Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Reviews or summaries of the recent literature are posted here.

Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Tue Dec 27, 2011 11:12 am

Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allow the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

The Evolutionary Anthropology Online Research Cluster has been in existence since June 2003, when Helena Tuzinska suggested to Chris Knight that a regular newsletter would be useful to unite what was then the Sex Strike Theory (SST) group. Martin Edwardes started producing a weekly newsletter, and it has published every week since.

The emphasis of EAORC has moved away from just SST, and it now encompasses a wide community of researchers into human origins: anthropologists, archaeologists, animal researchers, neuroscientists and linguists. The weekly newsletter attempts to list all relevant papers from a range of publications. It cannot be exhaustive, but it does cover the main scientific journals.

Martin Edwardes was awarded a PhD in the Origins of Grammar in 2007, and is currently semi-retired. He is a visiting lecturer in psycholinguistics at King’s College London.

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:

- SCIAM NEWS - No Joke: Pigeons Ace a Simple Math Test ---
- CONFERENCE - 2012 Summer Institute in Cognitive Sciences on the Evolution
and Function of Consciousness

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 7 February 2012
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - 5 February 2012
- New Scientist - 24 December 2011
- Science - 23 December 2011
- Nature - 22 December 2011
- PLOS One - 21 December 2011
- PNAS - 20 December 2011
- Biolinguistics - Fall 2011

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - No Joke: Pigeons Ace a Simple Math Test ---

Observation shows that numerical reasoning is not limited to primates
http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... a-simple-m
ath.html?ref=em&elq=81bad3a0e7c149d4b6234d946c69d4ef

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- CONFERENCE - 2012 Summer Institute in Cognitive Sciences on the
Evolution and Function of Consciousness ---

The Summer Institute (july 2012, Montréal, Canada) will feature a poster
session. Information about this poster session is available at:
http://www.summer12.isc.uqam.ca/page/af ... rce=mass&u
tm_medium=email&utm_campaign=poster01

Deadline for submission: 10 February 2012

Theme of the Summer Institute: The Evolution and Function of Consciousness.
When, where, how and why -since the origin of life on Earth about 4 billion
years ago- did organisms' input/output functions become conscious
input/output functions? What is the causal role of consciousness?

Our list of speakers is avalaible at:
http://www.summer12.isc.uqam.ca/page/pr ... &utm_mediu
m=email&utm_campaign=poster01

Registration will open early 2012.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 7 February 2012 ---

... HEATHER N CORNELL et al - Social learning spreads knowledge about
dangerous humans among American crows ["Individuals face evolutionary
trade-offs between the acquisition of costly but accurate information gained
firsthand and the use of inexpensive but possibly less reliable social
information. American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) use both sources of
information to learn the facial features of a dangerous person. We exposed
wild crows to a novel ‘dangerous face’ by wearing a unique mask as we
trapped, banded and released 7–15 birds at five study sites near Seattle,
WA, USA. An immediate scolding response to the dangerous mask after trapping
by previously captured crows demonstrates individual learning, while an
immediate response by crows that were not captured probably represents
conditioning to the trapping scene by the mob of birds that assembled during
the capture. Later recognition of dangerous masks by lone crows that were
never captured is consistent with horizontal social learning. Independent
scolding by young crows, whose parents had conditioned them to scold the
dangerous mask, demonstrates vertical social learning. Crows that directly
experienced trapping later discriminated among dangerous and neutral masks
more precisely than did crows that learned through social means. Learning
enabled scolding to double in frequency and spread at least 1.2 km from the
place of origin over a 5 year period at one site"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1728/499.abstract]

... MICHAEL P HASELHUHN & ELAINE M WONG - Bad to the bone: facial structure
predicts unethical behaviour ["we show that genetically determined physical
traits can serve as reliable predictors of unethical behaviour if they are
also associated with positive signals in intersex and intrasex selection.
Specifically, we identify a key physical attribute, the facial
width-to-height ratio, which predicts unethical behaviour in men. Across two
studies, we demonstrate that men with wider faces (relative to facial
height) are more likely to explicitly deceive their counterparts in a
negotiation, and are more willing to cheat in order to increase their
financial gain"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1728/571.abstract]

''' DAVID A PUTS et al - Masculine voices signal men's threat potential in
forager and industrial societies ["We therefore examined relationships
between sexually dimorphic acoustic properties and men's threat potential.
We first introduce a new measure of the structure of vocal formant
frequencies, ‘formant position’ (Pf), which we show is more sexually
dimorphic and more strongly related to height than is the most widely used
measure of formant structure, ‘formant dispersion’, in both a US sample and
a sample of Hadza foragers from Tanzania. We also show large sexual
dimorphisms in the mean fundamental frequency (F0) and the within-utterance
standard deviation in F0 (F0 − s.d.) in both samples. We then explore
relationships between these acoustic parameters and men's body size,
strength, testosterone and physical aggressiveness. Each acoustic parameter
was related to at least one measure of male threat potential"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1728/601.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - 5 February 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - 24 December 2011 ---

*** NEWS

... Learn language faster with gestures [People remember new words more
easily when they are taught alongside body movements]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21228442.800-learn-language-faster-wi
th-gestures.html]

... Humans' chimeric origins [The roots of our species are being called into
question in ways that challenge the roots of our identity]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21228444.400-smart-guide-to-2012-huma
ns-chimeric-origins.html]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - 23 December 2011 ---

*** NEWS

... America's Lost City [New excavations reveal surprising dimensions to
North America's oldest city and its great earthen monuments]
[http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/334/6063/1618]

... Does North America Hold the Roots of Mesoamerican Civilization? [Ancient
settlements in what is now Louisiana may have laid the foundation not only
for the great city of Cahokia but perhaps also for Mesoamerican
civilization] [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/334/6063/1620]

... Preserving History, One Hill at a Time [A handful of scientists are
scrambling to preserve what they can of pre-Columbian North American mounds
and prevent further destruction of structures that hold vital clues to
ancient Native American society]
[http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/334/6063/1623]

*** ARTICLES

... GREG MILLER - New Hope for a Devastating Neurological Disorder
[Scientists have identified a drug that, in mice, fixes the genetic defect
behind Angelman syndrome, which robs victims of speech and leaves them with
intellectual disabilities, movement and balance problems]
[http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/334/6063/1615]

... EÖRS SZATHMÁRY - To Group or Not to Group? [The benefits of cooperation
can drive the evolution of a population structure that supports cooperative
behaviour] [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/334/6063/1648]

*** PAPERS

... DAMIAN SCARF et al - Pigeons on Par with Primates in Numerical
Competence ["Although many animals are able to discriminate stimuli
differing in numerosity, only primates are thought to share our ability to
employ abstract numerical rules. Here, we show that this ability is present
in pigeons and that their performance is indistinguishable from that
displayed by monkeys"]
[http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6063/1664.short]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - 22 December 2011 ---

*** NEWS

... SADAF SHADAN - Psychology: Who needs a leader? [experienced people
synchronise better without a leader; but novices learn better with a leader]
[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v480/n7378/full/480463b.html?WT.ec_id=
NATURE-20111222]

*** PAPERS

... ENNO SCHEFUß et al - Forcing of wet phases in southeast Africa over the
past 17,000 years ["Here we show that remote atmospheric forcing by cold
events in the northern high latitudes appears to have been the main driver
of hydro-climatology in southeast Africa during rapid climate changes over
the past 17,000 years"]
[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v480/n7378/full/nature10685.html?WT.ec
_id=NATURE-20111222]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 21 December 2011 ---

*** PAPERS

... YEN-SHENG CHIANG & NOBUYUKI TAKAHASHI - Network Homophily and the
Evolution of the Pay-It-Forward Reciprocity ["We develop an evolutionary
dynamics model to investigate how network homophily influences the evolution
of the pay-it-forward reciprocity. Manipulating the extent to which actors
carrying the same behavioral trait are linked in networks, the computer
simulation model shows that strong network homophily helps consolidate the
adaptive advantage of cooperation, yet introducing some heterophily to the
formation of network helps advance cooperation's scale further "]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029188]

... SCOTT C FEARS et al - Anatomic Brain Asymmetry in Vervet Monkeys ["In
this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry
measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old
World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to
estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and
environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level
bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about
30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence
the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0028243]

... XIN WANG et al - Special Agents Can Promote Cooperation in the
Population ["In this paper, numerical experiments show that complete
population interaction is unfriendly to cooperation in the finite but
end-unknown Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (RPD). Then a mechanism called soft
control is proposed to promote cooperation. According to the basic idea of
soft control, a number of special agents are introduced to intervene in the
evolution of cooperation. They comply with play rules in the original group
so that they are always treated as normal agents. For our purpose, these
special agents have their own strategies and share knowledge. The capability
of the mechanism is studied under different settings. We find that soft
control can promote cooperation and is robust to noise"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029182]

... DANIEL B M HAUN et al - Great Apes' Risk-Taking Strategies in a Decision
Making Task ["We investigate decision-making behaviour in all four non-human
great ape species. Apes chose between a safe and a risky option across
trials of varying expected values. All species chose the safe option more
often with decreasing probability of success. While all species were
risk-seeking, orangutans and chimpanzees chose the risky option more often
than gorillas and bonobos. Hence all four species' preferences were ordered
in a manner consistent with normative dictates of expected value, but varied
predictably in their willingness to take risks"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0028801]

... TIMO STEIN et al - Adults' Awareness of Faces Follows Newborns' Looking
Preferences ["We used continuous flash suppression (CFS), a variant of
binocular rivalry, to render stimuli invisible at the beginning of each
trial and measured the time upright and inverted stimuli needed to overcome
such interocular suppression. Critically, specific stimulus properties
previously shown to modulate looking preferences in neonates similarly
modulated adults' awareness of faces presented during CFS. First, the
advantage of upright faces in overcoming CFS was strongly modulated by
contrast polarity and direction of illumination. Second, schematic patterns
consisting of three dark blobs were suppressed for shorter durations when
the arrangement of these blobs respected the face-like configuration of the
eyes and the mouth, and this effect was modulated by contrast polarity. No
such effects were obtained in a binocular control experiment not involving
CFS, suggesting a crucial role for face-sensitive mechanisms operating
outside of conscious awareness"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029361]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 20 December 2011 ---

*** PAPERS

... CATHERINE WACONGNE et al - Evidence for a hierarchy of predictions and
prediction errors in human cortex ["participants listened to frequent series
of four identical tones followed by a fifth different tone, which generates
a mismatch response. Because this response itself is frequent and expected,
the hierarchical predictive coding hypothesis suggests that it should be
cancelled out by a higher-order prediction. Three consequences ensue. First,
the mismatch response should be larger when it is unexpected than when it is
expected. Second, a perfectly monotonic sequence of five identical tones
should now elicit a higher-order novelty response. Third, omitting the fifth
tone should reveal the brain's hierarchical predictions. The rationale here
is that, when a deviant tone is expected, its omission represents a
violation of two expectations: a local prediction of a tone plus a
hierarchically higher expectation of its deviancy. Thus, such an omission
should induce a greater prediction error than when a standard tone is
expected. Simultaneous EEE- magnetoencephalographic recordings verify those
predictions and thus strongly support the predictive coding hypothesis.
Higher-order predictions appear to be generated in multiple areas of frontal
and associative cortices"]
[http://www.pnas.org/content/108/51/20754.abstract]

... JONATHAN F DONGES et al - Nonlinear detection of
paleoclimate-variability transitions possibly related to human evolution
["Our method enables us to identify three epochs with transitions between
qualitatively different types of environmental variability in North and East
Africa during the (i) Middle Pliocene (3.35–3.15 Ma B.P.), (ii) Early
Pleistocene (2.25–1.6 Ma B.P.), and (iii) Middle Pleistocene (1.1–0.7 Ma
B.P.). A deeper examination of these transition periods reveals potential
climatic drivers, including (i) large-scale changes in ocean currents due to
a spatial shift of the Indonesian throughflow in combination with an
intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, (ii) a global
reorganization of the atmospheric Walker circulation induced in the tropical
Pacific and Indian Ocean, and (iii) shifts in the dominating temporal
variability pattern of glacial activity during the Middle Pleistocene,
respectively. A reexamination of the available fossil record demonstrates
statistically significant coincidences between the detected transition
periods and major steps in hominin evolution"]
[http://www.pnas.org/content/108/51/20422.abstract]

... VERA U LUDWIG et al - Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and
high pitch are shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans ["Humans
share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for
example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter
colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia,
people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual
degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds) ... Rather than being a culturally
learned or a linguistic phenomenon, this mapping constitutes a basic feature
of the primate sensory system"]
[http://www.pnas.org/content/108/51/20661.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Biolinguistics - Fall 2011 ---

*** ARTICLES

... TAO GONG & CHRISTOPHE COUPÉ - A Report on the Workshop on Complexity in
Language: Developmental and Evolutionary Perspectives [Report from the
workshop on Complexity in Language: Developmental and Evolutionary
Perspectives on 23–24 May 2011]
[http://www.biolinguistics.eu/index.php/biolinguistics/article/view/210/235]

*** REVIEWS

... LIZ S SWAN - Signs Pointing in a New Direction: A Biosemiotic Framework
for Biolinguistics [Review of 'Essential Readings in Biosemiotics: Anthology
and Commentary' by Donald Favareau]
[http://www.biolinguistics.eu/index.php/biolinguistics/article/view/219/236]
by

*** PAPERS

... LLUÍS BARCELÓ-COBLIJN - A Biolinguistic Approach to the Vocalizations of
H. Neanderthalensis and the Genus Homo ["This paper revisits the old
question about the possibilities and aptitudes H. neanderthalensis had for
vocalization. New evidence will be discussed that moves the discussion
beyond traditional interest in the presence and interpretation of the fossil
record and its comparison with the closest species to H. sapiens, like
chimpanzees and gorillas. An interdisciplinary perspective on the analysis
coupled with information gathered from neuropsychology, genetics, and
comparative psychology will prove useful for obtaining a new vision in
biolinguistics, so that neurocognitive activity becomes important thanks,
above all, to the comparison with other species. Finally, it will be argued
that it is still plausible to accept the hypothesis on the formation of a
vocal capacity prior to the cognitive faculty of language, and independent
of it, so that Neandertals were probably able of vocalizing voluntarily,
with communicative intentions and in a sophisticated way"]
[http://www.biolinguistics.eu/index.php/biolinguistics/article/view/188]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sun Jan 01, 2012 11:08 am

AlgisKuliukas wrote:Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allowing the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:

