying neural mechanisms”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/44/17615.abstract



DANIEL S PARK & DANIEL POTTER – A test of Darwin's naturalization hypothesis in the thistle tribe shows that close relatives make bad neighbors [“Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis, which predicts that the less closely related to native flora species are, the more likely they are to succeed as invaders, is tested here with an unprecedentedly thorough molecular phylogenetic approach, examining >100,000 phylogenies of the weed-rich thistle tribe Cardueae. Branch lengths between taxa were used as measures of evolutionary relatedness. Results show that invasive thistles are more closely related to natives than noninvasive introduced thistles, suggesting they share preadaptive traits with the natives that make them more likely to succeed as invaders”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/44/17915.abstract




Animal Behaviour – November 2013

REVIEWS

CLARE CUNNINGHAM – Tool Use in Animals. Cognition and Ecology [Review of ‘Tool Use in Animals. Cognition and Ecology’ by Crickette M Sanz, Josep Call & Christophe Boesch (Eds.).] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003758



BERND HEINRICH – The Spirit of the Hive: The Mechanisms of Social Evolution [Review of ‘The Spirit of the Hive: The Mechanisms of Social Evolution’ by Robert E Page, Jr.] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003916



PAPERS

STACEY L ZANDER, DANIEL J WEISS & PETER G JUDGE – The interface between morphology and action planning: a comparison of two species of New World monkeys [“In the present experiment, we explore whether the variability in the expression of anticipatory motor-planning abilities may be attributed to cognitive differences (such as tool use abilities) or whether they may be due to the consequences of morphological differences (such as being able to deploy a precision grasp). We compared two species of New World monkeys that differ in their tool use abilities and manual dexterity: squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus (less dexterous with little evidence for tool use) and tufted capuchins, Sapajus apella (more dexterous and known tool users). The monkeys were presented with baited cups in an untrained food extraction task. Consistent with the morphological constraint hypothesis, squirrel monkeys frequently showed second-order motor planning by inverting their grasp when picking up an inverted cup, while capuchins frequently deployed canonical upright grasping postures. Findings suggest that the lack of ability for precision grasping may elicit more consistent second-order motor planning, as the squirrel monkeys (and other species that have shown a high rate of second-order planning) have fewer means of compensating for inefficient initial postures”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004326



KARLINE R L JANMAAT, SIMONE D BAN & CHRISTOPHE BOESCH – Chimpanzees use long-term spatial memory to monitor large fruit trees and remember feeding experiences across seasons [“We recorded the foraging behaviour of five adult female chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, for continuous periods of 4–8 weeks, totalling 275 full days, throughout multiple fruiting seasons in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We found that chimpanzees fed on individual trees that were significantly larger than other available and reproductively mature trees of the same species, especially if their fruit emitted an obvious smell. Trees that were merely checked for edible fruit, but where monitoring could not have been triggered by olfactory or auditory cues because the tree did not carry fruit, were also significantly larger. Most trees were monitored along the way during travel, but 13% were approached in a goal-directed manner (assessed using a ‘change point test’). These approaches were unlikely to have been initiated by visual cues and occurred more often when females foraged solitarily and when trees were large as opposed to small. Our results suggest that goal-directed monitoring is guided by a long-term ‘what–where’ memory of the location of large potential food sources”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004259



LYNDA L SHARPE, AMY HILL & MICHAEL I CHERRY – Individual recognition in a wild cooperative mammal using contact calls [“We tested whether a wild cooperative mammal, the dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula, could recognize individual group members from their vocalizations. We provided test subjects with a large, desirable food item and then simulated the approach of another group member using playbacks of its contact calls. Mongooses were more vigilant after hearing the calls of individuals of higher rank than themselves (that could steal their food) compared with individuals of lower rank than themselves (that could not). We showed that the mongooses were not simply responding to age-related cues that conveyed potential information on rank, and provide some evidence that they were associating the unique characteristics of the call with an individually specific characteristic of the caller (i.e. its relative rank)”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 721300345X



ANNE MARIJKE SCHEL, ZARIN MACHANDA, SIMON W TOWNSEND, KLAUS ZUBERBÜHLER & KATIE E SLOCOMBE – Chimpanzee food calls are directed at specific individuals [“We tested experimentally whether chimpanzee rough grunts, which function to refer to food, are produced selectively, indicating voluntary control, and whether they are directed at specific individuals. These are prerequisites for a system capable of actively informing others about external events. We conducted a field playback experiment in which we presented silently feeding male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, with arrival pant hoots of a familiar group member. We found that subjects were significantly more likely to respond with food calls to the simulated arrival of an individual with whom the caller had a high rather than low level of friendship and where there was a large rather than small positive dominance rank difference between the individuals (i.e. caller was lower ranking)”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003813




PLOS Biology – November 2013

PAPERS

MAËL LEBRETON et al – A Critical Role for the Hippocampus in the Valuation of Imagined Outcomes [Converging evidence from neuroimaging and clinical data demonstrates the important involvement of the hippocampus in finding the motivation to pursue goals that we need to imagine because they are not within sight] http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info ... io.1001684
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 543

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Tue Nov 12, 2013 4:27 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 543 – 10 November 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

NATURE NEWS - Ancient DNA and Population Turnover in Southern Levantine Pigs: Signature of the Sea Peoples Migration? 1

CONFERENCE – Finding Common Ground: Social, Ecological, and Cognitive Perspectives on Language Use. 1

CONFERENCE – European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association Annual Meeting. 2

CONFERENCE – Square of Opposition – Vatican 2014. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 10 November 2013. 2

New Scientist – 9 November 2013. 2

Science – 8 November 2013. 2

Nature – 7 November 2013. 2

PLOS One – 6 November 2013. 2

PNAS – 5 November 2013. 3

PLOS Genetics – November 2013. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


NATURE NEWS - Ancient DNA and Population Turnover in Southern Levantine Pigs: Signature of the Sea Peoples Migration?

Meirav Meiri, Dorothée Huchon, Guy Bar-Oz et al.

“Near Eastern wild boars possess a characteristic DNA signature. Unexpectedly, wild boars from Israel have the DNA sequences of European wild boars and domestic pigs. To understand how this anomaly evolved, we sequenced DNA from ancient and modern pigs from Israel. Pigs from Late Bronze Age (until ca. 1150 BCE) in Israel shared haplotypes of modern and ancient Near Eastern pigs. European haplotypes became dominant only during the Iron Age (ca. 900 BCE). This raises the possibility that European pigs were brought to the region by the Sea Peoples who migrated to the Levant at that time”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131028/ ... P-20131105




CONFERENCE – Finding Common Ground: Social, Ecological, and Cognitive Perspectives on Language Use

A Conference sponsored by the Department of Psychology of the University of Connecticut, and the Distributed Language Group

We have applied for but not yet received funding from the National Science Foundation

June 12-14, 2014, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT

For the past 50 years the most prominent theories of language have taken it to be individual, innate, internal (i.e., private), and designed for thinking. Variations in linguistic practices across culture and time are considered trivial; a universal set of formal operations is all that really counts as language (Berwick & Chomsky, 2011). Against this view, a wide variety of usage-based, functionalist, ecological accounts of language as a public, cultural, communicative activity have arisen, offering the view that language is part of a broader human adaptation for culture in which linguistic norms and patterns serve to solve coordination problems and to assist in collaborative efforts (Clark, 1996; Tomasello, 2008; Everett, 2012; Givón, 2013). Laks (2013) makes a strong case that usage-based approaches are now in ascendancy among researchers, but Ibbotson (2013) suggests that the variation of views among such researchers is a weakness, as well as a strength: Better integration and more in-depth development are needed. The conference we have organized is designed to meet this deep and pressing need. The time is especially appropriate since the past few years have seen fresh energy and enthusiasm for developing new ways of studying linguistic activity in social interactions that are genuinely dialogical and interactive.

We invite researchers to participate who are interested in how we can best understand conversing as embodied, ecological engagement. In coming together we will engage in conversation ourselves, with the hope that we can learn from each other. We certainly expect that the conference will help all of us develop our ability to understand the physical actions and social interactions entailed in conversing. We are also particularly interested in explorations of language addressing its social, embodied (e.g. gestural), pragmatic, and normative dimensions.

Talks will be approximately 25 minutes. Deadline for abstracts for papers or posters (400 word limit) is February 1, 2014. Please send them to Carol Fowler or Bert Hodges at the email addresses below. We would appreciate receiving an email at any time to let us know that you are considering making a submission to the conference.

Organizers: Carol Fowler (carol.fowler@uconn.edu) & Bert Hodges (bert.hodges@uconn.edu)

We are hoping to publish an edited volume based on papers presented at the conference, and a special issue of a journal addressed to language researchers and cognitive scientists. MIT Press has indicated preliminary interest.




CONFERENCE – European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association Annual Meeting

We would like to announce that abstract submission is now open for the EHBEA 2014 Conference (University of Bristol, 6 - 9 April 2014).

Further information about the conference, and a link to the abstract submission page, can be found here:

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/expsych/events/ehbea2014

Abstract submission is open until the end of the year.

Tamsin Saxton, EHBEA Secretary




CONFERENCE – Square of Opposition – Vatican 2014

Call for Papers 4th World Congress on the Square of Opposition Pontifical Lateran University, Vatican, May 5-9, 2014

Any talk related to the square of opposition is welcome for this interdisciplinary congress gathering top researchers from all over the world (logicians, philosophers, mathematicians, theologians, linguists, semioticians, computer scientists, cognitivists, psychologists, artists).