- SCIAM NEWS - The Hidden Logic of Deception
- SCIAM NEWS - Toddlers Don't Monitor Their Own Speech
- SCIAM NEWS - A Paleontologist Answers Reader Questions about New Early
Human Fossils

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
- New Scientist - No issue this week
- Science - No issue this week
- Nature - No issue this week
- PLOS One - 28 December 2011
- PNAS - 27 December 2011

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - The Hidden Logic of Deception ---

Prominent biologist Robert Trivers probes the deep origins of deceit and
offers a solution to the Darwinian paradox of self-deception
http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... ption&WT.m
c_id=SA_CAT_MB_20111228

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Toddlers Don't Monitor Their Own Speech ---

Adults and children hear their own voice and use it as feedback to monitor
their speech, but it seems that young toddlers do not.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/podca ... B_20111228

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - A Paleontologist Answers Reader Questions about New Early
Human Fossils ---

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/obs ... O_20111227

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - No issue this week ---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - No issue this week ---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - No issue this week ---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - No issue this week ---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 28 December 2011 ---

*** PAPERS

... RONGJUN YU et al - Rapid Processing of Both Reward Probability and
Reward Uncertainty in the Human Anterior Cingulate Cortex ["Several lines of
evidence have suggested that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an
important role in reward processing. What is lacking is a quantitative
analysis of the encoding of reward probability and uncertainty in the human
ACC. In this study, we addressed this issue by analyzing the
feedback-related negativity (FRN), an event-related potential (ERP)
component that reflects the ACC activity, in a simple gambling task in which
reward probability and uncertainty were parametrically manipulated through
predicting cues. Results showed that at the outcome evaluation phase, while
both win and loss-related FRN amplitudes increased as the probability of win
or loss decreased, only the win-related FRN was modulated by reward
uncertainty"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029633]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 27 December 2011 ---

*** PAPERS

... THOMAS N HEADLAND & HARRY W GREENE - Hunter–gatherers and other primates
as prey, predators, and competitors of snakes ["Here, we report ethnographic
observations of 120 Philippine Agta Negritos when they were still
preliterate hunter–gatherers, among whom 26% of adult males had survived
predation attempts by reticulated pythons. Six fatal attacks occurred
between 1934 and 1973. Agta ate pythons as well as deer, wild pigs, and
monkeys, which are also eaten by pythons, and therefore, the two species
were reciprocally prey, predators, and potential competitors. Natural
history data document snake predation on tree shrews and 26 species of
nonhuman primates as well as many species of primates approaching, mobbing,
killing, and sometimes eating snakes. These findings, interpreted within the
context of snake and primate phylogenies, corroborate the hypothesis that
complex ecological interactions have long characterized our shared
evolutionary history"] abstract

... GRAEME D RUXTON & DAVID M WILKINSON - Avoidance of overheating and
selection for both hair loss and bipedality in hominins ["Our model
predictions suggest that upright stance probably evolved for
nonthermoregulatory reasons. However, the thermoregulatory explanation for
hair loss was supported. Specifically, we postulate progressive hair loss
being selected and this allowing individuals to be active in hot, open
environments initially around dusk and dawn without overheating. Then, as
our ancestors’ hair loss increased and sweating ability improved over
evolutionary time, the fraction of the day when they could remain active in
such environments extended"]
abstract

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jan 09, 2012 7:17 am

[quote="AlgisKuliukas"]Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allow the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

The Evolutionary Anthropology Online Research Cluster has been in existence since June 2003, when Helena Tuzinska suggested to Chris Knight that a regular newsletter would be useful to unite what was then the Sex Strike Theory (SST) group. Martin Edwardes started producing a weekly newsletter, and it has published every week since.

The emphasis of EAORC has moved away from just SST, and it now encompasses a wide community of researchers into human origins: anthropologists, archaeologists, animal researchers, neuroscientists and linguists. The weekly newsletter attempts to list all relevant papers from a range of publications. It cannot be exhaustive, but it does cover the main scientific journals.

Martin Edwardes was awarded a PhD in the Origins of Grammar in 2007, and is currently semi-retired. He is a visiting lecturer in psycholinguistics at King’s College London.

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.


---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:

- SCIENCENOW - In the Eyes of a Dog
- SCIAM NEWS - Common Brain Mechanisms Underlie Supernatural Perceptions
(Preview)
- SCIAM NEWS - What Hand You Favor Shapes Your Moral Space
- CONFERENCE - Call for papers - Anthropology in the World Conference

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
- New Scientist - 7 January 2012
- Science - 6 January 2012
- Nature - 5 January 2012
- PLOS One - 4 January 2012
- PNAS - 3 January 2012

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIENCENOW - In the Eyes of a Dog ---

Domesticated canines are as good as human babies at following a person's
gaze
http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/01/in-the-eyes-of-a-dog.html?ref=em&elq=50ea61a14a3848b18565b5de1bf5307f

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Common Brain Mechanisms Underlie Supernatural Perceptions
(Preview) ---

Belief in the paranormal arises from the same brain mechanisms that shape
most human thought
By Richard Wiseman
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=wired-for-weird&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_MB_20120104

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - What Hand You Favor Shapes Your Moral Space ---

Being right- or left-handed affects your psychology in many ways, recent
research shows
By Mandira Hegde and Andrew Il Yang
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=what-hand-you-favor-shapes-moral-space&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_MB_20120104

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- CONFERENCE - Call for papers - Anthropology in the World Conference ---
T
he Call for Papers is now open. It will close on 16 January 2012.
Please browse the full list of panels
[http://www.nomadit.co.uk/rai/events/rai2012/panels.php5] and decide where
to propose your paper. All proposals must be made via the online form
[http://www.nomadit.co.uk/rai/events/rai2012/panels.php5].
Proposals should consist of a paper title, a (very) short abstract of <300
characters, and an abstract of 250 words. On submission of the proposal, the
proposing author (but not any co-authors listed) will receive an automated
email confirming receipt. If you do not receive this email, please first
check the login environment (click login on the left) to see if your
proposal is there. If it is, it simply means your confirmation email got
spammed/lost; and if it is not, it means you need to re-submit, as the
process went wrong somewhere!
Proposals will be marked as pending until the end of the Call for papers.
Convenors will then be asked to make their decisions over the papers
proposed to their workshop by 23 January 2012 and to communicate those to
the proposers, marking them up within the login environment (Cocoa). Papers
which are neither accepted nor rejected, but marked for 'transfer', will
then be considered by the Conference Committee to see where else they might
fit in the conference programme. There is no guarantee that such papers can
be re-housed. We aim to resolve all transfers by 24 February 2012.

OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION FOR AFTER YOU'VE PROPOSED YOUR PAPER
Paper authors can use the login link in the menu on the left to edit their
proposals. Co-authors cannot be added/removed nor can papers be withdrawn
through this environment - please email admin@therai.org.uk to do this.

PRE-CIRCULATION OF PAPERS
RAI has no rule about this; however many convenors are keen to pre-circulate
completed papers. To facilitate this and save on loads of email traffic,
authors can upload PDFs of their papers within Cocoa, which will then show
as a downloadable file beneath their abstract on the public workshop page on
this site. It is your choice whether you instruct your presenters to make
use of this.

TIMING OF PRESENTATIONS
Convenors are reasonably free to run their sessions as they like, but the
norm is to allot each presenter a maximum of 20 minutes (for presentation
and questions/discussion). The key is to respect the fact that many
presenters have travelled a long way in order to be able to contribute and
clearly need time to set out their argument.
We are unable to represent specific intra-workshop timings in our programme.
Delegates reading the conference book will have to work on the assumption
that papers will be evenly distributed through the workshop. Clearly you may
wish to amalgamate discussion time, but where possible please try to stick
to this even distribution.

COMMUNICATION BETWEEN AUTHORS/CONVENORS
Convenor/author email addresses are not shown on the workshop pages for
anti-spam reasons. However there is an in-built secure email messaging
system. If you cannot work that, please email admin@therai.org.uk to obtain
relevant email addresses.
Any queries with the above please email admin@therai.org.uk.

The Anthropology in the World conference will be held 8th to 10th June 2012
Conference Fee:
Non-Fellow: £170
RAI Member: £150
RAI Fellow: £90
Concessions: £70
RAI Student Fellow: £50

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - No issue this week ---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - 7 January 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... Chimps learn about nature's medicine chest from elders [Senior
chimpanzees appear to show the young 'uns how to recognise plants with
medicinal properties – but the finding is controversial]
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328465.300-chimps-learn-about-natures-medicine-chest-from-elders.html

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - 6 January 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... JEREMY E NIVEN - How Honeybees Break a Decision-Making Deadlock [During
the search for a new nest site, use of an inhibitory signal enables
honeybees to reach a decision]
[url=http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/335/6064/43[/url]*** PAPERS

... THOMAS D SEELEY et al - Stop Signals Provide Cross Inhibition in
Collective Decision-Making by Honeybee Swarms ["Honeybee swarms and complex
brains show many parallels in how they make decisions. In both, separate
populations of units (bees or neurons) integrate noisy evidence for
alternatives, and, when one population exceeds a threshold, the alternative
it represents is chosen. We show that a key feature of a brain — cross
inhibition between the evidence-accumulating populations — also exists in a
swarm as it chooses its nesting site. Nest-site scouts send inhibitory stop
signals to other scouts producing waggle dances, causing them to cease
dancing, and each scout targets scouts’ reporting sites other than her own.
An analytic model shows that cross inhibition between populations of scout
bees increases the reliability of swarm decision-making by solving the
problem of deadlock over equal sites"]
[url]http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/335/6064/108[/url]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - 5 January 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 4 January 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 3 January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... TÁBITA HÜNEMEIER et al - Cultural diversification promotes rapid
phenotypic evolution in Xavánte Indians ["Here we show that quantitative
genetic parameters obtained from cephalometric data taken on 1,203
individuals analyzed in combination with genetic, climatic, social, and
life-history data belonging to six South Amerindian populations are
compatible with a scenario of rapid genetic and phenotypic evolution,
probably mediated by cultural shifts. We found that the Xavánte experienced
a remarkable pace of evolution: the rate of morphological change is far
greater than expected for its time of split from their sister group, the
Kayapó, which occurred around 1,500 y ago"]
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/1/73.abstract
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jan 16, 2012 9:55 am

Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allow the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

The Evolutionary Anthropology Online Research Cluster has been in existence since June 2003, when Helena Tuzinska suggested to Chris Knight that a regular newsletter would be useful to unite what was then the Sex Strike Theory (SST) group. Martin Edwardes started producing a weekly newsletter, and it has published every week since.

The emphasis of EAORC has moved away from just SST, and it now encompasses a wide community of researchers into human origins: anthropologists, archaeologists, animal researchers, neuroscientists and linguists. The weekly newsletter attempts to list all relevant papers from a range of publications. It cannot be exhaustive, but it does cover the main scientific journals.

Martin Edwardes was awarded a PhD in the Origins of Grammar in 2007, and is currently semi-retired. He is a visiting lecturer in psycholinguistics at King’s College London.

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:

- SCIAM NEWS - Self-deception - is the theory self-deception?
- SCIAM NEWS - The Case of the Missing Polygamists
- SCIAM NEWS - Voter Turnout Is Tied to Sense of Identity

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 22 February 2012
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - 19 February 2012
- New Scientist - 14 January 2012
- Science - 13 January 2012
- Nature - 12 January 2012
- PLOS One - 11 January 2012
- PNAS - 10 January 2012
- PLOS Genetics - 12 January 2012

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Self-deception - is the theory self-deception? ---

Is Robert Trivers Deceiving Himself about Evolutionary Psychology's Flaws?
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/2012/01/06/is-robert-trivers-deceiving-himself-about-evolutionary-psychologys-flaws/?WT_mc_id=SA_CAT_EVO_20120109

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - The Case of the Missing Polygamists ---

"Following the trail of clues available researchers have independently
concluded that humans evolved through systems of monogamy, polygamy, as well
as polyamory. However, only one can be the culprit. Like a detective
interrogating multiple suspects, the solution ultimately depends on which
account you’re willing to believe." {Is that, only one at a time can be the
culprit, or one for all time?}
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/primate-diaries/2012/01/06/case-of-the-missing-polygamists/?WT_mc_id=SA_CAT_EVO_20120109

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Voter Turnout Is Tied to Sense of Identity ---

A change to the question on a survey changes the behaviour of those surveyed
- Austin's performatives in action
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=get-out-the-vote&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_MB_20120115

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 22 February 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... T J H MORGAN et al - The evolutionary basis of human social learning
["Recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour
adaptive learning strategies, but relevant empirical work is scarce and
rarely examines multiple strategies or tasks. We tested nine hypotheses
derived from theoretical models, running a series of experiments
investigating factors affecting when and how humans use social information,
and whether such behaviour is adaptive, across several computer-based tasks.
The number of demonstrators, consensus among demonstrators, confidence of
subjects, task difficulty, number of sessions, cost of asocial learning,
subject performance and demonstrator performance all influenced subjects'
use of social information, and did so adaptively"]
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1729/653.abstract

... RICHARD COOK et al - Self-recognition of avatar motion: how do I know
it's me? ["Our first experiment provides evidence that recognition of
self-produced and friends' motion dissociate, with only the latter showing
sensitivity to orientation. Through the use of selectively disrupted avatar
motion, our second experiment shows that self-recognition of facial motion
is mediated by knowledge of the local temporal characteristics of one's own
actions"]
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1729/669.abstract

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - 19 February 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - 14 January 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... THOMAS WYNN & FREDERICK L COOLIDGE - Into the mind of a Neanderthal
[What would have made them laugh? Or cry? Did they love home more than we
do?]
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328470.400-into-the-mind-of-a-neanderthal.html

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - 13 January 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... The Peopling of the Aleutians [Few Aleuts still live in their ancestral
homeland, but their genetics and archaeology offer a rare glimpse into one
of humanity's last great migrations-and into the mysterious peopling of the
Americas] http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/335/6065/158

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - 12 January 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... Cognition: Your face looks familiar [Paper wasps of the species Polistes
fuscatus live in strict hierarchical societies in which the ability to
identify superiors and subordinates is crucial. Like humans, these insects
have a cognitive tool kit for recognizing familiar faces]
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7380/full/481154a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120112

... Colour vision aids the hunt [Primates with three types of colour
receptor in their eyes capture more insect prey than those whose eyes have
two. But the latter are not without advantage — they are better at detecting
and catching camouflaged prey]
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7380/full/481116a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120112