Extended Deadline to send a one page abstract is November 15, 2013

World Congress on the Square of Opposition: Montreux 2007 - Corsica 2010 - Beirut 2012 - Vatican 2014

http://www.square-of-opposition.org




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 10 November 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 9 November 2013

ARTICLES

STEPHANIE PAIN – Alfred Russel Wallace: A very rare specimen [A hundred years after his death, it is high time to put this evolutionary pioneer in his proper place – as Charles Darwin's equal] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... cimen.html




Science – 8 November 2013

REVIEWS

GILLIAN R BROWN – The Serious Business of Play [Review of ‘Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation’ by Patrick Bateson and Paul Martin] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6159/694.short




Nature – 7 November 2013

REVIEWS

TIM RADFORD – Human evolution: Us and them [Comparative review of ‘The Gap: The Science of What Separates Us from Other Animals’ by Thomas Suddendorf; ‘The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health and Disease’ by Daniel E Lieberman; and ‘The Accidental Species: Misunderstandings of Human Evolution’ by Henry Gee] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20131107




PLOS One – 6 November 2013

PAPERS

MARK DINGEMANSE, FRANCISCO TORREIRA & N J ENFIELD – Is “Huh?” a Universal Word? Conversational Infrastructure and the Convergent Evolution of Linguistic Items [“A word like Huh?–used as a repair initiator when, for example, one has not clearly heard what someone just said– is found in roughly the same form and function in spoken languages across the globe. We investigate it in naturally occurring conversations in ten languages and present evidence and arguments for two distinct claims: that Huh? is universal, and that it is a word. In support of the first, we show that the similarities in form and function of this interjection across languages are much greater than expected by chance. In support of the second claim we show that it is a lexical, conventionalised form that has to be learnt, unlike grunts or emotional cries. We discuss possible reasons for the cross-linguistic similarity and propose an account in terms of convergent evolution. Huh? is a universal word not because it is innate but because it is shaped by selective pressures in an interactional environment that all languages share: that of other-initiated repair”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0078273



HAOBO ZHANG et al – Grey Matter Correlates of Three Language Tests in Non-demented Older Adults [“The participants were 344 non-demented, community-dwelling adults aged 70-90 years, who were drawn from the population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. The three language tests included the Controlled Oral Word Association Task (COWAT), Category Fluency (CF), and Boston Naming Test (BNT). Correlation analyses between voxel-wise GM volumes and language tests showed distinctive GM correlation patterns for each language test. The GM correlates were located in the right frontal and left temporal lobes for COWAT, in the left frontal and temporal lobes for CF, and in bilateral temporal lobes for BNT. Our findings largely corresponded to the neural substrates of language tasks revealed in fMRI studies, and we also observed a less hemispheric asymmetry in the GM correlates of the language tests. Furthermore, we divided the participants into two age groups (70-79 and 80-90 years old), and then examined the correlations between structural laterality indices and language performance for each group. A trend toward significant difference in the correlations was found between the two age groups, with stronger correlations in the group of 70-79 years old than those in the group of 80-90 years old”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0080215



LOUISE GOYET, LÉO-LYUKI NISHIBAYASHI & THIERRY NAZZI – Early Syllabic Segmentation of Fluent Speech by Infants Acquiring French [“Word form segmentation abilities emerge during the first year of life, and it has been proposed that infants initially rely on two types of cues to extract words from fluent speech: Transitional Probabilities (TPs) and rhythmic units. The main goal of the present study was to use the behavioral method of the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP) to investigate again rhythmic segmentation of syllabic units by French-learning infants at the onset of segmentation abilities (around 8 months) given repeated failure to find syllabic segmentation at such a young age. The second goal was to explore the interaction between the use of TPs and syllabic units for segmentation by French-learning infants”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0079646



MEIR M BARAK et al with DANIEL E LIEBERMAN & JEAN-JACQUES HUBLIN – Trabecular Evidence for a Human-Like Gait in Australopithecus africanus [“Although the earliest known hominins were apparently upright bipeds, there has been mixed evidence whether particular species of hominins including those in the genus Australopithecus walked with relatively extended hips, knees and ankles like modern humans, or with more flexed lower limb joints like apes when bipedal. Here we demonstrate in chimpanzees and humans a highly predictable and sensitive relationship between the orientation of the ankle joint during loading and the principal orientation of trabecular bone struts in the distal tibia that function to withstand compressive forces within the joint. Analyses of the orientation of these struts using microCT scans in a sample of fossil tibiae from the site of Sterkfontein, of which two are assigned to Australopithecus africanus, indicate that these hominins primarily loaded their ankles in a relatively extended posture like modern humans and unlike chimpanzees. In other respects, however, trabecular properties in Au africanus are distinctive, with values that mostly fall between those of chimpanzees and humans. These results indicate that Au. africanus, like Homo, walked with an efficient, extended lower limb”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0077687



ELISABETTA PALAGI & IVAN NORSCIA – Bonobos Protect and Console Friends and Kin [“By analyzing the data collected over 10 years, we investigated what factors affected the distribution of both spontaneous third party affiliation (initiated by the bystander) and solicited third party affiliation (initiated by the victim). We considered factors related to the individual features (sex, rank, age) of victim and bystander, their relationship quality (kinship, affiliation), and the effect that third party affiliation had on the victim (such as protection against further attacks and anxiety reduction). Both spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation reduced the probability of further aggression by group members on the victim (Victim-Protection Hypothesis supported). Yet, only spontaneous affiliation reduced victim anxiety (measured via self-scratching), thus suggesting that the spontaneous gesture – more than the protection itself – works in calming the distressed subject”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0079290




PNAS – 5 November 2013

PAPERS

ZANNA CLAY & FRANS B M DE WAAL – Development of socio-emotional competence in bonobos [“Across human development, individuals better able to manage their own emotions show greater social competence and more empathic concern for others. To test this interplay between social and emotional skills in one of our closest relatives, we collected behavioral measures on bonobos (Pan paniscus) with different rearing backgrounds at a forested sanctuary in Africa. Young bonobos showed the same connection between the ability to regulate their own emotions and social competence, such as developing friendships and concern for others. Mother-reared juveniles performed far better in this regard than juveniles orphaned at a young age, thus highlighting the importance of the mother–offspring bond. Our results support a shared socio-emotional framework for human and nonhuman primate behavior”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/45/18121.full



PETER W BATTAGLIA, JESSICA B HAMRICK & JOSHUA B TENENBAUM – Simulation as an engine of physical scene understanding [“In a glance, we can perceive whether a stack of dishes will topple, a branch will support a child’s weight, a grocery bag is poorly packed and liable to tear or crush its contents, or a tool is firmly attached to a table or free to be lifted. Such rapid physical inferences are central to how people interact with the world and with each other, yet their computational underpinnings are poorly understood. We propose a model based on an “intuitive physics engine,” a cognitive mechanism similar to computer engines that simulate rich physics in video games and graphics, but that uses approximate, probabilistic simulations to make robust and fast inferences in complex natural scenes where crucial information is unobserved”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/45/18327.abstract



AIDA GÓMEZ-ROBLES et al – No known hominin species matches the expected dental morphology of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans [“The identity of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans is a controversial issue. This debate has been often addressed by means of descriptive analyses that are difficult to test. Our primary aim is to put questions about human evolution into a testable quantitative framework and to offer an objective means to sort out apparently unsolvable debates about hominin phylogeny. Our paper shows that no known hominin species matches the expected morphology of this common ancestor. Furthermore, we found that European representatives of potential ancestral species have had affinities with Neanderthals for almost 1 My, thus supporting a model of early divergence between Neanderthals and modern humans”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/45/18196.abstract




PLOS Genetics – November 2013

PAPERS

CHANDANA BASU MALLICK et al – The Light Skin Allele of SLC24A5 in South Asians and Europeans Shares Identity by Descent [“In the present study, we have quantitatively assessed skin pigmentation for a largely homogeneous cohort of 1228 individuals from the Southern region of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm significant association of rs1426654 SNP with skin pigmentation, explaining about 27% of total phenotypic variation in the cohort studied. Our extensive survey of the polymorphism in 1573 individuals from 54 ethnic populations across the Indian subcontinent reveals wide presence of the derived-A allele, although the frequencies vary substantially among populations. We also show that the geospatial pattern of this allele is complex, but most importantly, reflects strong influence of language, geography and demographic history of the populations. Sequencing 11.74 kb of SLC24A5 in 95 individuals worldwide reveals that the rs1426654-A alleles in South Asian and West Eurasian populations are monophyletic and occur on the background of a common haplotype that is characterized by low genetic diversity. We date the coalescence of the light skin associated allele at 22–28 KYA”] http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/inf ... en.1003912
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 544

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sun Nov 24, 2013 7:12 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 544 – 17 November 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Why Teenagers Are So Impulsive. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – The Evolution of Little Red Riding Hood. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Old Dogs Teach a New Lesson about Canine Origins. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Gorillas Use Ladders in the Wild. 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Moral Life of Babies. 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Need for Pretend Play in Child Development 1

AHRC NEWS – Rock art is located in sonically interesting places. 2

CONFERENCE – 5th UK Cognitive Linguistics Conference, Lancaster University, 29-31 July 2014. 2

CONFERENCE – 1st Global Conference on Deception. 3

PUBLICATIONS. 3

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 January 2014. 3

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 December 2013. 4

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 17 November 2013. 4

New Scientist – 16 November 2013. 4

Science – 15 November 2013. 4

Nature – 14 November 2013. 4

PLOS One – 13 November 2013. 5

PNAS – 12 November 2013. 6

Animal Behaviour – November 2013. 6

Current Anthropology – December 2013. 7

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 7




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Why Teenagers Are So Impulsive

Scientists find something unique about the adolescent brain

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavi ... -impulsive




SCIENCE NEWS – The Evolution of Little Red Riding Hood

Researcher applies technique used to compare species to trace origin of famous folktale

http://news.sciencemag.org/evolution/20 ... iding-hood




SCIENCE NEWS – Old Dogs Teach a New Lesson about Canine Origins

Researchers say dogs were domesticated first in Europe from a lineage of gray wolves that no longer exists

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6160/785.full




SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Gorillas Use Ladders in the Wild

Ape spotted using a bamboo shoot to pull an infant to safety

http://news.sciencemag.org/plants-anima ... dders-wild




SCIAM NEWS – The Moral Life of Babies

Yale Psychology Professor Paul Bloom finds the origins of morality in infants

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131113




SCIAM NEWS – The Need for Pretend Play in Child Development

“We often use the terms pretend play or make-believe play (the acting out of stories which involve multiple perspectives and the playful manipulation of ideas and emotions), that reflect a critical feature of the child’s cognitive and social development. Over the last seventy-five years a number of theorists and researchers have identified the values of such imaginative play as a vital component to the normal development of a child.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/bea ... B_20131113




AHRC NEWS – Rock art is located in sonically interesting places

"Prehistory is not silent, death or mute", according to Dr Rupert Till of the University of Huddersfield. Research findings about the significance of sound reverberations at cave art sites was reported at the AHRC/EPSRC Science and Heritage Programme conference, and in the Daily Mail. Find out more on the Daily Mail website.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/ ... ongly.html




CONFERENCE – 5th UK Cognitive Linguistics Conference, Lancaster University, 29-31 July 2014.

We invite the submission of abstracts (for paper or poster presentations) addressing all aspects of cognitive linguistics. The conference aims to cover a broad range of research concerned with language and cognition. However, we are be especially interested in promoting strongly empirical work. To this end, a number of thematic sessions, with our plenary speakers acting as discussants, will be organised. The themes will be:

· Embodiment

· Gesture

· Typology and constructional analyses of the languages of the world

· Acquisition

· Corpora and statistical methods

· Metaphor and discourse

Reflecting these particular areas, we are delighted to confirm that the following distinguished guests have confirmed their participation as plenary speakers:

· Alan Cienki (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

· William Croft (University of New Mexico)

· Adele Goldberg (Princeton University)

· Stefan Gries (University of California, Santa Barbara)

· Elena Semino (Lancaster University

In addition to designated themes, submissions on other aspects of Cognitive Linguistics are also welcome. Cognitive linguistics is by definition highly interdisciplinary, and so in addition to primarily linguistic research, we also invite submissions that are based on disciplines such as (cognitive and social) psychology, cognition and neuroscience, anthropology, primatology, biology, and discourse and communication studies.

Talks will be 20 minutes plus 10 minutes for questions and discussion. There will also be a poster session. The language of the conference is English.

Since 2012 UK-CLA publishes selected conference presentations in the series 'Selected Papers from UK-CLA Meetings' (ISSN 2046-9144); UK-CLC5 will continue this tradition.

The deadline for abstract submission is 20 December 2013. Notification of acceptance will be communicated by 1 February 2014. Abstracts must be strictly anonymous, and should be submitted in plain text and/or PDF format.

If you need to use phonetic characters, please make sure that they are displayed correctly.

SUBMISSIONS

All abstracts are double-blind peer reviewed by an international scientific committee. Abstracts of no more than 300 words (excluding references) should be submitted using EasyChair: https://www.easychair.org/conferences/?conf=ukclc5. Participants are allowed to submit abstracts for no more than one single-authored paper and one joint-authored paper. If you have not registered with EasyChair before, please do so using the link above. Once you have created an account or signed in please follow the following steps:

· Click on the 'New Submission' link at the top of the page.

· Agree to the terms and conditions (if prompted).

· Fill in the relevant information about the author or authors.

· Give the title of the paper in the 'Title' box and then (a) enter or paste your abstract into the 'Abstract' box (please remember that this is plain text only) and/or (b) upload your abstract as a PDF file by clicking 'Choose File' under 'Upload Paper.'

· At the top of your abstract, indicate whether you would prefer an oral presentation, a poster, or either. Please do this by entering 'oral presentation', 'poster', or 'oral presentation/poster' at the top of your abstract, above the title.

· Type three or more keywords into the 'Keywords' box (these will help us choose suitable reviewers for your abstract, as well as a possible thematic session for your paper).

· When you are done, please press 'Submit' at the very bottom of the page.

KEY DATES AND INFORMATION

· Abstract deadline: 20 December 2013

· Decisions communicated by: 1 February 2014

· Early bird registration opens: 1 February 2014

· Early bird registration closes: 15 March 2014

· Registration closes: 1 June 2014

· Conference dates: 29-31 July 2014

For further information visit http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/events/uk-clc5/ or contact the organisers at: uk-clc5@languageandcognition.net




CONFERENCE – 1st Global Conference on Deception

Thursday 17th July ­ Saturday 19th July 2014, Mansfield College, Oxford, United Kingdom

This inter-disciplinary conference will address artefacts and practices that challenge truthfulness, authenticity or reliability. Deception is practiced in many forms, affecting societies and individuals. It may be a vital survival tool, a means of gaining unfair advantage, or a pleasurable spectacle. This conference invites delegates to explore how deception is manifested in their discipline, or how multi-disciplinary notions of deception affect their field.

Proposals for papers and presentations are invited on topics related to, but not limited to:

· False Identities: disguises, costumes and masquerade, aliases and pseudonyms, anonymity

· Illusions: virtual reality and simulated worlds, trompe l'oeil and optical or perceptual illusions, theatrical and dramatic illusions, mirrors and architectural illusions, camouflage

· Fakes and Forgeries: false signs of authenticity, the lives and practices of forgers, hoaxes, red herrings and decoys

· Betrayal: whistleblowers and defectors, trust and distrust, infidelity, fractured expectations

· Dishonest Media: photo-manipulation and retouching, ‘black’ propaganda, plagiarism, misrepresentation

The Steering Group invites proposals for pre-formed panels, as well as individual papers.

In order to support and encourage interdisciplinarity engagement, it is our intention to create the possibility of starting dialogues between the parallel events running during this conference. Delegates are welcome to attend up to two sessions in each of the concurrent conferences. We also propose to produce cross-over sessions between these groups – and we welcome proposals which deal with the relationship between Deception and Childhood and Videogame Cultures.

WHAT TO SEND

Proposals will also be considered on any related theme. 300 word proposals should be submitted by Friday 14th February 2014. If a proposal is accepted for the conference, a full draft paper of no more than 3000 words should be submitted by Friday 16th May 2014. Proposals should be submitted simultaneously to both Organising Chairs; abstracts may be in Word or RTF formats with the following information and in this order:

a) author(s), b) affiliation as you would like it to appear in programme, c) email address, d) title of proposal, e) body of proposal, f) up to 10 keywords.

E-mails should be entitled: Deception 1 Proposal Submission.

Please use plain text (Times Roman 12) and abstain from using footnotes and any special formatting, characters or emphasis (such as bold, italics or underline). We acknowledge receipt and answer to all proposals submitted. If you do not receive a reply from us in a week you should assume we did not receive your proposal; it might be lost in cyberspace! We suggest, then, to look for an alternative electronic route or resend.

All proposals accepted for and presented at the conference must be in English and will be eligible for publication in an ISBN eBook. Selected proposals may be developed for publication in a themed hard copy volume. All publications from the conference will require editors, to be chosen from interested delegates from the conference.

ORGANISATION

CHAIRS: Barbara Brownie: b.k.1.brownie@herts.ac.uk Rob Fisher: decep1@inter-disciplinary.net

WEBSITE: http://www.inter-disciplinary.net/probi ... entations/

Inter-Disciplinary.Net believes it is a mark of personal courtesy and professional respect to your colleagues that all delegates should attend for the full duration of the meeting. If you are unable to make this commitment, please do not submit an abstract for presentation.




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 January 2014

PAPERS

MICHAEL MUTHUKRISHNA et al with JOSEPH HENRICH – Sociality influences cultural complexity [“Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers)”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 1.abstract



TIMOTHY J POLNASZEK & DAVID W STEPHENS – Why not lie? Costs enforce honesty in an experimental signalling game [“This study presents a laboratory signalling game using blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) that provides, to our knowledge, the first experimental evidence showing honesty persists when costs are high and disappears when costs are low”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 7.abstract



STEVEN BROWN et al – Correlations in the population structure of music, genes and language [“We present, to our knowledge, the first quantitative evidence that music and genes may have coevolved by demonstrating significant correlations between traditional group-level folk songs and mitochondrial DNA variation among nine indigenous populations of Taiwan. These correlations were of comparable magnitude to those between language and genes for the same populations, although music and language were not significantly correlated with one another”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 2.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 December 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 17 November 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 16 November 2013

NEWS

World's oldest string found at French Neanderthal site [What could be the earliest direct evidence of string has been found at a site in south-east France occupied by Neanderthals 90,000 years ago] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ojH035FCUk



ARTICLES

DAVID WHITEBREAD & SUE BINGHAM – Too much, too young: Should schooling start at age 7? [England and a few other countries start formal education at age 4 or 5. That's harmful and misguided, say education experts] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... age-7.html



CHRISTOPHER KEMP – Primeval planet: What if humans had never existed? [What was the planet like before Homo sapiens, and would it still be that way if we had never gone global? NS attempts to rewind time, erase our ancestors, and hit play] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... isted.html



REVIEWS

DANIEL L EVERETT – The shaman's-eye view: A Yanomami verdict on us [Review of ‘The Falling Sky: Words of a Yanomami shaman’ by Davi Kopenawa] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ojLP35FCUk




Science – 15 November 2013

NEWS

Old Dogs Teach a New Lesson About Canine Origins [By comparing the mitochondrial genomes of 18 ancient canids with modern dogs, wolves, and coyotes, researchers conclude that dogs were domesticated first in Europe from a lineage of gray wolves that no longer exists] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6160/785.short



REVIEWS

DOROTHY M FRAGASZY AND YONAT ESHCHAR – Coming to Grips with Learning with Others [Review of ‘Social Learning An Introduction to Mechanisms, Methods, and Models’ by William Hoppitt and Kevin N. Laland] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6160/801.short



PAPERS

O THALMANN et al – Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs [“The geographic and temporal origins of the domestic dog remain controversial, as genetic data suggest a domestication process in East Asia beginning 15,000 years ago, whereas the oldest doglike fossils are found in Europe and Siberia and date to >30,000 years ago. We analyzed the mitochondrial genomes of 18 prehistoric canids from Eurasia and the New World, along with a comprehensive panel of modern dogs and wolves. The mitochondrial genomes of all modern dogs are phylogenetically most closely related to either ancient or modern canids of Europe. Molecular dating suggests an onset of domestication there 18,800 to 32,100 years ago. These findings imply that domestic dogs are the culmination of a process that initiated with European hunter-gatherers and the canids with whom they interacted”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6160/871.abstract