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 11 January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... ANTOINE BALZEAU et al - Shared Pattern of Endocranial Shape Asymmetries
among Great Apes, Anatomically Modern Humans, and Fossil Hominins ["We
indeed demonstrate the presence of shape asymmetries in great apes, with a
pattern similar to modern humans but with a lower variation and a lower
degree of fluctuating asymmetry. More importantly, variations in the
position of the frontal and occipital poles on the right and left
hemispheres would be expected to show some degree of antisymmetry when
population distribution is considered, but the observed pattern of variation
among the samples is related to fluctuating asymmetry for most of the
components of the petalias. Moreover, the presence of a common pattern of
significant directional asymmetry for two components of the petalias in
hominids implicates that the observed traits were probably inherited from
the last common ancestor of extant African great apes and Homo sapiens"]
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029581

... ERINA HARA et al - Convergent Differential Regulation of Parvalbumin in
the Brains of Vocal Learners ["Here we used oligo microarrays to screen for
genes differentially regulated in brain nuclei necessary for producing
learned vocalizations relative to adjacent brain areas that control other
behaviors in avian vocal learners versus vocal non-learners. A top candidate
gene in our screen was a calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). In situ
hybridization verification revealed that PV was expressed significantly
higher throughout the song motor pathway, including brainstem vocal motor
neurons relative to the surrounding brain regions of all distantly related
avian vocal learners. This differential expression was specific to PV and
vocal learners, as it was not found in avian vocal non-learners nor for
control genes in learners and non-learners. Similar to the vocal learning
birds, higher PV up-regulation was found in the brainstem tongue motor
neurons used for speech production in humans relative to a non-human
primate, macaques"]
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029457

... XIAO-DONG WANG et al - Preattentive Extraction of Abstract Auditory
Rules in Speech Sound Stream: A Mismatch Negativity Study Using Lexical
Tones ["We chose Chinese lexical tones for the current study because they
help to define word meaning and hence facilitate the fabrication of an
abstract auditory rule in a speech sound stream. We continuously presented
native Chinese speakers with Chinese vowels differing in formant, intensity,
and level of pitch to construct a complex and varying auditory stream. In
this stream, most of the sounds shared flat lexical tones to form an
embedded abstract auditory rule. Occasionally the rule was randomly violated
by those with a rising or falling lexical tone. The results showed that the
violation of the abstract auditory rule of lexical tones evoked a robust
preattentive auditory response, as revealed by whole-head electrical
recordings of the mismatch negativity (MMN), though none of the subjects
acquired explicit knowledge of the rule or became aware of the violation"]
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030027

... MUHAMMAD FARID ABDUL-RAHMAN et al - Arcuate Fasciculus Abnormalities and
Their Relationship with Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia ["We examined
white matter changes (fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD),
asymmetry indices) along the whole extent of the AF and their relationship
with psychotic symptoms in 32 males with schizophrenia and 44 healthy males.
Large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping and Fiber Assignment
Continuous Tracking were employed to characterize FA and AD along the
geometric curve of the AF. Our results showed that patients with
schizophrenia had lower FA in the frontal aspects of the left AF compared
with healthy controls. Greater left FA and AD lateralization in the temporal
segment of AF were associated with more severe positive psychotic symptoms
such as delusions and hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia"]
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029315

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 10 January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... CHRISTIAN N BRINCH & TARYN ANN GALLOWAY - Schooling in adolescence
raises IQ scores ["Although some scholars maintain that education has little
effect on intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, others claim that IQ scores are
indeed malleable, primarily through intervention in early childhood. The
causal effect of education on IQ at later ages is often difficult to uncover
because analyses based on observational data are plagued by problems of
reverse causation and self-selection into further education. We exploit a
reform that increased compulsory schooling from 7 to 9 y in Norway in the
1960s to estimate the effect of education on IQ. We find that this schooling
reform, which primarily affected education in the middle teenage years, had
a substantial effect on IQ scores measured at the age of 19 y."]
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/2/425.abstract

... MARGARET CHATHAM CROFOOT & IAN C GILBY - Cheating monkeys undermine
group strength in enemy territory ["Although numerical superiority is
assumed to provide a competitive advantage, small groups can generally
defend their ranges, even when greatly outnumbered. The prevailing
explanation for this puzzling phenomenon is that individuals in relatively
large groups experience a greater temptation to flee from conflicts, in
effect leveling the balance of power. Using playback experiments simulating
territorial intrusions by wild capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) groups, we
show that such a collective action problem does indeed undermine the
competitive ability of large groups"]
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/2/501.abstract

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS Genetics - 12 January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... BRENNA M HENN et al - Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports
Back-to-Africa Migrations ["Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of
North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from
the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity.
We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping array data (730,000 sites) from
seven North African populations, spanning from Egypt to Morocco, and one
Spanish population. We identify a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi
ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa; this
ancestry is likely derived from “back-to-Africa” gene flow more than 12,000
years ago (ya), prior to the Holocene. The indigenous North African ancestry
is more frequent in populations with historical Berber ethnicity. In most
North African populations we also see substantial shared ancestry with the
Near East, and to a lesser extent sub-Saharan Africa and Europe"]
http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002397
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sun Jan 22, 2012 10:32 pm

# 449

Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allow the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

The Evolutionary Anthropology Online Research Cluster has been in existence since June 2003, when Helena Tuzinska suggested to Chris Knight that a regular newsletter would be useful to unite what was then the Sex Strike Theory (SST) group. Martin Edwardes started producing a weekly newsletter, and it has published every week since.

The emphasis of EAORC has moved away from just SST, and it now encompasses a wide community of researchers into human origins: anthropologists, archaeologists, animal researchers, neuroscientists and linguists. The weekly newsletter attempts to list all relevant papers from a range of publications. It cannot be exhaustive, but it does cover the main scientific journals.

Martin Edwardes was awarded a PhD in the Origins of Grammar in 2007, and is currently semi-retired. He is a visiting lecturer in psycholinguistics at King’s College London.

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.


---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:

- SCIAM NEWS - Hey, Did You Hear? ...Why We Don't Listen
- SCIAM NEWS - Infants Possess Intermingled Senses
- FREE - Anthropology journals at the British Library

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - NO ISSUE THIS WEEK
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - NO ISSUE THIS WEEK
- New Scientist - 21 January 2012
- Science - 20 January 2012
- Nature - 19 January 2012
- PLOS One - 18 January 2012
- PNAS - 17 January 2012
- PLOS Genetics - 16 January 2012
- American Scientist - January/February 2012
- Scientific American - February 2012

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Hey, Did You Hear? ...Why We Don't Listen ---

Researchers have demonstrated for the first time a phenomenon known as
inattentional deafness
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/gue ... B_20120118

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Infants Possess Intermingled Senses ---

Babies are born with their senses linked in synesthesia
http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20120118

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- FREE - Anthropology journals at the British Library ---

The Centre of Anthropology has been given an enormous collection of
anthropology journals and rather than throw away the duplicates (which have
no attraction for second-hand book-dealers) would like to offer them to
anyone who is interested.

From 9.00am – 12 noon on Thursday January 26th a table will be outside the
Centre for Anthropology (which will be closed at that time) and all are
welcome to take whatever is of interest. At 12 noon anything left will be
gathered up and send to recycling – we hope that there will be very little
to recycle.

Contact:
Jan Ayres
Senior Librarian
The British Museum
020 7323 8069
JAyres@thebritishmuseum.ac.uk

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - NO ISSUE THIS WEEK ---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - NO ISSUE THIS WEEK
---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - 21 January 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... Vegetarian orang-utans eat world's cutest animal [When fruit is scarce,
times are tough for Sumatran orang-utans. Some have adopted an unusual
coping strategy: hunting slow lorises]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328484.500-vegetarian-orangutans-eat-worlds-cutest-animal.html]

*** ARTICLES

... 'MICHAEL BOND (Interviewer) - Human beings are learning machines,' says
philosopher [Prevailing wisdom holds that we are born with an innate
understanding of the world. No, argues Jesse Prinz: we learn a lot of it for
ourselves]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328480.400-human-beings-are-learning-machines-says-philosopher.html]

... MICHAEL CHOROST - One-way evolution: The ladder of life makes a comeback
[The concept of progress has been purged from evolutionary theory. Is it
time to let it back in?]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328481.900-oneway-evolution-the-ladder-of-life-makes-a-comeback.html]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - 20 January 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... BARTON L ANDERSON - Bird-Brained Illusionists [The bowers constructed by
great bowerbirds to attract mates create optical size and distance
illusions] [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/335/6066/292]

*** PAPERS

... LAURA A KELLEY et al - Illusions Promote Mating Success in Great
Bowerbirds [Males that are more successful at tricking female senses mate
more often] [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/335/6066/335]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - 19 January 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... Evolution: Social life shapes primate faces ["Living near a greater
number of related species ... contributes to facial diversity, regardless of
group size"]
[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7381/full/481240a.html?WT.ec_id=
NATURE-20120119]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 18 January 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 17 January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... SALLY ARCHIBALD et al - Evolution of human-driven fire regimes in Africa
["Much emphasis has been placed on the positive effect of population density
on ignition frequency, but our model suggests this is less important than
changes in fire spread and connectivity that would have occurred as humans
learned to light fires in the dry season and to transform the landscape
through grazing and cultivation. Different landscapes show different
limitations; we show that substantial human impacts on burned area would
only have started ∼4,000 B.P. in open landscapes, whereas they could have
altered fire regimes in closed/dissected landscapes by ∼40,000 B.P."]
[http://www.pnas.org/content/109/3/847.abstract]

... STEFFEN WISCHMANN et al - Historical contingency affects signaling
strategies and competitive abilities in evolving populations of simulated
robots ["By conducting experimental evolution in 20 independently evolving
populations of cooperatively foraging simulated robots, we found that
historical contingency in the occurrence order of novel phenotypic traits
resulted in the emergence of two distinct communication strategies. The more
complex foraging strategy was less efficient than the simpler strategy.
However, when the 20 populations were placed in competition with each other,
the populations with the more complex strategy outperformed the populations
with the less complex strategy"]
[http://www.pnas.org/content/109/3/864.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- American Scientist - January/February 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... ROBERT L DORIT - Rereading Darwin [Darwin, like Kelvin and many of his
contemporaries, had problems accepting that the Universe was measured in
billions of years, while human existence was in mere hundreds of thousands.
Why did God create a Universe to create Man, when we are a mere tick of the
clock?]

... B F SKINNER - The Experimental Analysis of Behavior ["For a long time
men of good will have tried to improve the cultural patterns in which they
live. It is possible that a scientific analysis of behavior will provide us
at last with the techniques we need for this task - with the wisdom we need
to build a better world, and through it better men"]

STEPHEN F LEDOUX - Behaviorism at 100 [Over its second 50 years, the study
of behavior evolved to become a discipline. Behaviorology, independent of
psychology]

*** REVIEWS

... GREG LADEN - Two journies through the human past [reviews of "Born in
Africa: the quest for the origins of human life" by Martin Meredith and "The
Fossil Chronicles: how two controversial discoveries changed our view of
human evolution" by Dean Falk]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Scientific American - February 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... Just a click away [Sounds associated with African languages play a
larger role in English than previously thought]

... Mom is my wingman [male monkeys who live at home have more luck with
females]

*** ARTICLES

... MICHAEL SHERMER - Lies we tell ourselves: How deception leads to
self-deception [Is Robert Trivers' new theory (that we deceive ourselves in
order to more effectively deceive others) plausible or self-deception?]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jan 30, 2012 10:37 pm

#450

Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allow the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

The Evolutionary Anthropology Online Research Cluster has been in existence since June 2003, when Helena Tuzinska suggested to Chris Knight that a regular newsletter would be useful to unite what was then the Sex Strike Theory (SST) group. Martin Edwardes started producing a weekly newsletter, and it has published every week since.

The emphasis of EAORC has moved away from just SST, and it now encompasses a wide community of researchers into human origins: anthropologists, archaeologists, animal researchers, neuroscientists and linguists. The weekly newsletter attempts to list all relevant papers from a range of publications. It cannot be exhaustive, but it does cover the main scientific journals.

Martin Edwardes was awarded a PhD in the Origins of Grammar in 2007, and is currently semi-retired. He is a visiting lecturer in psycholinguistics at King’s College London.

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.


---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:

- SCIAM NEWS - The Power of Introverts: A Manifesto for Quiet Brilliance
- SCIAM NEWS - Stuttering Reflects Irregularities in Brain Setup
- SCIAM NEWS - Get Over It: Men and Women Are from the Same Planet
- CONFERENCE - Learning by Example: Building Arguments Ethnographically
- CONFERENCE - 5th FPR-UCLA Interdisciplinary Conference

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 7 March 2012
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - 5 March 2012
- New Scientist - 28 January 2012
- Science - 27 January 2012
- Nature - 26 January 2012
- PLOS One - 25 January 2012
- PNAS - 24 January 2012
- Animal Behaviour - February 2012

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - The Power of Introverts: A Manifesto for Quiet Brilliance
---

Author Susan Cain explains the fallacy of "groupwork," and points to
research showing that it can reduce creativity and productivity
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-power-of-introverts&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_MB_20120125

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Stuttering Reflects Irregularities in Brain Setup ---

A stutter indicates a massive change in brain wiring that affects more than
just speech
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-stuttering-brain&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_MB_20120125

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Get Over It: Men and Women Are from the Same Planet ---

Recent publication in PLoS ONE by psychologist Del Giudici and colleagues
has reignited the debate about just how “naturally” different men and women
are.[url]
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/gue ... O_20120123[/url]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- CONFERENCE - Learning by Example: Building Arguments Ethnographically
---

One-day workshop organized in conjunction with Teaching Anthropology, a
journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.
http://www.teachinganthropology.org
16th April 2012
Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford
Keynote speaker: Professor Tim Ingold (University of Aberdeen)
Workshop organizer: Ivan Costantino (University of Oxford)

This one-day workshop will explore the joys and the challenges for
anthropology teachers and students in their use of ethnographic examples.
The workshop will also investigate diverse ways of teaching anthropology,
including through fieldwork, museums, ‘study tours’ (Russell 2004), and
generally leaving the classroom (Ingold 2004). Contributions are invited to
explore how different instructors (A-level teachers, graduate teaching
assistants, university lecturers and professors) select and use examples in
their teaching and how they assess their students’ understanding and use of
ethnography. Students are invited to contribute with a reflexive
understanding of how they learning to use ethnographic evidence.