Nature – 14 November 2013

NEWS

Burials indicate Viking sacrifices [Vikings may have sacrificed slaves to be buried with their masters] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20131114



PAPERS

PETER RICHERSON – Human evolution: Group size determines cultural complexity [“Many animals use culture, the ability to learn from others, but only humans create complex culture. A laboratory experiment tests which characteristics of our social networks give us this capacity”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20131114



MAXIME DEREX et al – Experimental evidence for the influence of group size on cultural complexity [“A dual-task computer game played by groups of different sizes is used to show that cultural evolution (the maintenance or improvement of cultural knowledge) strongly depends on population size; in larger groups of players, higher cultural complexity and cultural trait diversity are maintained, and improvements to existing cultural traits are more frequent”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20131114




PLOS One – 13 November 2013

PAPERS

ZUDE ZHU et al – Large Scale Brain Functional Networks Support Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Both Explicit and Implicit Language Tasks [“we constructed brain functional networks based on 27 subjects’ fMRI data that was collected while performing explicit and implicit language tasks. We found that network properties and network hubs corresponding to the implicit language task were similar to those associated with the explicit language task. We also found common hubs in occipital, temporal and frontal regions in both tasks. Compared with the implicit language task, the explicit language task resulted in greater global efficiency and increased integrated betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal gyrus, which is a key region related to sentence comprehension. These results suggest that brain functional networks support both explicit and implicit sentence comprehension; in addition, these two types of language tasks may modulate the properties of brain functional networks”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0080214



MICHAEL S VITEVITCH et al – Speaker Sex Influences Processing of Grammatical Gender [“In the present study native Spanish listeners heard Spanish words that varied in grammatical gender (masculine, ending in -o, or feminine, ending in -a) produced by either a male or a female speaker. When asked to indicate the grammatical gender of the words, listeners were faster and more accurate when the sex of the speaker “matched” the grammatical gender than when the sex of the speaker and the grammatical gender “mismatched.” No such interference was observed when listeners heard the same stimuli, but identified whether the speaker was male or female. This finding suggests that indexical information, in this case the sex of the speaker, influences not just processes associated with word recognition, but also higher-level processes associated with grammatical processing”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0079701



JASON W FLINDALL & CLAUDIA L R GONZALEZ – On the Evolution of Handedness: Evidence for Feeding Biases [13 right-handed students found it easier to feed themselves with their right hand than their left. I don’t think it says anything useful about the evolution of handedness, but judge for yourself] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0078967



TERESA RITO et al – The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa [“Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0’s sister clade, L1’6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by “mitochondrial Eve”) possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African “megadroughts” of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135–75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0080031



JAMSHID J. TEHRANI – The Phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood [“Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the ‘historic-geographic’ school, it is possible to classify similar tales into “international types” and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0078871



NAMKJE KOUDENBURG, TOM POSTMES & ERNESTINE H GORDIJN – Conversational Flow Promotes Solidarity [“Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of “we-ness”. Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0078363



CHEN YU & LINDA B SMITH – Joint Attention without Gaze Following: Human Infants and Their Parents Coordinate Visual Attention to Objects through Eye-Hand Coordination [“Previous research has focused on one pathway to the coordination of looking behavior by social partners, gaze following. The extant evidence shows that even very young infants follow the direction of another's gaze but they do so only in highly constrained spatial contexts because gaze direction is not a spatially precise cue as to the visual target and not easily used in spatially complex social interactions. Our findings, derived from the moment-to-moment tracking of eye gaze of one-year-olds and their parents as they actively played with toys, provide evidence for an alternative pathway, through the coordination of hands and eyes in goal-directed action”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0079659



ZEWDI J TSEGAI et al – Trabecular Bone Structure Correlates with Hand Posture and Use in Hominoids [“Our results support a link between inferred behaviour and trabecular structure in extant hominoids that can be informative for reconstructing behaviour in fossil primates”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0078781



MICHAEL COQUERELLE et al – Short Faces, Big Tongues: Developmental Origin of the Human Chin [“During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in Homo”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0081287



YONGXIANG CHEN, LIQI ZHU & ZHE CHEN – Family Income Affects Children’s Altruistic Behavior in the Dictator Game [“A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends) as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children’s prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0080419 n




PNAS – 12 November 2013

PAPERS

ALHANOUF ALMOAMMER et al – Grammatical morphology as a source of early number word meanings [“Languages vary in how they grammatically mark number (e.g., in nouns, verbs, and so forth). We test the effects of this variability on learning number words—for example, one, two, three—by investigating children learning Slovenian and Saudi Arabic, which have singular-plural marking, but also dual marking (for sets of two). We find that learning the dual is associated with faster learning of the meaning of two than in any previously studied language, even when accompanied by less experience with counting. We conclude that although exposure to counting is important to learning number word meanings, hearing number words used outside of these routines—in the quantif
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Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 545

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Dec 02, 2013 8:57 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 545 – 24 November 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Native Americans Were a Mix of Asian and European. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Update for When Wolf Became Woof 1

SCIAM NEWS – How Climate Change and Plate Tectonics Shaped Human Evolution. 1

SCIAM NEWS – How Many Friends Can Your Brain Handle?. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Bad Behavior Gets "Paid Forward" Even More Than Good. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Hidden Metaphors Get under Our Skin. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 24 November 2013. 2

New Scientist – 23 November 2013. 2

Science – 22 November 2013. 2

Nature – 21 November 2013. 2

PLOS One – 20 November 2013. 3

PNAS – 19 November 2013. 4

PLOS Genetics – November 2013. 4

Animal Behaviour – December 2013. 4

American Scientist – November/December 2013. 5

Scientific American – December 2013. 5

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 5




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Native Americans Were a Mix of Asian and European

Ancient skeleton of Siberian boy reveals some surprises

http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/ ... d-european




SCIAM NEWS – Update for When Wolf Became Woof

Genetic analysis moves dog domestication from wolf ancestors to possibly as far back as 30,000 years ago, in Europe, when humans were still hunter-gatherers

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podca ... O_20131118




SCIAM NEWS – How Climate Change and Plate Tectonics Shaped Human Evolution

A new study links the emergence of new hominin species, expanding brain capacity and early human migration with the appearance of deep freshwater lakes

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20131118




SCIAM NEWS – How Many Friends Can Your Brain Handle?

Certain brain areas are enlarged and white-matter tracts were better connected in people with larger social networks

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131120




SCIAM NEWS – Bad Behavior Gets "Paid Forward" Even More Than Good

The psychology of chains of greed

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131120




SCIAM NEWS – Hidden Metaphors Get under Our Skin

Our surroundings can trigger figurative thinking and influence behavior

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131120




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 24 November 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 23 November 2013

NEWS

Neanderthal virus DNA spotted hiding in modern humans [DNA of ancient viruses spotted in the Neanderthal genome has been identified in humans. Does having it make you more susceptible to viruses like HIV?] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... umans.html



Oldest human genome reveals roots of first Americans [A 24,000-year-old boy from Siberia is helping redraw the Native American family tree – and its roots spread further than we thought] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... pJQnX5FCUk



Wolves turned into dogs by European hunter-gatherers [European hunter-gatherers were the first to bring dogs to heel, perhaps as early as 32,000 years ago] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... erers.html



ARTICLES

MARK VAN VUGT – Darwinian business needn't be red in tooth and claw [The notion that economics and business are all about competition and self-interest is alluring but wrong] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -claw.html



ALISON GEORGE – Art's early dawn: When intelligence really began [All over the world, we're finding art tens of thousands of years older than it should be. What awoke our creative minds so early?] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... began.html




Science – 22 November 2013

ARTICLES

PHILIP LIEBERMAN – Synapses, Language, and Being Human [“Humans' ability to cope with the challenges they meet in life is transmitted almost exclusively through the medium of language. We have yet to fully map out the circuits of the human brain, the genes acting on them, and the processes they control that yield this distinct human quality. However, the findings of Sia et al. (1), on page 987 of this issue, bring us a step closer”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6161/944.short



PAPERS

G M SIA, R L CLEM & R L HUGANIR – The Human Language-Associated Gene SRPX2 Regulates Synapse Formation and Vocalization in Mice [“Synapse formation in the developing brain depends on the coordinated activity of synaptogenic proteins, some of which have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we show that the sushi repeat–containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) gene encodes a protein that promotes synaptogenesis in the cerebral cortex. In humans, SRPX2 is an epilepsy- and language-associated gene that is a target of the foxhead box protein P2 (FoxP2) transcription factor. We also show that FoxP2 modulates synapse formation through regulating SRPX2 levels and that SRPX2 reduction impairs development of ultrasonic vocalization in mice. Our results suggest FoxP2 modulates the development of neural circuits through regulating synaptogenesis and that SRPX2 is a synaptogenic factor that plays a role in the pathogenesis of language disorders”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6161/987.abstract




Nature – 21 November 2013

NEWS

Human evolution: Group size determines cultural complexity [Many animals use culture, the ability to learn from others, but only humans create complex culture. A laboratory experiment tests which characteristics of our social networks give us this capacity] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20131121



Teeth nibble away at invasion theory [Human remains from a fifth-century cemetery in Oxfordshire, UK, contradict the standard view of the Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britain] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20131121



PAPERS

MAANASA RAGHAVAN et al – Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans [“Draft genomes of two south-central Siberian individuals dating to 24,000 and 17,000 years ago show that they are genetically closely related to modern-day western Eurasians and Native Americans but not to east Asians; the results have implications for our understanding of the origins of Native Americans”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20131121



MAXIME DEREX et al – Experimental evidence for the influence of group size on cultural complexity [“A dual-task computer game played by groups of different sizes is used to show that cultural evolution (the maintenance or improvement of cultural knowledge) strongly depends on population size; in larger groups of players, higher cultural complexity and cultural trait diversity are maintained, and improvements to existing cultural traits are more frequent”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20131121