ABSTRACTS AND ATTENDANCE FEES:
Please send a title plus an abstract (no longer than 400 words) and author
information to ivan.costantino@anthro.ox.ac.uk by Wednesday 15th February
2012. Selected papers will be included in a special issue of the journal
Teaching Anthropology.

We are keeping the cost of attendance low at £18 for full-time students and
£28 for everyone else to help us cover lunch, refreshments and an afternoon
reception. To reserve a place and arrange payment, please email:
ivan.costantino@anthro.ox.ac.uk

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- CONFERENCE - 5th FPR-UCLA Interdisciplinary Conference ---

Culture, Mind, and Brain: Emerging Concepts, Methods, Applications
October 19–20, 2012
UCLA
Website: http://www.thefpr.org/conference2012/index.php

The aim of this 2-day conference is to highlight emerging concepts,
methodologies and applications in the study of culture, mind, and brain,
with particular attention to: (1) cutting-edge neuroscience research that is
successfully incorporating culture and the social world; (2) the context in
which methods are used as well as the tacit assumptions that shape research
questions; and (3) the kinds and quality of collaborations that can advance
interdisciplinary research training.
The conference is designed to appeal to a wide academic audience of
biologists, neuroscientists, psychologists, anthropologists, sociologists,
epidemiologists, and those in related fields interested in learning about
cutting-edge interdisciplinary research at the intersection of culture,
mind, and brain.

Registration for the conference will open soon. Current registration
information can be found here:
http://www.thefpr.org/conference2012/registration.php

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 7 March 2012 ---

GEORGE B J BUSBY et al - The peopling of Europe and the cautionary tale of Y
chromosome lineage R-M269 ["Recently, the debate on the origins of the major
European Y chromosome haplogroup R1b1b2-M269 has reignited, and opinion has
moved away from Palaeolithic origins to the notion of a younger Neolithic
spread of these chromosomes from the Near East. Here, we address this debate
by investigating frequency patterns and diversity in the largest collection
of R1b1b2-M269 chromosomes yet assembled. Our analysis reveals no
geographical trends in diversity, in contradiction to expectation under the
Neolithic hypothesis, and suggests an alternative explanation for the
apparent cline in diversity recently described"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1730/884.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - 5 March 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... JOSEPH HENRICH et al - The puzzle of monogamous marriage ["monogamous
marriage has spread across Europe, and more recently across the globe, even
as absolute wealth differences have expanded. Here, we develop and explore
the hypothesis that the norms and institutions that compose the modern
package of monogamous marriage have been favoured by cultural evolution
because of their group-beneficial effects—promoting success in inter-group
competition"]
[http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1589/657.abstract]

... MELISSA M MCDONALD et al - Evolution and the psychology of intergroup
conflict: the male warrior hypothesis ["The social science literature
contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism—the tendency
to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat
ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We
hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the
threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by
‘warrior males’ in both ancestral and modern human environments"]
[http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1589/670.abstract]

... MICHELE GELFAND et al - The cultural contagion of conflict ["Anecdotal
evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across
networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural
transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen
as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup
hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in
particular cultural contexts"]
[http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1589/692.abstract]

... KENNETH T KISHIDA et al - Implicit signals in small group settings and
their impact on the expression of cognitive capacity and associated brain
responses ["we investigate neurobehavioural signals manifest in small (n =
5) groups using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a ‘ranked group IQ
task’ where implicit signals of social status are broadcast and
differentiate individuals based on their expression of cognitive capacity.
We report an initial overall decrease in the expression of cognitive
capacity in the small group setting. However, the environment of the ‘ranked
group IQ task’ eventually stratifies the population into two groups (‘high
performers’, HP and ‘low performers’, LP) identifiable based on changes in
estimated intelligence quotient and brain responses in the amygdala and
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex"]
[http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1589/704.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - 28 January 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - 27 January 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... KASPAR MEYER - Another Remembered Present ["Intuition tells us that
perceptual experience—the seamless flow of conscious images of vision,
sound, touch, and so forth—reflects the external world. Accordingly,
information flow along the brain's sensory pathways has been thought to
follow a caudo-rostral direction, away from the ports of entry, toward
integrative cortices in the anterior parts of the frontal and temporal
lobes. However, this view of a unidirectional, “bottom-up” processing
cascade is challenged by findings which suggest that there is also
information transfer in the opposite, “top-down” direction, from association
areas toward early sensory cortices"]
[http://www.sciencemag.org/content/335/6067/415.summary]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - 26 January 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... JOSEPH HENRICH - Social science: Hunter-gatherer cooperation [A study of
social networks in the hunter-gatherer Hadza people in Tanzania illuminates
the evolutionary origins of humans' unique style of cooperation in groups]
[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7382/full/481449a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120126]

*** PAPERS

... COREN L. APICELLA et al - Social networks and cooperation in
hunter-gatherers ["Social networks show striking structural regularities,
and both theory and evidence suggest that networks may have facilitated the
development of large-scale cooperation in humans. Here, we characterize the
social networks of the Hadza, a population of hunter-gatherers in Tanzania.
We show that Hadza networks have important properties also seen in
modernized social networks, including a skewed degree distribution, degree
assortativity, transitivity, reciprocity, geographic decay and homophily"]
[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7382/full/nature10736.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120126]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 25 January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... BRIAN R SPISAK et al - Warriors and Peacekeepers: Testing a Biosocial
Implicit Leadership Hypothesis of Intergroup Relations Using Masculine and
Feminine Faces ["This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership
emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and
contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of
intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership
prototypes"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030399]

... JADA BENN TORRES et al - Y Chromosome Lineages in Men of West African
Descent ["Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other
regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins
of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about
the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we
typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and
central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532
African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91
European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide
support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in
South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to
populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30–40% of the paternal
lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European
ancestry"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029687]

... YUN XUAN et al - Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter
["We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by
analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of
interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component
analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental
stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using
resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared
between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner.
Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in
left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and
bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However,
stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language
reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030570]

... BETHANY C REEB-SUTHERLAND et al - The Predictive Nature of Individual
Differences in Early Associative Learning and Emerging Social Behavior
["Here, we examined whether individual differences in the rate of
associative learning at one month of age is an enduring predictor of social,
imitative, and discriminative behaviors measured across the human infant's
first year. One-month learning rate was predictive of social behaviors at 5,
9, and 12 months of age as well as face-evoked discriminative neural
activity at 9 months of age. Learning was not related to general cognitive
abilities"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030511]

... RAPHAËL FARGIER et al - Grasp It Loudly! Supporting Actions with
Semantically Congruent Spoken Action Words ["The aim of the present study
was to test whether verbalizing during a grasp-to-displace action would
affect motor behaviour and, if so, whether this effect would depend on the
semantic content of the pronounced word (Experiment I). Furthermore, we
sought to test the stability of such effects in a different group of
participants and investigate at which stage of the motor act language
intervenes (Experiment II). For this, participants were asked to reach,
grasp and displace an object while overtly pronouncing verbal descriptions
of the action (“grasp” and “put down”) or unrelated words (e.g. “butterfly”
and “pigeon”).

Fine-grained analyses of several kinematic parameters such as velocity peaks
revealed that when participants produced action-related words their
movements became faster compared to conditions in which they did not
verbalize or in which they produced words that were not related to the
action. These effects likely result from the functional interaction between
semantic retrieval of the words and the planning and programming of the
action"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030663]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 24 January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... LUCA VALORI et al - Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and
short-term collective social behavior ["Here we use a large dataset to
perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands
of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial
ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data
are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive
effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase
transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it
suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups.
Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust
to modifications of the dynamical rules considered"]
[http://www.pnas.org/content/109/4/1068.abstract]

... PATRICK V KIRCH et al - Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated
via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states ["we used nondestructive
energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic
artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui
Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was
followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray
fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain
nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of
which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone
tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity
(27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna
Kea quarry on Hawai‘i Island as well as quarries on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and
Lāna‘i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are
found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual
contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy
based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources
during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states"]
[http://www.pnas.org/content/109/4/1056.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Animal Behaviour - February 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... NICHOLAS J MULCAHY & VERNON HEDGE - Are great apes tested with an abject
object-choice task? ["A surprising finding in comparative social cognition
is that great apes seem to have difficulties understanding others’
communicative behaviour. In no other paradigm is this more evident than in
the object-choice task in which subjects use a human cue, such as pointing,
to infer the correct choice of a reward hidden in one of a number of
containers. Apes often perform poorly in the task whereas many other species
succeed. One popular explanation for this finding is that apes have not
evolved the propensity to understand others’ communicative behaviour because
their social systems are based predominantly on competitive relationships.
We caution against this hypothesis by highlighting recent experimental
evidence that suggests methodological factors are responsible for the apes’
poor performance in object-choice studies. Furthermore, we compared the
methodology and results of 63 published object-choice studies in a range of
animal taxa. We found that the central object-choice method that is only
used with apes and other primates typically results in failure. When,
however, modifications are made to this method or apes are tested with a
peripheral method that is similar to the one used with many other species,
their performance vastly improves. We discuss the significance of this in
relation to past object-choice research and make several recommendations as
to how future research can be improved upon so that apes are tested in a
manner comparable to the testing of other animal species"]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347211005112]

... ZANNA CLAY et al - Food-associated vocalizations in mammals and birds:
what do these calls really mean? ["Alarm calls and food-associated calls
from a diverse range of species are said to be functionally referential, in
that receivers can use these sounds to predict environmental events in the
absence of other contextual cues. The evolutionary driver for referential
alarm calls has been hypothesized to be the mutually incompatible escape
behaviours required to avoid different predators. However, some species
produce acoustically distinctive and referential alarm calls but do not show
highly referential abilities in other domains. We examined whether
food-associated calls in many species are likely to be functionally
referential and whether they specifically communicate about characteristic
features of food"]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347211005471]

... CORY T MILLER & MARK A BEE - Receiver psychology turns 20: is it time
for a broader approach? ["Twenty years ago, a new conceptual paradigm known
as ‘receiver psychology’ was introduced to explain the evolution of animal
communication systems. This paradigm advanced the idea that psychological
processes in the receiver's nervous system influence a signal's
detectability, discriminability and memorability, and thereby serve as
powerful sources of selection shaping signal design. While advancing our
understanding of signal diversity, more recent studies make clear that
receiver psychology, as a paradigm, has been structured too narrowly and
does not incorporate many of the perceptual and cognitive processes of
signal reception that operate between sensory transduction and a receiver's
response"]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347211005173]

*** PAPERS

... EVAN L MACLEAN & BRIAN HARE - Bonobos and chimpanzees infer the target
of another’s attention ["We examined the ability of bonobos, Pan paniscus (N
= 39), and chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes (N = 74), to infer the target of an
experimenter’s visual attention in a series of three experiments. In each
experiment subjects were first introduced to a novel object while an
experimenter’s (E1) visual access to this object was manipulated by (1)
having E1 orient towards or away from the object, (2) positioning a visual
occluder that did or did not block E1’s view of the object, or (3)
substituting a different experimenter for E1 during the introduction phase
of the trial. After subjects were introduced to the objects in one of these
ways, E1 vocalized excitedly while gazing ambiguously towards the previously
introduced target object and a second location on the same visual plane. In
each experiment we measured whether subjects looked at the object or the
alternative target of the E1’s gaze"]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347211004751]

... MATT GROVE - Space, time, and group size: a model of constraints on
primate social foraging ["The ecological constraints hypothesis proposes
that increases in group size will increase intragroup feeding competition,
thus forcing individuals to visit more patches and to cover greater areas
than they would in smaller groups. This paper provides a simple formal model
of this constraint, suggesting that two types of constraint limit group
sizes in this scenario. First, a constraint on time available to reach an
energetic threshold may limit groups to sizes that allow each individual
forager to attain that threshold. Second, the balance of foraging costs to
benefits may curtail group size even in the absence of a temporal
constraint" {the 'other shoe' of Dunbar's theory: groups did not grow to the
maximum size allowed by brains, groups grew to the optimum foraging size,
and brains grew to accommodate the computation needed for large groups}]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347211005033]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sun Feb 05, 2012 9:19 am

#451

Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allowing the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

The Evolutionary Anthropology Online Research Cluster has been in existence since June 2003, when Helena Tuzinska suggested to Chris Knight that a regular newsletter would be useful to unite what was then the Sex Strike Theory (SST) group. Martin Edwardes started producing a weekly newsletter, and it has published every week since.

The emphasis of EAORC has moved away from just SST, and it now encompasses a wide community of researchers into human origins: anthropologists, archaeologists, animal researchers, neuroscientists and linguists. The weekly newsletter attempts to list all relevant papers from a range of publications. It cannot be exhaustive, but it does cover the main scientific journals.

Martin Edwardes was awarded a PhD in the Origins of Grammar in 2007, and is currently semi-retired. He is a visiting lecturer in psycholinguistics at King’s College London.

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.