PLOS One – 20 November 2013

PAPERS

MELANIE SODERSTROM & KELSEY WITTEBOLLE – When Do Caregivers Talk? The Influences of Activity and Time of Day on Caregiver Speech and Child Vocalizations in Two Childcare Environments [“We analyze effects of type of activity engaged in by the child and time of day on quantitative measures of the language environment. We found effects of both activity and time of day. Structured activities generated the highest levels of adult language, but not necessarily the most child vocalizations. Home and daycare environments looked overall very similar on these measures, however there were important differences across the two environments with respect to the specific effects of activity and time of day”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0080646



WILLIAM D HOPKINS et al – Are Chimpanzees Really So Poor at Understanding Imperative Pointing? Some New Data and an Alternative View of Canine and Ape Social Cognition [“Here we tested a sample of chimpanzees on a task requiring comprehension of an imperative request and show that, though there are considerable individual differences, the performance by the apes rival those reported in pet dogs. We suggest that small differences in methodology can have a pronounced influence on performance on these types of tasks. We further suggest that basic differences in subject sampling, subject recruitment and rearing experiences have resulted in a skewed representation of canine abilities compared to those of monkeys and apes”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0079338



TIAGO FALÓTICO & EDUARDO B. OTTONI – Stone Throwing as a Sexual Display in Wild Female Bearded Capuchin Monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus [“This study reports stone throwing as a newly-described communicative behavior during the proceptive display of females in a group of bearded capuchin monkeys (S. libidinosus) in Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil. During a two-year study, three females from one group were seen throwing stones at males during their proceptive phase. After this period, three other females in the same group exhibited the same behavior. Although it may be possible that this pattern is the result of several independent innovations by each female, the apparent absence of this behavior in other groups leads us to suggest that we have documented the diffusion of a new behavioral trait or tradition within this capuchin social group”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0079535



PAUL E SMALDINO et al – Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh Environments [“In this paper, we present an agent-based model that incorporates some key aspects of human social structure and life history. We investigate the evolution of a population under conditions of different environmental harshness and in which selection can occur at the level of the group as well as the level of the individual. We focus on the evolution of a socially learned characteristic related to individuals' willingness to contribute to raising the offspring of others within their family group. We find that environmental harshness increases the frequency of individuals who make such contributions. However, under the conditions we stipulate, we also find that environmental variability can allow groups to survive with lower frequencies of helpers”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0080753



MORITZ HETZER & DIDIER SORNETTE – An Evolutionary Model of Cooperation, Fairness and Altruistic Punishment in Public Good Games [“Our first result reveals the emergence of two distinct evolutionary regimes that force agents to converge either to a defection state or to a state of coordination, depending on the predominant set of self- or other-regarding preferences. Our second result indicates that subjects in laboratory experiments of public goods games with punishment coordinate and punish defectors as a result of an aversion against disadvantageous inequitable outcomes. Our third finding identifies disadvantageous inequity aversion as evolutionary dominant and stable in a heterogeneous population of agents endowed initially only with purely self-regarding preferences”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0077041




PNAS – 19 November 2013

COMMENTARY

SUJIN YANG & HWAJIN YANG – Does bilingual fluency moderate the disruption effect of cultural cues on second-language processing? [Response to ‘Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants’ second-language processing through triggering first-language interference’ by Shu Zhang et al, June 2013] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/47/E4403.extract



MICHAEL W MORRIS & SHU ZHANG – Reply to Yang and Yang: Culturally primed first-language intrusion into second-language processing is associative spillover, not strategy http://www.pnas.org/content/110/47/E4404.extract




PLOS Genetics – November 2013

PAPERS

CHANDANA BASU MALLICK et al – The Light Skin Allele of SLC24A5 in South Asians and Europeans Shares Identity by Descent [“In the present study, we have quantitatively assessed skin pigmentation for a largely homogeneous cohort of 1228 individuals from the Southern region of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm significant association of rs1426654 SNP with skin pigmentation, explaining about 27% of total phenotypic variation in the cohort studied. Our extensive survey of the polymorphism in 1573 individuals from 54 ethnic populations across the Indian subcontinent reveals wide presence of the derived-A allele, although the frequencies vary substantially among populations. We also show that the geospatial pattern of this allele is complex, but most importantly, reflects strong influence of language, geography and demographic history of the populations. Sequencing 11.74 kb of SLC24A5 in 95 individuals worldwide reveals that the rs1426654-A alleles in South Asian and West Eurasian populations are monophyletic and occur on the background of a common haplotype that is characterized by low genetic diversity”] http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/inf ... en.1003912




Animal Behaviour – December 2013

PAPERS

ELODIE F BRIEFER, FANNY RYBAK & THIERRY AUBIN – Does true syntax or simple auditory object support the role of skylark song dialect? [“We manipulated the temporal arrangement of song dialect variants (‘shared phrases’) in the skylark, Alauda arvensis, a songbird with a very large repertoire of syllables and complex song. When tested with playback experiments performed in the field, skylarks were able to perceive subtle differences in the ordering of syllables. Modifications of the syllable ordering within shared phrases changed the information content from ‘group member’ to ‘unfamiliar individual’ and induced more aggressive reactions than shared phrases with a preserved syllable arrangement. Shared phrases often varied between individuals in the number of successive repetitions of similar syllable types, but were very consistent in terms of syllable type ordering. Our results indicate that skylarks rely not simply on the composition in syllable types of shared phrases to recognize group members, but on syllable type ordering. Shared phrases could be perceived by birds as ‘auditory objects’ embedded within songs. Alternatively, birds might identify incorrect phrases using grammatical rules governing the succession of syllables composing the phrases shared by their group”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004235



KARLINE R L JANMAAT, SIMONE D BAN & CHRISTOPHE BOESCH – Chimpanzees use long-term spatial memory to monitor large fruit trees and remember feeding experiences across seasons [“Our results suggest that goal-directed monitoring is guided by a long-term ‘what–where’ memory of the location of large potential food sources”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004259



IAN M HELGESEN, STEVEN HAMBLIN & PETER L HURD – Does cheating pay? Re-examining the evolution of deception in a conventional signalling game [“It has been proposed that mixed populations of honest and deceptive signallers can be evolutionarily stable in a model of conventional, or ‘minimal cost’, signals of competitive ability, and evolutionary simulations have been presented to support this hypothesis. However, we find that these results are questionable on both theoretical and methodological grounds. Here, we examine the theoretical issues raised by this model and examine the proposed ‘cheating’ strategy through the use of a genetic algorithm. Our evolutionary simulations do not support the hypothesis that deception can be evolutionarily stable in this game”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004272



STACEY L ZANDER, DANIEL J WEISS & PETER G JUDGE – The interface between morphology and action planning: a comparison of two species of New World monkeys [“We compared two species of New World monkeys that differ in their tool use abilities and manual dexterity: squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus (less dexterous with little evidence for tool use) and tufted capuchins, Sapajus apella (more dexterous and known tool users). The monkeys were presented with baited cups in an untrained food extraction task. Consistent with the morphological constraint hypothesis, squirrel monkeys frequently showed second-order motor planning by inverting their grasp when picking up an inverted cup, while capuchins frequently deployed canonical upright grasping postures. Findings suggest that the lack of ability for precision grasping may elicit more consistent second-order motor planning, as the squirrel monkeys (and other species that have shown a high rate of second-order planning) have fewer means of compensating for inefficient initial postures”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004326




American Scientist – November/December 2013

NEWS

Even birdbrains learn from experience [A cockatoo has been shown to solve an access puzzle involving five types of locks without assistance or training]



PAPERS

BRADFORD HARRIS – Evolution’s other narrative [By concentrating on competition as an engine of evolution we are missing other viable explanations – and handing a free gift to the creationists]



BRIAN HAYES – New dilemmas for the prisoner [the discovery of new strategies in the Prisoners’ Dilemma game means that new equilibria are possible]



PAT SHIPMAN – Why is human childbirth so painful? [“The evolutionary conflict that makes human birthing difficult may not be between walking or running and having babies, but between the fetus’s metabolic needs and the mother’s ability to meet them”]




Scientific American – December 2013

NEWS

Play Nice [Chimps need parental guidance to safely horse around; orphans have trouble suppressing aggression]



ARTICLES

DANIEL M WEGNER & ADRIAN F WARD – How Google is changing your brain [For millennia, the human information resources were held in our own brain and those of people around us; then it was in books; now it is in an instantly-accessible “data cloud”. These changes are changing the ways we think and remember.]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 546

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Dec 02, 2013 8:57 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 546 – 1 December 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Differences between chimpanzees and humans in visual temporal integration. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Americas' Natives Have European Roots. 1

CONFERENCE – Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 1

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 January 2014. 1

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 1 December 2013. 1

New Scientist – 30 November 2013. 1

Science – 29 November 2013. 2

Nature – 28 November 2013. 2

PLOS One – 27 November 2013. 2

PNAS – 26 November 2013. 2

Animal Behaviour – December 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 3




NOTICES


NATURE REPORTS – Differences between chimpanzees and humans in visual temporal integration

Tomoko Imura & Masaki Tomonaga

Humans have a superior ability to integrate spatially separate visual information into an entire image. In contrast, comparative cognitive studies have demonstrated that nonhuman primates and avian species are superior in processing relatively local features; however, animals in these studies were required to ignore local shape when they perceived the global configuration, and no studies have directly examined the ability to integrate temporally separate events. In this study, we compared the spatio–temporal visual integration of chimpanzees and humans by exploring dynamic shape perception under a slit-viewing condition. The findings suggest that humans exhibit greater temporal integration accuracy than do chimpanzees. The results show that the ability to integrate local visual information into a global whole is among the unique characteristics of humans.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131119/ ... P-20131126




SCIAM NEWS – Americas' Natives Have European Roots

The oldest known genome of a modern human solves long-standing puzzles about the New World's genetic heritage