---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:
- SCIAM NEWS - Brain Likely Encodes the World in 2 Dimensions
- SCIAM NEWS - MIND Reviews: Thinking, Fast and Slow
- SCIAM NEWS - Word-of-Mind: Researchers Decode Words from the Brain's
Auditory Activity
- SCIAM NEWS - Tame Theory: Did Bonobos Domesticate Themselves?
- SCIAM NEWS - On Selfish Genes and Human Behavior
- SCIENCENOW - Human Brains Wire Up Slowly but Surely
- SCIENCENOW - ScienceShot: A Brain Wave Worth a Thousand Words
- WORLDSCIENCE - Frog said to describe its home through song
- WORLDSCIENCE - Arabia identified as key stop in early human migrations
- WORLDSCIENCE - Leftists and rightists found to look at things differently
-- literally
- WORLDSCIENCE - Empathy? It seems we can't even spare it for ourselves
- WORLDSCIENCE - Decisionmaking by great apes found unexpectedly complex
- WORLDSCIENCE - Monkeys pick up local "accents"
- CALL FOR PAPERS - Nature.com scientific reports

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
- New Scientist - 4 February 2012
- Science - 3 February 2012
- Nature - 2 February 2012
- PLOS One - 1 February 2012
- PNAS - 31 January 2012
- PLOS Biology - January 2012
- PLOS Genetics - January 2012
- Current Anthropology - February 2012

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Brain Likely Encodes the World in 2 Dimensions ---

Our internal representation of the world is flat
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=living-in-two-dimensions&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_MB_20120201

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - MIND Reviews: Thinking, Fast and Slow ---

Humans evolved decision-making shortcuts to aid in survival
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=mind-reviews-thinking-fast-and-slow&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_MB_20120201

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Word-of-Mind: Researchers Decode Words from the Brain's
Auditory Activity ---

Interpreting signals from the brain's language-processing center may improve
speech-recognition technology or provide a means for the severely disabled
to communicate
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=word-of-mind-researchers-decode&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_MB_20120201

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Tame Theory: Did Bonobos Domesticate Themselves? ---

A new hypothesis holds that the natural selection produced the chimpanzee's
nicer cousin in much the same way that humans bred dogs from wolves
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=tame-theory-did-bonobos&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_EVO_20120130

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - On Selfish Genes and Human Behavior ---

Response to Trivers:
"Human societies evolve by human cooperation. By the sharing of knowledge
and resources, by the protecting of those more vulnerable, and the slow and
shaky development of general morals. These morals are decisions made by the
society (or occasionally by the one tyrant in charge of the society, but
nothing is perfect) about what behaviours are acceptable. Looking at society
this way isn’t it just as justifiable that cooperation and sharing are the
“natural” human behaviours? That people who cheat are somehow deceiving
themselves into believing that they don’t need society, and have deceived
themselves so well that they believe it?"
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/lab-rat/2012/01/28/on-selfish-genes-and-human-behaviour/?WT_mc_id=SA_CAT_EVO_20120130

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIENCENOW - Human Brains Wire Up Slowly but Surely ---

Unprecedented comparison of chimp and monkey brain genes to our own reveals
drastic differences
http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/02/human-brains-wire-up-slowly-but-.html?ref=em

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIENCENOW - ScienceShot: A Brain Wave Worth a Thousand Words ---

Computer program reconstructs what a person hears based on brain activity
alone
http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/01/scienceshot-a-brain-wave-worth-a.html?ref=em

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- WORLDSCIENCE - Frog said to describe its home through song ---

In its mating calls, a type of frog in China conveys the physical properties
of its burrow, scientists say.
http://www.world-science.net/othernews/111221_emei

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- WORLDSCIENCE - Arabia identified as key stop in early human migrations
---

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/120128_migration

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- WORLDSCIENCE - Leftists and rightists found to look at things
differently -- literally ---

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/120125_eyes

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- WORLDSCIENCE - Empathy? It seems we can't even spare it for ourselves
---

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/120120_empathy

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- WORLDSCIENCE - Decisionmaking by great apes found unexpectedly complex
---

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/111230_apes

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- WORLDSCIENCE - Monkeys pick up local "accents" ---

[url]http://www.world-science.net/othernews/111216_accents
[/url]
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- CALL FOR PAPERS - Nature.com scientific reports ---

Scientific Reports publishes technically sound research that is freely
accessible to everyone. Whatever your field, join the growing number of
authors who are discovering the journal's benefits.

Submit your manuscript or find out more at http://www.nature.com/scientificreports

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - No issue this week ---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - 4 February 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... Telepathy machine reconstructs speech from brainwaves [In what amounts
to technological telepathy, neuroscientists are on the verge of being able
to hear silent speech by monitoring brain activity]
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21408-telepathy-machine-reconstructs-speech-from-brainwaves.html

... Why your team is always the best [You can't help but be biased towards
your favourite team since your brain perceives the actions of your own team
as better than the actions of a rival team]
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328506.000-why-your-team-is-always-the-best.html

*** ARTICLES

... ED YONG - Lost treasures: Peking Man's bones [A crate containing some
the world's most important hominin fossils vanished amid war in 1941 – along
with secrets about the origins of language]
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328502.500-lost-treasures-peking-mans-bones.html

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - 3 February 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - 2 February 2012 ---

*** REVIEWS

... CHRISTOF KOCH - The Connected Self [review of 'Connectome: how the
brain's wiring makes us who we are' by Sebastian Seung]
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7383/full/482031a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120202

*** ARTICLES

... GARY MARCUS - Q&A: The instrumentalist [Cognitive psychologist Gary
Marcus researches language acquisition and the evolution of the brain at New
York University. On the release of his latest book, Guitar Zero — a personal
yet scientific investigation of how people become musical — he explains how
a love of music and a computer game helped him to overcome a lack of rhythm
and learn to play the guitar]
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7383/full/482034a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120202

TIMOTHY E HOLY - Neuroscience: Reward alters specific connections [How does
the brain couple a fleeting sensory input to a delayed reward during
learning? A study in locusts shows that coincident firing of neurons can
'mark' a neuronal connection for later modulation]
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7383/full/482039a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120202

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 1 February 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... CORALIE CHEVALLIER et al - Diminished Social Motivation Negatively
Impacts Reputation Management: Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Case in Point
[", we use Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) –primarily characterised by
pervasive social disinterest– as a model to investigate the effect of social
motivation on reputation management. Children first rated a set of pictures
and were then given the opportunity to inflate their initial ratings in
front of an experimenter who declared that she had drawn the picture.
Contrary to the controls, children with ASD did not enhance their ratings in
the drawer's presence. Moreover, participants' flattery behaviour correlated
with self-reports of social enjoyment. Our findings point to a link between
diminished social interest and reputation management"]
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031107

... DANIELA RAMOS & CESAR ADES Two-Item Sentence Comprehension by a Dog
(Canis familiaris) ["We present here evidence that a dog may respond to
verbal requests composed of two independent terms, one referring to an
object and the other to an action to be performed relative to the object. A
female mongrel dog, Sofia, was initially trained to respond to action (point
and fetch) and object (ball, key, stick, bottle and bear) terms which were
then presented as simultaneous, combinatorial requests (e.g. ball fetch,
stick point). Sofia successfully responded to object-action requests
presented as single sentences, and was able to flexibly generalize her
performance across different contexts"]
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029689

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 31 January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... DAVID J LEWKOWICZ & AMY M HANSEN-TIFT - Infants deploy selective
attention to the mouth of a talking face when learning speech ["We tracked
4–12-mo-old English-learning infants’ and adults’ eye gaze while they
watched and listened to a female reciting a monologue either in their native
(English) or nonnative (Spanish) language. We found that infants shifted
their attention from the eyes to the mouth between 4 and 8 mo of age
regardless of language and then began a shift back to the eyes at 12 mo in
response to native but not nonnative speech. We posit that the first shift
enables infants to gain access to redundant audiovisual speech cues that
enable them to learn their native speech forms and that the second shift
reflects growing native-language expertise that frees them to shift
attention to the eyes to gain access to social cues"]
http://www.pnas.org/content/109/5/1431.abstract

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS Biology - January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... BRIAN N. PASLEY et al - Reconstructing Speech from Human Auditory Cortex
[Direct brain recordings from neurosurgical patients listening to speech
reveal that the acoustic speech signals can be reconstructed from neural
activity in auditory cortex]
http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001251

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS Genetics - January 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... BRENNA M HENN et al - Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports
Back-to-Africa Migrations ["Here, we interrogate the multilayered history of
North Africa by characterizing the effect of hypothesized migrations from
the Near East, Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa on current genetic diversity.
We present dense, genome-wide SNP genotyping array data (730,000 sites) from
seven North African populations, spanning from Egypt to Morocco, and one
Spanish population. We identify a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi
ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa; this
ancestry is likely derived from “back-to-Africa” gene flow more than 12,000
years ago (ya), prior to the Holocene"]
http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1002397

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Current Anthropology - February 2012---

*** ARTICLES

... BRIAN HAYDEN - Corporate Groups and Secret Societies in the Early
Neolithic: A Comment on Hodder and Meskell ["Hodder and Meskell (2011) have
provided a useful and thought-provoking analysis of early Neolithic
symbolism in the Near East ... I would like to develop their analysis
further by examining some of the probable social contexts for this
symbolism"] http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/663331

... IAN HODDER & LYNN MESKELL - Symbolism, Feasting, and Power at
Çatalhöyük: A Response to Sutliff and to Hayden ["We are grateful for the
comments of Sutliff and of Hayden and the issues they raised, and we respond
here to the two authors in turn"] http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/663329

... JOHN J SHEA - “Early” Symbolic Material Culture in South Africa: A
Comment on Henshilwood and Dubreuil ["In their article, Henshilwood and
Dubreuil (2011) take an important step forward in archaeological research on
the behavioral evolution of Homo sapiens ... I am not qualified to opine on
the neurocognitive issues raised in their article and in the commentary
published in Current Anthropology, so my remarks focus on the archaeology"]
http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/663334

... CHRISTOPHER S HENSHILWOOD & BENOÎT DUBREUIL - Style, Symbolism, and
Complex Technology: The Middle Stone Age in Southern Africa: A Response to
Shea ["Shea, in his response to our (2011) article, comments on the apparent
relative “lateness” of archaeological evidence for “style, symbolism, and
complex technology” associated with Homo sapiens in Africa and also why it
appears to be particularly concentrated in the southern African region. In
relation to this latter point, he asks whether this may not relate to an
“artifact of sampling.” Has the rest of Africa not been as systematically
well excavated as in South Africa? We agree with him on both counts and
grant that the archaeological record in most of Africa is too patchy to
really fill in the missing gaps in our knowledge of the Middle Stone Age"]
http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/663336
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins #452

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Feb 24, 2012 9:24 pm

Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allow the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

The Evolutionary Anthropology Online Research Cluster has been in existence since June 2003, when Helena Tuzinska suggested to Chris Knight that a regular newsletter would be useful to unite what was then the Sex Strike Theory (SST) group. Martin Edwardes started producing a weekly newsletter, and it has published every week since.

The emphasis of EAORC has moved away from just SST, and it now encompasses a wide community of researchers into human origins: anthropologists, archaeologists, animal researchers, neuroscientists and linguists. The weekly newsletter attempts to list all relevant papers from a range of publications. It cannot be exhaustive, but it does cover the main scientific journals.

Martin Edwardes was awarded a PhD in the Origins of Grammar in 2007, and is currently semi-retired. He is a visiting lecturer in psycholinguistics at King’s College London.

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:
- SCIENCENOW - Intensifying Weathering and Land Use in Iron Age Central
Africa
- SCIENCENOW - Tarsiers Communicate in Secret Speech
- SCIENCENOW - Metaphors Make Brains Touchy Feely
- SCIENCENOW - Extinct Genome From Fossil Finger Posted Online
- SCIAM NEWS - How Emotions Jump from Face to Face
- SCIAM NEWS - Social Clicks: Sounds Associated with African Languages Are
Common in English
- CONFERENCE - What it Means to be Human: New Perspectives on the Boundaries
of Human Nature

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 22 March 2012
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - 19 March 2012
- New Scientist - 11 February 2012
- Science - 10 February 2012
- Nature - 9 February 2012
- PLOS One - 8 February 2012
- PNAS - 7 February 2012
- Philosophy Now - January/February 2012

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIENCENOW - Intensifying Weathering and Land Use in Iron Age Central
Africa ---

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/science.1215400v1

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIENCENOW - Tarsiers Communicate in Secret Speech ---

Tropical tree-dwellers are the only primates to chat entirely in ultrasonic
frequencies
http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/02/tarsiers-communicate-in-secret-s.html?ref=em

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIENCENOW - Metaphors Make Brains Touchy Feely ---

Textural phrases light up a touch center in the brain
http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/02/metaphors-make-brains-touchy-fee.html?ref=em

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIENCENOW - Extinct Genome From Fossil Finger Posted Online ---

Researchers in Germany today posted the first high-resolution version of an
extinct human's genome on the Web site for the Max Planck Institute for
Evolutionary Anthropology
http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2012/02/extinct-genome-from-fossil-finger.html?ref=em

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - How Emotions Jump from Face to Face ---

A man's face can "grab" anger from someone standing nearby. But a woman's
face tends to grab happiness.
http://links.email.scientificamerican.com/ctt?kn=28&ms=Mzg4MDU2MTAS1&r=NTY1MTgzOTY4MAS2&b=0&j=MTI5NjQ0NDM5S0&mt=1&rt=0

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Social Clicks: Sounds Associated with African Languages Are
Common in English ---

Linguists find that tongue clicks play a larger role in English than
previously thought
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=just-a-click-away&WT.mc_id=SA_CAT_MB_20120208

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- CONFERENCE - What it Means to be Human: New Perspectives on the
Boundaries of Human Nature ---

A joint event hosted by the Presidents of the British Academy and the Royal
Society
Thursday, 8 March 2012
2.00pm - 6.00pm Seminar at the British Academy, 10-11 Carlton House Terrace,
London SW1Y 5AH

The afternoon seminar will be hosted by the British Academy’s President, Sir
Adam Roberts, and will consist of two sessions:
1) The Human Animal: new perspectives from Cognition, Neuroscience and
Evolution
Questions to be addressed will include:
• What new insights do recent developments in these areas variously
offer on the question of where the boundaries of ‘being human’ lie?What has
set us apart, and continues to set us apart from other species?
• What do new discoveries about the workings of the brain tell us
about how humans, in particular, ‘work’?
Speakers: Professor Nicky Clayton FRS, Professor Andy Whiten FBA, Professor
Chris Frith FBA, FRS and Professor Steven Mithen FBA. Chaired by Professor
Cecilia Heyes FBA.
2) The Cultural Animal: Human Society, Culture and Technology
Questions to be addressed will include:
• How has ‘what it means to be human’ been shaped by the evolution of
human cultures?How has it been shaped by new technologies, including
robotics, artificial intelligence and the internet?What do the physical
evidence of the past and the development of modern cities tell us about
human behaviour patterns, minds and needs?
• Will new technologies make some ethical standards that have been
important in the past obsolete?
Speakers: Professor Robert Foley FBA, Professor Lord Colin Renfrew FBA,
Professor Sir Alan Wilson FBA, FRS and Professor Margaret Boden FBA.
Chaired by Baroness Onora O’Neill FBA, HonFRS

Attendance at this seminar is free, but registration is required. Please go
to http://www.britac.ac.uk/events/2012/WhatItMeansToBeHuman.cfm to register.

6.30pm - 8.00pm Panel Discussion at the Royal Society, 6-9 Carlton House
Terrace, London SW1Y 5AG
What it means to be human
What does it mean to be human, and what makes us so? Do our brain, how we
evolved, how we communicate, or how we interact make us human? Are we really
so different from the other animals?
An exploration of the boundaries of human nature chaired by Royal Society
President Sir Paul Nurse PRS with four eminent panellists – neuroscientist
Professor Colin Blakemore FRS, evolutionary psychologist Professor Robin
Dunbar FBA, evolutionary anthropologist Professor Ruth Mace FBA, and
evolutionary biologist Professor Mark Pagel FRS, each addressing, from their
own perspectives ‘what it means to be human’.
Attendance at this panel discussion is free, and registration is NOT
required. For further details please visit the Royal Society's website:
http://royalsociety.org/events/2012/what-human/.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 22 March 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... OSCAR PUEBLA et al - Pairing dynamics and the origin of species
["Whether sexual selection alone can drive the evolution of assortative
mating in the presence of gene flow is a long-standing question in
evolutionary biology. Here, we report a role for pairing dynamics of
individuals when mate choice is mutual, which is sufficient for the
evolution of assortative mating by sexual selection alone in the presence of
gene flow. Through behavioural observation, individual-based simulation and
population genetic analysis, we evaluate the pairing dynamics of coral reef
fish in the genus Hypoplectrus (Serranidae), and the role these dynamics can
play for the evolution of assortative mating. When mate choice is mutual and
the stability of mating pairs is critical for reproductive success, the
evolution of assortative mating in the presence of gene flow is not only
possible, but is also a robust evolutionary outcome"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1731/1085.abstract]

... CARSTEN K W DE DREU et al - Oxytocin modulates selection of allies in
intergroup conflict ["In intergroup competition and conflict, humans benefit
from coalitions with strong partners who help them to protect their in-group
and prevail over competing out-groups. Here, we link oxytocin, a
neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus, to ally selection in intergroup
competition. In a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment, males
self-administered oxytocin or placebo, and made selection decisions about
six high-threat and six low-threat targets as potential allies in intergroup
competition. Males given oxytocin rather than placebo viewed high-threat
targets as more useful allies and more frequently selected them into their
team than low-threat targets"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1731/1150.abstract]

... DAVID WAYNFORTH - Grandparental investment and reproductive decisions in
the longitudinal 1970 British cohort study ["In this study, data drawn from
the 1970 longitudinal British cohort study were analysed to determine
whether extended family support encourages fertility in contemporary
Britain. The results showed that at age 30, reported frequency that
participants saw their own parents (but not in-laws) and the closeness of
the bond between the participant and their own parents were associated with
an increased likelihood of having a child between ages 30 and 34. Financial
help and reported grandparental childcare were not significantly positively
associated with births from age 30 to 34. Men's income was positively
associated with likelihood of birth, whereas women's income increased
likelihood of birth only for working women with at least one child. While it
was predicted that grandparental financial and childcare help would increase
the likelihood of reproduction by lowering the cost to the parent of having
a child, it appears that the mere physical presence of supportive parents
rather than their financial or childcare help encouraged reproduction in the
1970 British birth cohort sample"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1731/1155.abstract]

... R I M DUNBAR et al - Social laughter is correlated with an elevated pain
threshold ["Relaxed social (Duchenne) laughter is associated with feelings
of wellbeing and heightened affect, a proximate explanation for which might
be the release of endorphins. We tested this hypothesis in a series of six
experimental studies in both the laboratory (watching videos) and
naturalistic contexts (watching stage performances), using change in pain
threshold as an assay for endorphin release. The results show that pain
thresholds are significantly higher after laughter than in the control
condition. This pain-tolerance effect is due to laughter itself and not
simply due to a change in positive affect. We suggest that laughter, through
an endorphin-mediated opiate effect, may play a crucial role in social
bonding "]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1731/1161.abstract] {put
this with the De Dreu paper above and there's the beginning of something}

... ELLA F COLE & JOHN L QUINN - Personality and problem-solving performance
explain competitive ability in the wild ["Here we use a population of great
tits (Parus major) to explore whether individual differences in competitive
ability when foraging can be explained by two traits that have previously
been linked to alternative behavioural strategies: the personality trait
‘exploration behaviour’ and a simple cognitive trait, ‘innovative
problem-solving performance’. We assayed these traits under standardized
conditions in captivity and then measured competitive ability at feeders
with restricted access in the wild. Competitive ability was repeatable
within individual males across days and correlated positively with
exploration behaviour, representing the first such demonstration of a link
between a personality trait and both competitive ability and food intake in
the wild. Competitive ability was also simultaneously negatively correlated
with problem-solving performance; individuals who were poor competitors were
good at problem-solving. Rather than being the result of variation in
‘individual quality’, our results support the hypothesis that individual
variation in competitive ability can be explained by alternative behavioural
strategies"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1731/1168.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - 19 March 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... D M ALTMANN et al - Diverse approaches to analysing the history of human
and pathogen evolution: how to tell the story of the past 70 000 years ["The
meeting ‘Human evolution, migration and history revealed by genetics,
immunity and infection’, along with the follow-on satellite meeting at the
Kavli Centre over the subsequent two days, brought together diverse talents.
The aim was to see if new insights could be gained by bringing together
those who have interests in the past 50–100 000 years of human history,
overlaying the perspectives of palaeogeneticists, anthropologists, human
geneticists, pathogen geneticists, immunologists, disease modellers,
linguists, immunogeneticists, historians and archaeologists. It rapidly
became clear that while all may agree on the broad brush-strokes including
‘out-of-Africa’ and the general approximations of timelines, diverse
approaches may often suggest somewhat different ways of telling the story"]
[http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1590/765.abstract]

*** PAPERS

... STEPHEN OPPENHEIMER - Out-of-Africa, the peopling of continents and
islands: tracing uniparental gene trees across the map ["AMH left Africa via
a single southern exit about 70 000 years ago and rapidly spread around the
Indian Ocean towards the Antipodes, long before a small branch left a South
Asian colony, earlier on the trail, to populate Europe. The worldwide
skeleton phylogeny of mtDNA is fully resolved, but a regional analysis will
continue to illuminate subsequent migrations"]
[http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1590/770.abstract]

... MARK A JOBLING - The impact of recent events on human genetic diversity
["The historical record tells us stories of migrations, population
expansions and colonization events in the last few thousand years, but what
was their demographic impact? Genetics can throw light on this issue, and
has mostly done so through the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA
(mtDNA) and the male-specific Y chromosome. However, there are a number of
problems, including marker ascertainment bias, possible influences of
natural selection, and the obscuring layers of the palimpsest of historical
and prehistorical events. Y-chromosomal lineages are particularly affected
by genetic drift, which can be accentuated by recent social selection. A
diversity of approaches to expansions in Europe is yielding insights into
the histories of Phoenicians, Roma, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings, and new
methods for producing and analysing genome-wide data hold much promise"]
[http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/367/1590/793.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - 11 February 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... First Neanderthal cave paintings discovered in Spain [Cave paintings in
Malaga, Spain, could be the oldest yet found – and the first to have been
created by Neanderthals]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21458-first-neanderthal-cave-paintings-discovered-in-spain.html]

... Entire genome of extinct human reconstructed [A new genome of the
extinct Denisovan hominin is so complete that it contains fewer errors than
genomes generated using samples from living people]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21442-entire-genome-of-extinct-human-reconstructed.html]

... Clint Eastwood helps reveal secrets of brain evolution [Brain scans of
humans and monkeys taken while they watched The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly
show that areas that are functionally similar aren't always in the same
place]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328515.600-clint-eastwood-helps-reveal-secrets-of-brain-evolution.html]

*** ARTICLES

... ED YONG - Dark side of the love hormone [The "cuddle chemical" oxytocin
bonds mothers to their babies and sniffing it makes adults nicer – but can
also foster gloating and racism]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328512.100-dark-side-of-the-love-hormone.html]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - 10 February 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - 9 February 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... Hobbit small, but not stunted [Evidence is mounting for the argument
that the 'hobbit' of Flores Island was not the same species as modern
humans]
[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7384/full/482135a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120209]

*** REVIEWS

... CHRISTIAN KEYSERS - Primate cognition: Copy that [review of 'The Primate
Mind: built to connect with other minds' edited by Frans B M De Waal & Pier
Francesco Ferrari]
[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7384/full/482158a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120209]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 8 February 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... KATHARINA C. KIRCHHOFER et al - Dogs (Canis familiaris), but Not
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Understand Imperative Pointing ["Here we
directly compare chimpanzees' (N = 20) and dogs' (N = 32) skills in using a
communicative gesture directed at a visible object out of reach of the human
but within reach of the subject. Pairs of objects were placed in view of and
behind the subjects. The task was to retrieve the object the experimenter
wanted. To indicate which one she desired, the experimenter pointed
imperatively to it and directly rewarded the subject for handing over the
correct one. While dogs performed well on this task, chimpanzees failed to
identify the referent"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030913]

... ERIKA H DAWSON & LARS CHITTKA - Conspecific and Heterospecific
Information Use in Bumblebees ["To determine how freely social information
travels across species boundaries, we trained bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)
to learn to use cues provided by conspecifics and heterospecific honey bees
(Apis mellifera) to locate valuable floral resources. We found that
heterospecific demonstrators did not differ from conspecifics in the extent
to which they guided observers' choices, whereas various types of inorganic
visual cues were consistently less effective than conspecifics. This was
also true in a transfer test where bees were confronted with a novel flower
type. However, in the transfer test, conspecifics were slightly more
effective than heterospecific demonstrators. We then repeated the experiment
with entirely naïve bees that had never foraged alongside conspecifics
before. In this case, heterospecific demonstrators were equally efficient as
conspecifics both in the initial learning task and the transfer test. Our
findings demonstrate that social learning is not a unique process limited to
conspecifics and that through associative learning, interspecifically
sourced information can be just as valuable as that provided by conspecific
individuals"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031444]

... LEONHARD SCHILBACH et al - Introspective Minds: Using ALE Meta-Analyses
to Study Commonalities in the Neural Correlates of Emotional Processing,
Social & Unconstrained Cognition ["Here, we present results of quantitative
meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies, which confirm a statistical
convergence in the neural correlates of social and resting state cognition.
Based on the idea that both social and unconstrained cognition might be
characterized by introspective processes, which are also thought to be
highly relevant for emotional experiences, a third meta-analysis was
performed investigating studies on emotional processing. By using
conjunction analyses across all three sets of studies, we can demonstrate
significant overlap of task-related signal change in dorso-medial prefrontal
and medial parietal cortex, brain regions that have, indeed, recently been
linked to introspective abilities. Our findings, therefore, provide evidence
for the existence of a core neural network, which shows task-related signal
change during socio-emotional tasks and during resting states"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030920]

... OLGA TYMOFIYEVA et al - Towards the “Baby Connectome”: Mapping the
Structural Connectivity of the Newborn Brain ["The purpose of this study was
to establish a framework for assessing structural connectivity in the
newborn brain at any stage of development and to show how network properties
can be derived in a clinical cohort of six-month old infants sustaining
perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Two different anatomically
unconstrained parcellation schemes were proposed and the resulting network
metrics were correlated with neurological outcome at 6 months. Elimination
and correction of unreliable data, automated parcellation of the cortical
surface, and assembling the large-scale baby connectome allowed an unbiased
study of the network properties of the newborn brain using graph theoretic
analysis"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031029]

... JOONKOO PARK et al - Investigating Unique Environmental Contributions to
the Neural Representation of Written Words: A Monozygotic Twin Study ["In
this study, we measured neural activity in monozygotic twins, using
functional magnetic resonance imaging. This allowed us to quantify
differences in unique environmental contributions to neural activation
evoked by words, pseudowords, consonant strings, and false fonts in the VWFA
and striate cortex. The results demonstrate significantly greater effects of
unique environment in the word and pseudoword conditions compared to the
consonant string and false font conditions both in VWFA and in left striate
cortex. These findings provide direct evidence for environmental
contributions to the neural architecture for reading, and suggest that
learning phonology and/or orthographic patterns plays the biggest role in
shaping that architecture"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031512]

... FANG LIU et al - The Mechanism of Speech Processing in Congenital
Amusia: Evidence from Mandarin Speakers ["Thirteen Mandarin amusics and
thirteen matched controls participated in a set of tone and intonation
perception tasks and two pitch threshold tasks. Compared with controls,
amusics showed impaired performance on word discrimination in natural speech
and their gliding tone analogs. They also performed worse than controls on
discriminating gliding tone sequences derived from statements and questions,
and showed elevated thresholds for pitch change detection and pitch
direction discrimination. However, they performed as well as controls on
word identification, and on statement-question identification and
discrimination in natural speech. Overall, tasks that involved multiple
acoustic cues to communicative meaning were not impacted by amusia. Only
when the tasks relied mainly on pitch sensitivity did amusics show impaired
performance compared to controls"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030374]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 7 February 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... WIL ROEBROEKS et al - Use of red ochre by early Neandertals ["The
excavations [at Maastricht-Belvédère, The Netherlands] exposed a series of
well-preserved flint artifact (and occasionally bone) scatters, formed in a
river valley setting during a late Middle Pleistocene full interglacial
period. Samples of the reddish material were submitted to various forms of
analyses to study their physical properties. All analyses identified the red
material as hematite. This is a nonlocal material that was imported to the
site, possibly over dozens of kilometers. Identification of the
Maastricht-Belvédère finds as hematite pushes the use of red ochre by
(early) Neandertals back in time significantly, to minimally 200–250 kya
(i.e., to the same time range as the early ochre use in the African
record)"] [http://www.pnas.org/content/109/6/1889.abstract]

... JOÃO C B AZZI et al - Modulation of value representation by social
context in the primate orbitofrontal cortex ["Macaque monkeys worked to
collect rewards for themselves and two monkey partners. Behaviorally,
monkeys discriminated between cues signaling small and large rewards, and
between cues signaling rewards to self only and reward to both self and
another monkey, with a preference for the former over the latter in both
instances. Single neurons recorded during this task encoded the meaning of
visual cues that predicted the magnitude of future rewards, as well as the
motivational value of rewards obtained in a social context. Furthermore,
neuronal activity was found to track momentary social preferences and
partner's identity and social rank"]
[http://www.pnas.org/content/109/6/2126.abstract]

... NORA MARIA RASCHLE et al - Functional characteristics of developmental
dyslexia in left-hemispheric posterior brain regions predate reading onset
["Here we investigate functional networks during phonological processing in
36 prereading children with a familial risk for DD (n = 18, average age =
66.50 mo) compared with age and IQ-matched controls (n = 18; average age =
65.61 mo). Functional neuroimaging results reveal reduced activation in
prereading children with a family-history of DD (FHD+), compared with those
without (FHD−), in bilateral occipitotemporal and left temporoparietal brain
regions. This finding corresponds to previously identified hypoactivations
in left hemispheric posterior brain regions for school-aged children and
adults with a diagnosis of DD. Furthermore, left occipitotemporal and
temporoparietal brain activity correlates positively with prereading skills
in both groups. Our results suggest that differences in neural correlates of
phonological processing in individuals with DD are not a result of reading
failure, but are present before literacy acquisition starts"]
[http://www.pnas.org/content/109/6/2156.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophy Now - January/February 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... STEPHEN ANDERSON - The meaning of meaning [what do we mean when we ask
if existence has a meaning?]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins #453

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Feb 24, 2012 9:30 pm

Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allow the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

The Evolutionary Anthropology Online Research Cluster has been in existence since June 2003, when Helena Tuzinska suggested to Chris Knight that a regular newsletter would be useful to unite what was then the Sex Strike Theory (SST) group. Martin Edwardes started producing a weekly newsletter, and it has published every week since.