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20131125




CONFERENCE – Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness

34th Annual Conference

Theme: From Margins to Center: Bringing Consciousness Forward

Dates: March 27 — 30, 2014

http://www.sacaaa.org




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 January 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 1 December 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 30 November 2013

NEWS

Inbreeding shaped the course of human evolution [Many early humans were highly inbred, according to a new genetic analysis. Their isolation may explain why modern behaviour took so long to arise] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... puSz35FCUk



ARTICLES

JESSICA HAMZELOU – The night: Full moon mayhem is for real [The idea that strange things happen during the full moon is legendary. Some of them are also rooted in fact] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -real.html




Science – 29 November 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 28 November 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




PLOS One – 27 November 2013

PAPERS

KARIMA FADHLAOUI-ZID et al – Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa [“In this study, we analyze uniparental and genome-wide markers examining similarities or contrasts in the results and consequently provide a comprehensive description of the evolutionary history of North Africa populations. Our results show that both males and females in North Africa underwent a similar admixture history with slight differences in the proportions of admixture components. Consequently, genome-wide diversity show similar patterns with admixture tests suggesting North Africans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to current Africans and Eurasians with more affinity towards the out-of-Africa populations than to sub-Saharan Africans. We estimate from the paternal lineages that most North Africans emerged ~15,000 years ago during the last glacial warming and that population splits started after the desiccation of the Sahara”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0080293



EVA MARIA LUEF & SIMONE PIKA – Gorilla Mothers Also Matter! New Insights on Social Transmission in Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Captivity [“The present paper describes two distinct behaviors relating to food processing and communication that were observed in a community of five separately housed groups of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in captivity during two study periods one decade apart: (1) a food processing technique to separate wheat from chaff, the so-called puff-blowing technique; and (2) a male display used to attract the attention of visitors, the so-called throw-kiss-display. We investigated (a) whether the behaviors were transmitted within the respective groups; and if yes, (b) their possible mode of transmission. Our results showed that only the food processing technique spread from three to twenty-one individuals during the ten-year period, whereas the communicative display died out completely. The main transmission mode of the puff-blowing technique was the mother-offspring dyad: offspring of puff-blowing mothers showed the behavior, while the offspring of non- puff-blowing mothers did not”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0079600



EDWIN J C VAN LEEUWEN et al – Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Flexibly Adjust Their Behaviour in Order to Maximize Payoffs, Not to Conform to Majorities [“In this study, we investigated chimpanzees’ behavioural flexibility in two different conditions under which social animals have been predicted to abandon personal preferences and adopt alternative strategies: i) under influence of majority demonstrations (i.e. conformity), and ii) in the presence of superior reward contingencies (i.e. maximizing payoffs). Unlike previous nonhuman primate studies, this study disentangled the concept of conformity from the tendency to maintain one’s first-learned strategy. Studying captive (n=16) and semi-wild (n=12) chimpanzees in two complementary exchange paradigms, we found that chimpanzees did not abandon their behaviour in order to match the majority, but instead remained faithful to their first-learned strategy (Study 1a and 1b). However, the chimpanzees’ fidelity to their first-learned strategy was overridden by an experimental upgrade of the profitability of the alternative strategy (Study 2)”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0080945




PNAS – 26 November 2013

PAPERS

THOMAS MUSSWEILER & AXEL OCKENFELS – Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans [“Recent evidence has demonstrated that altruistic punishment is a key behavioral mechanism in the evolution of human cooperation. We show that interpersonal similarity increases reciprocal altruistic punishment. Importantly, this influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. These findings illustrate how similarity and altruistic punishment are closely intertwined in encouraging human cooperation”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/48/19318.abstract




Animal Behaviour – December 2013

PAPERS

MARIE BOURJADE et al – Olive baboons, Papio anubis, adjust their visual and auditory intentional gestures to the visual attention of others [“We investigated whether olive baboons can (1) adjust their requesting gestures to the visual attention of the experimenter with special emphasis on the state of the eyes (open versus closed), and (2) flexibly tailor visual and auditory-based gestures to elaborate their communication as a function of whether or not the experimenter can see them. Using a food-requesting paradigm, we found monkeys able to favour either visual or auditory-based requesting gestures to match the experimenter's visual attention. Crucially, when the human was not visually attending, they silenced visual gestures to some extent but performed more attention-getting gestures”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004764



P CARAZO & E FONT – ‘Communication breakdown’: the evolution of signal unreliability and deception [“We argue here that unreliability and deception are notions marred with conceptual ambiguities, often used as equivalent or as catch-all terms for qualitatively different processes. Signal unreliability refers to a pattern of design–information dissociation that can arise through different processes, some deceptive and some not, with different evolutionary implications. First, nondeceptive processes that are independent of sender–receiver conflict need to be explicitly recognized if we are not to overestimate the importance of deception as a driver of signal unreliability. Second, deceptive unreliability (fuelled by sender–receiver conflict) occurs through two qualitatively different processes with potentially different consequences for signal design. ‘Incomplete honesty’ is inherent to most communication systems and reflects the underlying conflict between senders and receivers that share some common ground of interests. On the other hand, categorical deception by signal parasitism evolves between senders and receivers that share no common interests, as a form of deceptive signalling that is purely contingent on the presence of already existing signals”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004843
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 549

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jan 06, 2014 9:47 am

EAORC BULLETIN 549 – 22 December 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – When Cats Became Comrades. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Why Hobbits Always Win. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Polynesians May Have Invented Binary Math. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Genome of Neandertals Reveals Inbreeding. 1

SCIAM NEWS – How Unconscious Thought and Perception Affect Our Every Waking Moment 1

SCIAM NEWS – Below the Surface: How Our Unconscious Rules Our Lives. 2

SCI-NEWS – Homo erectus? 1.4-Million-Year-Old Human-like Hand Bone Found. 2

SCI-NEWS – Chinese Farmers May Have Domesticated Cats over 5,000 Years Ago. 2

SCI-NEWS – Sunlight Adaptation Genes of Neanderthals Found in Modern East Asians. 2

SCI-NEWS – Neanderthal Genome Reveals Fourth, Mysterious Human Lineage. 2

CONFERENCE – VIU's Conference on Language, Learning, and Culture. 2

CONFERENCE – Toward a Science of Consciousness 2014. 2

CONFERENCE – Lorentz Center workshop: Perspectives on Human Probabilistic Inference. 3

ORGANISATION – iCog Network. 3

RADIO – WORD OF MOUTH on primate communication. 4

PUBLICATIONS. 4

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 4

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 February 2014. 4

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 22 December 2013. 4

New Scientist – 21 December 2013. 4

Science – 20 December 2013. 4

Nature – 19 December 2013. 5

PLOS One – 18 December 2013. 5

PNAS – 17 December 2013. 6

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 6




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – When Cats Became Comrades

First evidence of felines protecting crops unearthed in ancient Chinese village

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... a0124b7448




SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Why Hobbits Always Win

Study explains why J. R. R. Tolkien's heroes usually emerge victorious

http://news.sciencemag.org/health/2013/ ... always-win




SCIENCE NEWS – Polynesians May Have Invented Binary Math

Unusual counting system among Mangareva people is first example developed outside Eurasia

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... add1f7af14




SCIENCE NEWS – Genome of Neandertals Reveals Inbreeding

DNA shows that early hominins mixed it up with their neighbors, but many Neandertal individuals still were inbred

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... cdf96f47ca




SCIAM NEWS – How Unconscious Thought and Perception Affect Our Every Waking Moment

By John A. Bargh

“When psychologists try to understand the way our mind works, they frequently come to a conclusion that may seem startling: people often make decisions without having given them much thought—or, more precisely, before they have thought about them consciously.”

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131218




SCIAM NEWS – Below the Surface: How Our Unconscious Rules Our Lives

By Mariette DiChristina

“Driving home after a visit with a relative, you suddenly realize you have no specific memory of how you got there. Well, you've taken that trip so many times, you tell yourself, that you could just about do in your sleep. Tying a shoe later, you reflect again on how often you accomplish things while your conscious mind is barely paying attention.”

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131218




SCI-NEWS – Homo erectus? 1.4-Million-Year-Old Human-like Hand Bone Found

A tiny bone of an early human species, possibly Homo erectus, found in Kenya is the earliest evidence of a modern human-like hand, according to a team of scientists led by Prof Carol Ward from the University of Missouri.

http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/a ... ce+News%29




SCI-NEWS – Chinese Farmers May Have Domesticated Cats over 5,000 Years Ago

A new study published online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences provides possible evidence of domesticated cats between 5,560 and 5,280 years ago in the ancient village of Quanhucun, the province of Shaanxi, China.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCI-NEWS – Sunlight Adaptation Genes of Neanderthals Found in Modern East Asians

Genetic scientists from China have discovered a small portion of Neanderthal genome (18 genes on chromosome 3, with several related to UV-light adaptation) in up to 66 percent of modern East Asian population.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCI-NEWS – Neanderthal Genome Reveals Fourth, Mysterious Human Lineage

A comparison of the high-quality genome sequence of a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal woman with those of modern humans and Denisovans reveals a long history of interbreeding among at least 4 species of early humans.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




CONFERENCE – VIU's Conference on Language, Learning, and Culture

Just a friendly reminder from Virginia International University about our upcoming Conference on Language, Learning, and Culture!

The abstract submission deadline is just around the corner, on Monday, December 23, 2013. If you haven’t done so already, please consider submitting a proposal!

We are honored to be hosting the following plenary speakers:

• Dr. Terrence G. Wiley, President and CEO of the Center for Applied Linguistics, on the multilingual heritage and contemporary linguistic diversity of the U.S.

• Dr. Shelley Wong, Professor at George Mason University and past TESOL President, on student advocacy and empowerment

• Dr. Kenneth Petersen, Technical Director of Online Learning & Assessment for American Councils for International Education, on innovations in technology for the modern classroom

As described in more detail in our abstract submission guidelines (abstract submission guidelines), conference strands include language learning, language pedagogy, program evaluation and policy, and language in society.

The conference will be held April 11-12, 2014, on VIU campus in Fairfax, Virginia. We’re located just outside Washington, DC, and accessible via public transportation.

Please visit the conference website (conference website) or email Kevin Martin, Director of the School of Education, at kevin@viu.edu, for more information.




CONFERENCE – Toward a Science of Consciousness 2014

The 20th Anniversary Conference April 21-26, 2014, Marriott University Park, Tucson, Arizona

Sponsored by the Center for Consciousness Studies at the University of Arizona

Toward a Science of Consciousness is a rigorous interdisciplinary conference covering neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, molecular biology, medicine, quantum physics, cosmology, art, technology, and experiential and contemplative approaches to the understanding of consciousness. This 20th anniversary conference will reflect on progress, challenges and future directions from an estimated 800 participants from over 60 countries. Program sessions will include plenary and keynote talks and panels, concurrent talks, posters, art/science demos and exhibits, pre-conference workshops, side trips, and social events in the Tucson tradition.

Plenary speakers will include

Susan Blackmore, Ned Block, David Chalmers, Karl Deisseroth, Daniel Dennett, David Eagleman, Rebecca Goldstein, Stuart Hameroff, Christof Koch, Henry Markram, George Mashour, Sam Parnia, John Searle, Petra Stoerig, Giulio Tononi and many more.

Dates:

Final Abstracts are due December 31 (Notifications by January 15)

(Early registration by February 2)

The Plenary and full program will be announced in January, 2014.

Program Co-Chairs

David Chalmers, Australian National University, New York University

Stuart Hameroff, University of Arizona

Venue

For the first time, Toward a Science of Consciousness will be held at the Marriott University Park Hotel, steps from the Main Gate of the beautiful campus of the University of Arizona, near shops, restaurants and pubs on University Boulevard. A special conference hotel rate of $109 has been arranged and this rate is extended for 2-3 days pre/post conference start/finish dates.

Marriott University Park, 880 East 2nd Street, Tucson, AZ

http://www.marriott.com/meeting-event-h ... 03/21/2014

Conference Website

https://www.consciousness.arizona.edu/




CONFERENCE – Lorentz Center workshop: Perspectives on Human Probabilistic Inference

May 12 - 16, 2014

There is growing evidence that probabilistic inference is fundamental to human cognition, brain functioning, and directly lived experience. This interdisciplinary workshop brings together neuroscientists, philosophers, computer scientists and cognitive scientists with the aim to foster new interdisciplinary perspectives on the role of probabilistic inference in three themes: (1) unifying conceptions of brain functioning, (2) mechanisms of phenomenological experience, and (3) the computational realization of cognition.

Lorentz Center organizes scientific meetings for small groups of up to 55 participants, including both senior and junior scientists. Lorentz Center meetings dedicate a considerable amount of time to discussion sessions, thus stimulating an interactive atmosphere and encouraging collaborations between participants. This format typically generates extensive debates and enables significant progress to be made within the research topic of the meeting.

The meeting is held at the Lorentz Center, located at the Faculty of Science campus of Leiden University, the Netherlands. The Lorentz Center provides each participant with office space and wireless internet access (LINUX and Windows). Lorentz Center also provides various practical services for the participants, such as arranging accommodations at the nearby hotel “Van der Valk Hotel Leiden” at a special rate (€ 80 including breakfast and taxes), visa assistance and bike rental. For further information, please refer to our website: http://www.lorentzcenter.nl.

Lorentz Center does not charge registration fees.

Approval to the workshop is at the discretion of the organizers. Applicants will be informed on their admission by 1 March 2014 at the latest.

We hope that you are interested in participating in the workshop. If so, we kindly ask that you register by 6 January 2014 via the workshop webpage: http://www.lorentzcenter.nl/lc/web/2014 ... venue=Oort

For further information, the best point of contact will be the main organized Johan Kwisthout: j.kwisthout.psych.ru.nl




ORGANISATION – iCog Network

iCog is a new network for postgraduate and early-career researchers working in the different disciplines of cognitive science: anthropology, computational intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, philosophy and psychology. The iCog network aims to equip junior researchers with the knowledge base, skills and professional networks to ensure that progress in cognitive science continues to be made through interdisciplinary work. These aims will be achieved through conferences, training workshops and through its own international database of researchers, iCogS.

Visit i-cog.com (http://i-cog.com/) for more details.

iCogS Database

The iCog network has just launched iCogS to help postgraduates and early-career researchers working in the different disciplines of cognitive science get in touch with each other, exchange knowledge, and initiate collaborations. Researchers can create a profile detailing their research interests, current research and whether they are interested in collaborating with other researchers, which disciplines they are interested in collaborating with, the topic or question they wish to investigate collaboratively, and the methodologies they wish to employ (if known). Even for those not currently seeking collaborators, having an iCog/S/ profile is a good way to advertise your research to other researchers in the cognitive science community.

Visit i-cog.com (http://i-cog.com/) to create your profile and search the iCogS database for other researchers.



The iCog network acknowledges the generous support of the Mind Association, Aristotelian Society, Analysis Trust, Guarantors of Brain, Language and Cognition (Cambridge University Press), and the Departments of Philosophy and Psychology, Faculty of Science, and the Hang Seng Centre for Cognitive Studies at the University of Sheffield.




RADIO – WORD OF MOUTH on primate communication

Radio 4, Tuesday 7 January at 16.00, repeated Monday 13 January at 23.00, and on iPlayer (http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qtnz).

Featuring Catherine Crockford & Martin Edwardes.




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 February 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 22 December 2013

STILL NOTHING OF INTEREST

Actually, nothing published since 28 Jan 2013. If they complete the year without any activity I’ll take them off the bulletin.




New Scientist – 21 December 2013

NEWS

Alligators use tools to lure in bird prey [American alligators have been spotted using sticks to lure nesting egrets, the first documented example of a reptile using a tool] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -prey.html



Early Polynesians used binary to ease mental arithmetic [Inhabitants of Mangareva island spoke the language of computers centuries before the first programmer was born, creating their own fusion of binary and decimal systems] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... metic.html



ARTICLES

MICHAEL BROOKS – Invest in minds not maths to boost the economy [Instead of trying to educate more scientists or engineers to drive innovation, we should focus on turning out agile thinkers] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... onomy.html



RICHARD DAWKINS – 'I'd rather be remembered for science' [The world's pre-eminent atheist speculates about why he polarises people, what prompts him to take on religion and whether humans are built to be irrational] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ience.html



LAURA SPINNEY – Goodwill hunting: Random ants of kindness [It's the season of selflessness, so meet some unlikely altruists – the ants that work tirelessly to rescue their sisters] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... dness.html



CHRISTOPHER KEMP – Kalahari trackers who read ice-age life in footprints [Generations of archaeologists puzzled over ice-age footprints in French caves – but these three men can read them like a book] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... rints.html



TIFFANY O'CALLAGHAN – Rude awakenings: How swearing made us human [Our crudest outbursts can unravel ancient links between words and thoughts. They may even hint at our ancestors' first utterances] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... human.html




Science – 20 December 2013

ARTICLES

CLAIRE N SPOTTISWOODE – How Cooperation Defeats Cheats [“We now know that “helpers-at-the-nest” who forgo reproduction are often relatives of the breeding pair. Genetic payoff is, thus, one of several advantages that helpers can gain from their superficially altruistic behavior (2). On page 1506 of this issue, Feeney et al. (3) show that collective defense against brood parasites (see the figure) can enhance such benefits of cooperation”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6165/1452.short



PAPERS

W E FEENEY et al Brood Parasitism and the Evolution of Cooperative Breeding in Birds [“We report that the global distributions of avian obligate brood parasites and cooperatively breeding passerines are tightly correlated and that the uneven phylogenetic distribution of cooperative breeding is associated with the uneven targeting of hosts by brood parasites. With a long-term field study, we show that brood parasites can acquire superior care for their young by targeting cooperative breeders. Conversely, host defenses against brood parasites are strengthened by helpers at the nest”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6 ... 6.abstract




Nature – 19 December 2013

NEWS

Archaic humans: Four makes a party [Adding the first high-quality Neanderthal sequence to genomic comparisons of archaic and modern humans sheds light on gene flow, population structure and adaptation, and suggests the existence of an unknown group] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20131219



PAPERS

KAY PRÜFER et al with DAVID REICH, JANET KELSO & SVANTE PÄÄBO – The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains [“A complete genome sequence is presented of a female Neanderthal from Siberia, providing information about interbreeding between close relatives and uncovering gene flow events among Neanderthals, Denisovans and early modern humans, as well as establishing substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20131219



WARREN JONES & AMI KLIN – Attention to eyes is present but in decline in 2–6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism [“A prospective longitudinal study identifies the earliest known indicator of social disability in human infancy: decline in attention to others’ eyes in infants who are later diagnosed with autism; the decline is evident already within the first 2 to 6 months of life, which reveals the early unfolding of the disorder but also offers a promising opportunity for the future of early intervention”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20131219




PLOS One – 18 December 2013

PAPERS

NOAM AGMON & YIGAL BLOCH – Statistics of Language Morphology Change: From Biconsonantal Hunters to Triconsonantal Farmers [“Linguistic evolution mirrors cultural evolution, of which one of the most decisive steps was the "agricultural revolution" that occurred 11,000 years ago in W. Asia. Traditional comparative historical linguistics becomes inaccurate for time depths greater than, say, 10 kyr. Therefore it is difficult to determine whether decisive events in human prehistory have had an observable impact on human language. Here we supplement the traditional methodology with independent statistical measures showing that following the transition to agriculture, languages of W. Asia underwent a transition from biconsonantal (2c) to triconsonantal (3c) morphology”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0083780