The emphasis of EAORC has moved away from just SST, and it now encompasses a wide community of researchers into human origins: anthropologists, archaeologists, animal researchers, neuroscientists and linguists. The weekly newsletter attempts to list all relevant papers from a range of publications. It cannot be exhaustive, but it does cover the main scientific journals.

Martin Edwardes was awarded a PhD in the Origins of Grammar in 2007, and is currently semi-retired. He is a visiting lecturer in psycholinguistics at King’s College London.

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:

- SCIAM NEWS - There Will Be Blood
- SCIAM NEWS - Chimpanzees Help, but Only When Asked
- CONFERENCE - Anthropology in the World
- CONFERENCE - Summer Course on "Problems of the Self"
- CONFERENCE - 12th International Conference on the Simulation of Adaptive
Behavior

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
- New Scientist - 18 February 2012
- Science - 17 February 2012
- Nature - 16 February 2012
- PLOS One - 15 February 2012
- PNAS - 14 February 2012
- Animal Behaviour - March 2012

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - There Will Be Blood ---

Why women menstruate.
By Kate Clancy
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/context-and-variation/2012/02/13/there-will-be-blood/?WT_mc_id=SA_CAT_EVO_20120213

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Chimpanzees Help, but Only When Asked ---

By Jason G. Goldman
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/thoughtful-animal/2012/02/13/chimpanzees-help-but-only-when-asked/?WT_mc_id=SA_CAT_EVO_20120213

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- CONFERENCE - Anthropology in the World ---

Registration for the ‘Anthropology in the World’ conference is now open. In
order to register please go to
http://www.therai.org.uk/conferences/anthropology-in-the-world/registration/.

The Royal Anthropological Institute is pleased to announce that a conference
‘Anthropology in the World’ will take place at the British Museum, Clore
Centre, in conjunction with the BM Centre for Anthropology. The aim of this
conference is to explore the manifold ways in which anthropology in its
widest sense has been influential outside academia. It is aimed therefore at
having a widespread appeal to the general public and to those
anthropologists who are working in careers outside the university. We hope
too that it will be of interest to academic anthropologists who are
interested in the way that their subject is diffused and used in wider
society, and to those students who are interested in applying their
anthropological skills outside the academic arena.

A list of all of the panels is available here
http://www.nomadit.co.uk/rai/events/rai2012/panels.php5 and the timetable of
events is here
http://www.therai.org.uk/conferences/anthropology-in-the-world/timetable/.

This will be a wonderful event and we hope to see many of you there!

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- CONFERENCE - Summer Course on "Problems of the Self" ---

Central European University’s summer school (http://summer.ceu.hu/self-2012)
invites applications from graduate students, junior faculty and researchers
from all over the world.

The course aims to present the state of the art in research on the self from
philosophy, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, sociology, and cognitive
anthropology. Themes revolve around the nature of the self, as revealed
through self-consciousness, body perception, action and joint action, and
its embedding in society and culture. Historical and developmental
perspectives provide other angles on the self. The course presents a unique
opportunity for interdisciplinary discussion on the self from multiple
perspectives. It is directed at advanced graduate students, postdoctoral
fellows and junior faculty working in philosophy, psychology, cognitive
neuroscience and cognate disciplines.

Guest Speakers:
Maurice Bloch, Department of Anthropology, London School of Economics, UK;
Gyorgy Gergely, Department of Cognitive Science/Cognitive Development
Centre, CEU, Budapest, Hungary

The application deadline is February 15, 2012 (late applications will be
reviewed until all course places have been filled).

Financial aid is available.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- CONFERENCE - 12th International Conference on the Simulation of Adaptive
Behavior --

27-31 August 2012, Odense, Denmark
http://www.sab2012.org/

IMPORTANT DATES
Paper submission deadline, February 29th, 2012
Call for workshop deadline, April 2nd, 2012
Conference dates, August 28th-30th, 2012
Workshop dates, August 27th and 31st, 2012

The objective of this interdisciplinary conference is to bring together
researchers in computer science, artificial intelligence, alife, control,
robotics, neurosciences, ethology, evolutionary biology, and related fields
so as to further our understanding of the behaviors and underlying
mechanisms that allow natural and artificial animals to adapt and survive in
uncertain environments. The conference will focus on experiments with
well-defined models --- robot models, computer simulation models,
mathematical models --- designed to help characterize and compare various
organizational principles or architectures underlying adaptive behavior in
real animals and in synthetic agents, the animats.

Further information on topics etc. can be found on the conference web site
at http://www.sab2012.org/call.html

SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS
Submitted papers must not exceed 10 pages (double columns) using the
Springer formatting kit. Detailed submission instructions are available
from the conference Web site.

CONTACT US
Please contact us at sab2012@isab.org in case of questions

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - No issue this week ---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - 18 February 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... Why we have moral rules but don't follow them [A twist on the classic
"trolley" psychology experiment suggests that our minds have two parallel
moral systems, and they don't always agree]
[http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328524.500-why-we-have-moral-rules-but-dont-follow-them.html]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - 17 February 2012 ---

*** NEWS

... Uncovering Civilization's Roots [What sparked the first cities? Digs in
Kuwait and Syria are reshaping how archaeologists see the first stirrings of
urban life] [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/335/6070/790]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - 16 February 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... JEFF TOLLEFSON - Human evolution: Cultural roots ["Metal scrapes on hard
sand as archaeologist Chris Henshilwood shaves away the top layer of
sediment in Blombos Cave. After just a few moments, the tip of his trowel
unearths the humerus of a pint-sized tortoise that walked the Southern Cape
of South Africa many millennia ago. Next come shells from local mussels and
snails amid blackened soil and bits of charred wood, all remnants of an
ancient feast. It was one of many enjoyed by a distinct group of early
humans who visited Blombos Cave over the course of thousands of years"]
[http://www.nature.com/news/human-evolution-cultural-roots-1.10025]

... MARK PAGEL - Evolution: Adapted to culture [our ability to share and
build on ideas is what made us human]
[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7385/full/482297a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120216]

*** REVIEWS

... PETER RICHERSON - Evolution: Custom built [review of 'Wired for Culture:
Origins of the human social mind' by Mark Pagel]
[http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v482/n7385/full/482304a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120216]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 15 February 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... LISA A MAHER et al - Twenty Thousand-Year-Old Huts at a Hunter-Gatherer
Settlement in Eastern Jordan ["Here we discuss the excavation of two
20,000-year-old hut structures at Kharaneh IV that pre-date the renowned
stone houses of the Natufian. Exceptionally dense and extensive occupational
deposits exhibit repeated habitation over prolonged periods, and contain
structural remains associated with exotic and potentially symbolic caches of
objects (shell, red ochre, and burnt horn cores) that indicate substantial
settlement of the site pre-dating the Natufian and outside of the Natufian
homeland as currently understood"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031447]

... AUSTEN L KRILL & STEVEN M PLATEK - Working Together May Be Better:
Activation of Reward Centers during a Cooperative Maze Task ["To investigate
the neural correlates of cooperation in real-time we conducted an fMRI
hyperscanning study. We hypothesized that real-time cooperation to complete
a maze task, using a blind-driving paradigm, would activate substrates
implicated in theory of mind. We also hypothesized that cooperation would
activate neural reward centers more than when participants completed the
maze themselves. Of interest and in support of our hypothesis we found left
caudate and putamen activation when participants worked together to complete
the maze. This suggests that cooperation during task completion is
inherently rewarding"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030613]

... ALAN N SIMMONS et al - The Parametric, Psychological,
Neuropsychological, and Neuroanatomical Properties of Self and World
Evaluation ["we created the Self and World Evaluation Expressions
Test(SWEET) ... Sixty-five young adults (20.6 years-old), 36 with a history
of drug use, completed the SWEET. A factor analysis was performed on the
SWEET and the resultant factors were correlated with psychological,
neuropsychological, and neuroanatomical battery that included both
T1-wieghted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging scans ... We
derived four factors: Self, Social-Emotional, Financial-Intellectual, and
Spirituality. While showing limited relationships to psychological and
neuropsychological measures, both white matter integrity and gray matter
density showed significant relationships with SWEET factors"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031509]

... SHASHWATH A MEDA et al - Regional Brain Differences in Cortical
Thickness, Surface Area and Subcortical Volume in Individuals with Williams
Syndrome ["High resolution MRI scans were obtained on 31 WS subjects and 50
typically developing control subjects. We derived quantitative regional
estimates of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical
volume using FreeSurfer software. We evaluated between-group ROI differences
while controlling for total intracranial volume. In post-hoc exploratory
analyses within the WS group, we tested for correlations between regional
brain variation and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Consistent with our
hypothesis, we detected complex patterns of between-group cortical
variation, which included lower surface area in combination with greater
thickness in the following cortical regions: post central gyrus, cuneus,
lateral orbitofrontal cortex and lingual gyrus"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031913]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 14 February 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Animal Behaviour - March 2012 ---

*** REVIEWS

... MARK E LAIDRE - [Review of 'Principles of Animal Communication, 2nd edn'
by Jack W Bradbury & Sandra L Vehrencamp]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347211005549]

... SABINE TEBBICH - [Review of 'Beyond the Brain: How Body and Environment
Shape Animal and Human Minds' by Louise Barrett]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347211005574]

*** PAPERS

... BRIAN HARE et al - The self-domestication hypothesis: evolution of
bonobo psychology is due to selection against aggression ["Experiments
indicate that selection against aggression in mammals can have multiple
effects on their morphology, physiology, behaviour and psychology, and that
these results resemble a syndrome of changes observed in domestic animals.
We hypothesize that selection against aggression in some wild species can
operate in a similar way. Here we consider the bonobo, Pan paniscus, as a
candidate for having experienced this ‘self-domestication’ process"]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000334721100546X]

... MARTIN SURBECK et al - Mate competition, testosterone and intersexual
relationships in bonobos,Pan paniscus ["We used behavioural and
physiological data from wild bonobos to test relationships between
behavioural correlates of mate competition and androgen levels. Aggression
and rank were positively correlated, as were aggression and mating success.
In the presence of potentially fertile females, male aggression increased
but only low-ranking, less aggressive males showed increases in testosterone
levels, which consequently tended to be negatively related to rank.
High-ranking males who had lower testosterone levels and were less
responsive in their testosterone increase were more often involved in
friendly relationships with unrelated females. These results suggest that,
in bonobos, amicable relationships between the sexes rather than aggressive
interactions mediate males’ physiological reactivity during periods of mate
competition"]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347211005495]

... BONAVENTURA MAJOLO et al - The relative prevalence of direct, indirect
and generalized reciprocity in macaque grooming exchanges ["We concurrently
examined the occurrence of direct, indirect and generalized reciprocity
during grooming exchanges in longtailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis. The
occurrence of the grooming monkey A gave B predicted the latency and
occurrence of the grooming B gave back to A (direct reciprocity), the
latency of the grooming A received from C (indirect reciprocity), but not
the grooming B gave C (generalized reciprocity). The duration of the
grooming monkey A gave B predicted the latency and occurrence of the
grooming B gave back to A (direct reciprocity) but not the grooming A
received from C (indirect reciprocity) or the grooming B gave C (generalized
reciprocity). Finally, monkeys directed overall more of their grooming to
those individuals that overall groomed them more (direct reciprocity), but
not to those that groomed other individuals more (indirect reciprocity); nor
did monkeys that received overall more grooming groom others more
(generalized reciprocity)"]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347211005665]

... KIMBERLEY J HOCKINGS et al - Socioecological adaptations by chimpanzees,
Pan troglodytes verus, inhabiting an anthropogenically impacted habitat
["Twelve months of focal data were collected from direct observations of one
chimpanzee community inhabiting a forest–farm mosaic at Bossou, Guinea. Wild
fruit abundance did not directly influence daily party size. Instead,
cultivated resource consumption, in combination with other social factors,
provided chimpanzees with an alternative to fissioning. Chimpanzee party
size did not differ between crop raids and wild feeds, but party
cohesiveness did increase during raids. Furthermore, males and females
adapted their activity budgets in different ways to integrate cultivated
resources into their broader ecological strategy"]
[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347212000036]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins #454

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Thu Mar 01, 2012 1:03 pm

Many thanks to Martin Edwards for allow the re-posting of his excellent regular anthropological lit reviews.

The Evolutionary Anthropology Online Research Cluster has been in existence since June 2003, when Helena Tuzinska suggested to Chris Knight that a regular newsletter would be useful to unite what was then the Sex Strike Theory (SST) group. Martin Edwardes started producing a weekly newsletter, and it has published every week since.

The emphasis of EAORC has moved away from just SST, and it now encompasses a wide community of researchers into human origins: anthropologists, archaeologists, animal researchers, neuroscientists and linguists. The weekly newsletter attempts to list all relevant papers from a range of publications. It cannot be exhaustive, but it does cover the main scientific journals.

Martin Edwardes was awarded a PhD in the Origins of Grammar in 2007, and is currently semi-retired. He is a visiting lecturer in psycholinguistics at King’s College London.

For more information, visit the EAORC web page.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** CONTENTS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------

NOTICES:

- SCIAM NEWS - Jumping Genes in the Brain Ensure That Even Identical Twins
Are Different
- SCIAM NEWS - How Did Human Brains Get to Be so Big?
- SCIAM NEWS - Alex the Parrot's Posthumous Paper Shows His Mathematical
Genius
- SCIENCENOW - A Bruce Effect in Wild Geladas
- EVENT - Cognitive Variations: Reflections on the Unity and Diversity of
the Human Mind
- EVENT - Autism, Ethics and the Good Life
- EVENT - 5th FPR-UCLA Interdisciplinary Conference
- EMPLOYMENT - JSMF Postdoctoral Fellowship Awards in Studying Complex
Systems

PUBLICATIONS:

- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 7 April 2012
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
- New Scientist - 25 February 2012
- Science - 24 February 2012
- Nature - 23 February 2012
- PLOS One - 22 February 2012
- PNAS - 21 February 2012

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** NOTICES ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Jumping Genes in the Brain Ensure That Even Identical Twins
Are Different ---
How can identical twins grow up with different personalities? "Jumping
genes" move around in neurons and alter the way they work
http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20120220

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - How Did Human Brains Get to Be so Big? ---

In the eight million to six million years since the ancestors of humans and
chimps went their separate ways, the human brain more than tripled in size
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/gue ... B_20120222

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIAM NEWS - Alex the Parrot's Posthumous Paper Shows His Mathematical
Genius ---

Alex and a chimpanzee named Sheba are the only nonhumans that have so far
been shown to represent the numerical value of a summed set, an ability once
thought to depend on language
http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20120222

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- SCIENCENOW - A Bruce Effect in Wild Geladas ---

Female geladas terminate 80% of pregnancies in the weeks after a dominant
male is replaced.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/a ... .1213600v1

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- EVENT - Cognitive Variations: Reflections on the Unity and Diversity of
the Human Mind ---

Thursday 22nd March 2012 at 10.00 am (tea & coffee served from 9.30am)
Centre for Anthropology, British Museum
THIS IS A FREE EVENT
The British Museum’s Centre for Anthropology, in collaboration with the
Royal Anthropological Institute (RAI), is delighted to present a discussion
between Professor Sir Geoffrey Lloyd author of ‘Cognitive Variations:
Reflections on the Unity and Diversity of the Human Mind' and Professor Mark
Geller who reviewed the work for the JRAI.
The book presents a cross-disciplinary study of the problems posed by the
unity and diversity of the human mind. On the one hand, as humans we all
share broadly the same anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and certain
psychological capabilities – the capacity to learn a language, for instance.
On the other, different individuals and groups have very different talents,
tastes, and beliefs; for instance about how they see themselves, other
humans and the world around them. These issues are highly charged, for any
denial of psychic unity savours of racism, while many assertions of psychic
diversity raise the spectres of arbitrary relativism, the incommensurability
of belief systems and their mutual unintelligibility.
The author surveys a fascinating range of subjects, examining where
different types of scientific, philosophical, anthropological and historical
arguments can take us. He discusses colour perception, spatial cognition,
animal and plant taxonomy, the emotions, ideas of health and well-being,
concepts of the self, agency and causation, varying perceptions of the
distinction between nature and culture, and reasoning itself. He uses recent
work in social anthropology, linguistics, cognitive science,
neurophysiology, and the history of ideas to redefine the problems and
clarify how our evident psychic diversity can be reconciled with
our shared humanity.
Bookings/enquiries: Ted Goodliffe ( TGoodliffe@britishmuseum.org)

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- EVENT - Autism, Ethics and the Good Life ---

Monday, 2 April 2012, 9.30am - 6.00pm, followed by a reception
British Academy, 10-11 Carlton House Terrace, London SW1
Autism is a lifelong developmental condition which affects a person’s
ability to relate to and communicate with others. The widespread public
perception of autism as defined by these wholly negative attributes has been
challenged by some members of the autism community in the light of the
richness and value they claim as part of an autistic life. This conference
explores the question of what a good life for those on the autism spectrum
and their families would look like, and considers how accounts of autistic
flourishing should inform education, service design and delivery and public
policy.

Contributions to this debate, being held on World Autism Awareness Day, come
from philosophers, scientists and educationists, many of whom are parents of
people with autism. Importantly the discussion about what constitutes a good
autistic life is informed here by the sometimes different and opposing views
of those with autism and their families.

Convenors:
Pat Walsh, Centre of Medical Law and Ethics, King’s College London
Professor Francesca Happé, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London

Speakers include:
Professor Richard Ashcroft, Queen Mary University College, London
Sandy Starr, Progress Educational Trust
Virginia Bovell, ETHOX, University of Oxford
Professor Eva Feder Kittay, Stonybrook University, New York
Dr Jackie Leach Scully, Policy, Ethics and Life Sciences Research Centre,
University of Newcastle
Professor Mike Parker, ETHOX, University of Oxford
Professor Stuart Murray, University of Leeds
Dr Liz Pellicano, Centre for Research in Autism and Education, Institute of
Education, London

Attendance is free, but registration is required for this event. Please go
to http://www.britac.ac.uk/events/2012/Aut ... odLife.cfm to
register or visit our website: http://www.britac.ac.uk/events.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- EVENT - 5th FPR-UCLA Interdisciplinary Conference ---

Culture, Mind, and Brain: Emerging Concepts, Methods, Applications
October 19–20, 2012, UCLA

Websites:
http://www.thefpr.org/conference2012/index.php
http://cmbconference2012.wordpress.com/

The conference highlights emerging concepts, methods, and applications in
the study of culture, mind, brain, with attention to cutting-edge research,
the context in which methods are used, and the kinds and quality of
collaborations that advance interdisciplinary training.
Registration for our conference is Now Open:
http://www.thefpr.org/conference2012/registration.php
Seating is very limited. Please note that our conference in 2010 sold out
two months before the end of early registration.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- EMPLOYMENT - JSMF Postdoctoral Fellowship Awards in Studying Complex
Systems ---

A nice post-doc fellowship opportunity from James S. McDonnell foundation.
http://www.jsmf.org/apply/fellowship/

Grant Available: Postdoctoral Fellowship in Complex Systems Science,
$200,000 over 2 years

Timeline of the 2012 Program:
Applications and letters of intent accepted online beginning April 15, 2012.
Deadline: June 15, 2012, 15:59 Central Time
September Advisory Board Meeting Review
October/November Email Notifications
Letters of Intent Must Be Activated in 2013.
Letters of intent awarded in 2012 and not activated in 2013 expire January
1, 2014.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
*** PUBLICATIONS ***
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- KEY:
*** NEWS: items that cannot stand as an independent source.
*** REVIEWS: items that review a book or publication.
*** ARTICLES: items that are quotable, but which count as secondary sources.
*** PAPERS: quotable primary source items.

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Proceedings of the Royal Society B - 7 April 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... R KANAI et al - Online social network size is reflected in human brain
structure ["The increasing ubiquity of web-based social networking services
is a striking feature of modern human society. The degree to which
individuals participate in these networks varies substantially for reasons
that are unclear. Here, we show a biological basis for such variability by
demonstrating that quantitative variation in the number of friends an
individual declares on a web-based social networking service reliably
predicted grey matter density in the right superior temporal sulcus, left
middle temporal gyrus and entorhinal cortex"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1732/1327.abstract]

... HELEN C LEGGETT et al - Promiscuity and the evolution of cooperative
breeding ["Here, we use an inclusive fitness approach to model selection to
stay and help in a simple patch-structured population, with strict density
dependence, where helping increases the survival of the breeder on the
patch. Our model predicts that the level of promiscuity has either no
influence or a slightly positive influence on selection for helping. This
prediction is driven by the fact that, in our model, staying to help leads
to increased competition between relatives for the breeding position—when
promiscuity is low (and relatedness is high), the best way to aid relatives
is by dispersing to avoid competing with them"]
[http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1732/1405.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B - No issue this week
---

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- New Scientist - 25 February 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Science - 24 February 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... MARTÍN MEDINA-ELIZALDE et al - Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization
Related to Modest Reduction in Precipitation [The fall of Maya civilization
occurred over two centuries when droughts reduced precipitation by up to 40
percent annually]
[http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/335/6071/956]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- Nature - 23 February 2012 ---

*** NOTHING OF INTEREST

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS One - 22 February 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... ULRIKE GRIEBEL & D KIMBROUGH OLLER - Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire
Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words ["We tested a Yorkshire terrier
(Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey
accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice
command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional
voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been
involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by
voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items
(toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before)
embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed
as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention
tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously
successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against
each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task
repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been
proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030182]

... SHENGHUA LUAN et al - When Does Diversity Trump Ability (and Vice Versa)
in Group Decision Making? A Simulation Study ["we found that a manipulation
reducing agents' individual accuracy simultaneously increased their group's
diversity, leading to a conflict between the two. These conflicts enabled us
to identify certain conditions under which diversity trumps individual
accuracy, and vice versa. Specifically, we found that individual accuracy is
more important in task environments in which cues differ greatly in the
quality of their information, and diversity matters more when such
differences are relatively small"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031043]

... YONGKUI LIU et al - Win-Stay-Lose-Learn Promotes Cooperation in the
Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game ["we introduce an aspiration-based
win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule into the spatial prisoner's
dilemma game. The rule is simple and intuitive, foreseeing strategy changes
only by dissatisfied players, who then attempt to adopt the strategy of one
of their nearest neighbors, while the strategies of satisfied players are
not subject to change. We find that the proposed win-stay-lose-learn rule
promotes the evolution of cooperation, and it does so very robustly and
independently of the initial conditions"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030689]

... DAVID L BUTLER et al - Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, How Does My Brain
Recognize My Image at All? ["For decades researchers have used mirrors to
study self-recognition. However, attempts to identify neural processes
underlying this ability have used photographs instead. Here we used event
related potentials (ERPs) to compare self-face recognition in photographs
versus mirrors and found distinct neural signatures. Measures of visual
self-recognition are therefore not independent of the medium employed"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031452]

... GABRIELE JANZEN et al - Tracking Down Abstract Linguistic Meaning:
Neural Correlates of Spatial Frame of Reference Ambiguities in Language
["Two frames of reference are available in European languages for the
description of small-scale assemblages, namely the intrinsic (or
object-oriented) frame and the relative (or egocentric) frame. We showed
participants a sentence such as “the ball is in front of the man”, ambiguous
between the two frames, and then a picture of a scene with a ball and a man
– participants had to respond by indicating whether the picture did or did
not match the sentence. There were two blocks, in which we induced each
frame of reference by feedback. Thus for the crucial test items,
participants saw exactly the same sentence and the same picture but now from
one perspective, now the other. Using this method, we were able to precisely
pinpoint the pattern of neural activation associated with each linguistic
interpretation of the ambiguity, while holding the perceptual stimuli
constant. Increased brain activity in bilateral parahippocampal gyrus was
associated with the intrinsic frame of reference whereas increased activity
in the right superior frontal gyrus and in the parietal lobe was observed
for the relative frame of reference"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030657]

... SINA RADKE et al - There's Something about a Fair Split: Intentionality
Moderates Context-Based Fairness Considerations in Social Decision-Making
["Here, we investigated the role of intentionality in response to unfair
offers in the Ultimatum Game by manipulating both proposers' degree of
control over the selection of offers and the context pertaining to the
outcomes of offers proposers can choose from. As a result, the design
enabled us to disentangle intention- and context-based decision-making
processes. Rejection rates were higher when an unfair offer was
intentionally chosen over a fair alternative than when it was chosen by the
computer, outside proposers' control. This finding provides direct evidence
for intention-based decision-making"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031491]

... RANKA BIJELJAC-BABIC et al - Effect of Bilingualism on Lexical Stress
Pattern Discrimination in French-Learning Infants ["The present study
evaluates the effects of bilingual acquisition on speech perception by
exploring how stress pattern perception may differ in French-learning
10-month-olds raised in bilingual as opposed to monolingual environments.
Experiment 1 shows that monolinguals can discriminate stress patterns
following a long familiarization to one of two patterns, but not after a
short familiarization. In Experiment 2, two subgroups of bilingual infants
growing up learning both French and another language (varying across
infants) in which stress is used lexically were tested under the more
difficult short familiarization condition: one with balanced input, and one
receiving more input in the language other than French. Discrimination was
clearly found for the other-language-dominant subgroup, establishing
heightened sensitivity to stress pattern contrasts in these bilinguals as
compared to monolinguals. However, the balanced bilinguals' performance was
not better than that of monolinguals"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030843]

... MIRTA F VILLARREAL et al - The Effect of the Visual Context in the
Recognition of Symbolic Gestures ["Normal subjects were scanned while
observing short videos of an individual performing symbolic gesture with or
without the corresponding visual context and the context scenes without
gestures. The comparison between gestures regardless of the context
demonstrated increased activity in the inferior frontal gyrus, the superior
parietal cortex and the temporoparietal junction in the right hemisphere and
the precuneus and posterior cingulate bilaterally, while the comparison
between context and gestures alone did not recruit any of these regions"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0029644]

... ROLF A ZWAAN et al - Language Comprehension in the Balance: The
Robustness of the Action-Compatibility Effect (ACE) ["We performed two
experiments to assess whether sentences describing forward or backward
movement modulate the lateral movements made by subjects who made
sensibility judgments about the sentences. In one experiment subjects were
standing on a balance board and in the other they were seated on a balance
board that was mounted on a chair. This allowed us to investigate whether
the action compatibility effect (ACE) is robust and persists in the face of
salient incompatibilities between sentence content and subject movement.
Growth-curve analysis of the movement trajectories produced by the subjects
in response to the sentences suggests that the ACE is indeed robust"]
[http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0031204]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PNAS - 21 February 2012 ---

*** PAPERS

... IAIN DEWITT & JOSEF P RAUSCHECKER - Phoneme and word recognition in the
auditory ventral stream ["Examining speech sounds, we show that activation
associated with the processing of short-timescale patterns (i.e., phonemes)
is consistently localized to left mid-superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas
activation associated with the integration of phonemes into temporally
complex patterns (i.e., words) is consistently localized to left anterior
STG. Further, we show left mid- to anterior STG is reliably implicated in
the invariant representation of phonetic forms and that this area also
responds preferentially to phonetic sounds, above artificial control sounds
or environmental sounds"] [http://www.pnas.org/content/109/8/E505.abstract]

... JOAN L LUBY et al - Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger
hippocampal volumes at school age ["In a longitudinal study of depressed and
healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we
investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal
volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly
predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect
of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed
children"] [http://www.pnas.org/content/109/8/2854.abstract]

---------------------------------------------------------------------
--- PLOS Biology - 21 February 2012 ---

*** ARTICLES

... MIMI LILJEHOLM & JOHN P O'DOHERTY - Anything You Can Do, You Can Do
Better: Neural Substrates of Incentive-Based Performance Enhancement [A
neuroimaging study reveals that both mental and physical effort might be
motivated by a single neural module located in deep sub-cortical structures]
[http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001272]

*** PAPERS

... LIANE SCHMIDT et al - Neural Mechanisms Underlying Motivation of Mental
Versus Physical Effort [A neuroimaging study reveals that both mental and
physical effort might be motivated by a single neural module located in deep
sub-cortical structures]
[http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001266]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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