GREGORY SIMON et al – Dynamics of the Anatomical Changes That Occur in the Brains of Schoolchildren as They Learn to Read [“Although the functional brain network involved in reading for adults and children is now well documented, a critical lack of knowledge still exists about the structural development of these brain areas. To provide a better overview of the structural dynamics of the brain that sustain reading acquisition, we acquired anatomical MRI brain images from 55 children that were divided into two groups: one prior to the formal learning of reading (n = 33, 5–6 years old) and the second a few years after formal learning (n = 22, 9–10 years old). Reading performances were collected based on the “Alouette-R” test, a standardized test for reading text in French. Voxel-based morphometry analysis of gray matter showed that only the right insula volume was different between the two groups”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0081789



GRIT SCHUBERT et al – Co–Residence between Males and Their Mothers and Grandmothers Is More Frequent in Bonobos Than Chimpanzees [“Combining genetic parentage determination and group composition data from five communities of wild chimpanzees and three communities of wild bonobos, we estimated the frequency of co-residence between (1) mature males and their mothers, and (2) immature males and females and their paternal grandmothers. We found that adult males resided twice as frequently with their mothers in bonobos than in chimpanzees, and that immature bonobos were three times more likely to possess a living paternal grandmother than were immature chimpanzees”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0083870



ADRIAN VILIAMI BELL, KATIE HINDE & LESLEY NEWSON – Who Was Helping? The Scope for Female Cooperative Breeding in Early Homo<
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 550

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jan 06, 2014 9:49 am

EAORC BULLETIN 550 – 29 December 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Chimps Will Share Their Lunch—but Only If They Like You. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 1

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 29 December 2013. 1

New Scientist – 28 December 2013. 1

Science – 27 December 2013. 1

Nature – 26 December 2013. 1

PLOS One – 25 December 2013. 2

PNAS – 24 December 2013. 2

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 2




NOTICES


NATURE REPORTS – Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments

David Kaniewski, Elise Van Campo, Christophe Morhange et al.

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules …

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131218/ ... P-20131224




SCIAM NEWS – Chimps Will Share Their Lunch—but Only If They Like You

By Cynthia McKelvey

Chimpanzees have a lot to gain from climbing the social ladder. It now appears that lower-ranking male chimps strengthen bonds with their friends in high places by alerting them to some good eats. Researchers experimentally captured this communication—amounting to “hey buddy, there’s some food over here”—for the first time among a society of wild chimpanzees in Uganda.

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/min ... B_20131224




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 29 December 2013

STILL NOTHING OF INTEREST

If no activity by 28 January I’ll take them off the bulletin.




New Scientist – 28 December 2013

NO ISSUE THIS WEEK




Science – 27 December 2013

NO ISSUE THIS WEEK




Nature – 26 December 2013

NO ISSUE THIS WEEK




PLOS One – 25 December 2013

PAPERS

MARTIN DOBRICKI & STEPHAN DE LA ROSA – The Structure of Conscious Bodily Self-Perception during Full-Body Illusions [“We performed two studies in which we stroked the back of healthy individuals for three minutes while they watched the back of a distant virtual body being synchronously stroked with a virtual stick. After visuo-tactile stimulation, participants assessed changes in their bodily self-perception with a custom made self-report questionnaire. In the first study, we investigated the structure of conscious full-body self-perception by analyzing the responses to the questionnaire by means of multidimensional scaling combined with cluster analysis. In the second study, we then extended the questionnaire and validated the stability of the structure of conscious full-body self-perception found in the first study within a larger sample of individuals by performing a principle components analysis of the questionnaire responses. The results of the two studies converge in suggesting that the structure of conscious full-body self-perception consists of the following three distinct components: bodily self-identification, space-related self-perception (spatial presence), and agency”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0083840
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 551

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jan 06, 2014 9:50 am

EAORC BULLETIN 551 – 5 January 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Slideshow: Mysteries of Megaliths. 1

SCIENCE REPORT – Intact but Less Accessible Phonetic Representations in Adults with Dyslexia. 1

CONFERENCE – Anthropology and Photography. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 5 January 2014. 2

New Scientist – 4 January 2014. 2

Science – 3 January 2014. 2

Nature – 2 January 2014. 2

PLOS One – 1 January 2014. 2

PNAS – 31 December 2013. 3

PLOS Biology – December 2013. 3

Biolinguistics – 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 3




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Slideshow: Mysteries of Megaliths

Researchers offer new explanation for origin and meaning of massive monuments

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 2dcc0e05dc




SCIENCE REPORT – Intact but Less Accessible Phonetic Representations in Adults with Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a severe and persistent reading and spelling disorder caused by impairment in the ability to manipulate speech sounds. We combined functional magnetic resonance brain imaging with multivoxel pattern analysis and functional and structural connectivity analysis in an effort to disentangle whether dyslexics’ phonological deficits are caused by poor quality of the phonetic representations or by difficulties in accessing intact phonetic representations. We found that phonetic representations are hosted bilaterally in primary and secondary auditory cortices and that their neural quality (in terms of robustness and distinctness) is intact in adults with dyslexia. However, the functional and structural connectivity between the bilateral auditory cortices and the left inferior frontal gyrus (a region involved in higher-level phonological processing) is significantly hampered in dyslexics, suggesting deficient access to otherwise intact phonetic representations.

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 138b12228c




CONFERENCE – Anthropology and Photography

British Museum, Clore Centre, 29-31 May 2014

The Royal Anthropological Institute is pleased to announce that a conference ‘Anthropology and Photography’ will take place at the British Museum, Clore Centre, in conjunction with the museum’s Anthropology Library and Research Centre. The aim of the Conference is to stimulate an international discussion on the place, role and future of photography.

Call for Papers

The call for papers is now open. The call closes on 8 January 2014. Please see the full details for the call on our website, http://therai.us7.list-manage1.com/trac ... d4d733ec50. You can see the full list of panels here: http://therai.us7.list-manage.com/track ... d4d733ec50. Papers must be submitted to a specific panel and a link to the form is available on each panel page. Proposals should consist of a paper title, a (very) short abstract of <300 characters and an abstract of 250 words.

Conference Fee:

Non-Fellow: £170

RAI Member: £150

RAI Fellow: £90

Concessions: £70

RAI Student Fellow: £50




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 5 January 2014

STILL NOTHING OF INTEREST

If no activity by 28 January I’ll take them off the bulletin.




New Scientist – 4 January 2014

NEWS

See half a world and you can't reason about the past [People with spatial neglect ignore the left side of their world – and the "left side" of time too, which means they problems reasoning about the past] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -past.html



ARTICLES

LESLEY EVANS OGDEN – Pachyderm politics and the powerful female [Behind every successful elephant dynasty you'll find a wise old matriarch. What does it take to lead the herd?] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... emale.html




Science – 3 January 2014

ARTICLES

MICHAEL BALTER – Monumental Roots [The great stone monuments of prehistoric Britain, including Stonehenge, were born in a wave of innovation that apparently began on a remote Scottish island] http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... e178e5bf17



MICHAEL BALTER – Life and Death at Stonehenge [Studies offer new insight into the great monument's ritual purpose and meaning] http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... e178e5bf17




Nature – 2 January 2014

ARTICLES

EWAN BIRNEY & JONATHAN K PRITCHARD – Archaic humans: Four makes a party [Adding the first high-quality Neanderthal sequence to genomic comparisons of archaic and modern humans sheds light on gene flow, population structure and adaptation, and suggests the existence of an unknown group] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140102



PAPERS

KAY PRÜFER et al with SVANTE PÄÄBO – The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains [A complete genome sequence is presented of a female Neanderthal from Siberia, providing information about interbreeding between close relatives and uncovering gene flow events among Neanderthals, Denisovans and early modern humans, as well as establishing substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140102



MAANASA RAGHAVAN et al – Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans [Draft genomes of two south-central Siberian individuals dating to 24,000 and 17,000 years ago show that they are genetically closely related to modern-day western Eurasians and Native Americans but not to east Asians; the results have implications for our understanding of the origins of Native Americans] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140102




PLOS One – 1 January 2014

PAPERS

DANIEL JOEL SHAW et al – Copying You Copying Me: Interpersonal Motor Co-Ordination Influences Automatic Imitation [“Moving in a co-ordinated fashion with another individual changes our behaviour towards them; we tend to like them more, find them more attractive, and are more willing to co-operate with them. It is generally assumed that this effect on behaviour results from alterations in representations of self and others. Specifically, through neurophysiological perception-action matching mechanisms, interpersonal motor co-ordination (IMC) is believed to forge a neural coupling between actor and observer, which serves to blur boundaries in conceptual self-other representations and causes positive views of the self to be projected onto others”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0084820




PNAS – 31 December 2013

NO ISSUE THIS WEEK




PLOS Biology – December 2013

ARTICLES

JANELLE WEAVER – How Brain Waves Help Us Make Sense of Speech [This synopsis accompanies a neuroimaging study which reveals how coupled brain oscillations at different frequencies align with quasi-rhythmic features of continuous speech such as prosody syllables and phonemes] http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info ... io.1001753



PAPERS

VAUGHAN BELL – A Community of One: Social Cognition and Auditory Verbal Hallucinations [Because hallucinated voices are often experienced as distinct social identities we need to understand how changes in the social brain lead to these intense experiences] http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info ... io.1001723



JOACHIM GROSS et al – Speech Rhythms and Multiplexed Oscillatory Sensory Coding in the Human Brain [A neuroimaging study reveals how coupled brain oscillations at different frequencies align with quasi-rhythmic features of continuous speech such as prosody, syllables, and phonemes] http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info ... io.1001752




Biolinguistics – 2013

PAPERS

CEDRIC BOECKX – Biolinguistics: Fact, Fiction, and Forecast [“In his ‘discussion note’, in which he reviews The Biolinguistic Enterprise, which I co-edited with Anna Maria Di Sciullo (Di Sciullo and Boeckx 2011), Jackendoff (2011) goes through a series of important issues conceding the field, and makes several points worth highlighting, but he also commits several errors worth pointing out. This is the object of the present piece. Specifically, my aim in the pages that follow is to tease apart the real issues (‘fact’), from the rhetoric (‘fiction’) and from the different bets various researchers make concerning the future (‘forecast’)”] http://www.biolinguistics.eu/index.php/ ... ew/305/312
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

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