Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Reviews or summaries of the recent literature are posted here.

EAORC Bulletin 552

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jan 13, 2014 12:58 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 552 – 12 January 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – The Only Thing Constant about Friendship May Be the Number of Your Friends. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Searching for the Amazon's Hidden Civilizations. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: How to Understand Dog. 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Most Fascinating Human Evolution Discoveries of 2013. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Are Straight Women and Gay Men "Natural Allies"? An Evolutionary Account 1

SCIAM NEWS – A New Method to Measure Consciousness Proposed. 2

SCIAM NEWS – Chimps Choose Friends Like Themselves. 2

SCIAM NEWS – Can Chimpanzees Teach Us Anything about Differences between Boys and Girls?. 2

SCIAM NEWS – A Glimpse into the Sexual Lives of Chimpanzees. 2

SCI-NEWS.COM – Ardipithecus ramidus: Study Links Ancient Hominid to Human Lineage. 2

WORLDSCIENCE – An evolutionary role for "Jackass"-like stunts?. 2

WORLDSCIENCE – Earlier brain "pruning" may explain girls' faster maturation. 2

PAID STUDY – Undergraduate Summer Research Program in Computational Biology. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 3

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 February 2014. 3

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 February 2014. 3

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 12 January 2014. 3

New Scientist – 11 January 2014. 3

Science – 10 January 2014. 3

Nature – 9 January 2014. 3

PLOS One – 8 January 2014. 3

PNAS – 7 January 2014. 5

Animal Behaviour – January 2014. 5

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 6




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – The Only Thing Constant about Friendship May Be the Number of Your Friends

University students don't add more friends, just replace the old ones

http://news.sciencemag.org/social-scien ... ur-friends




SCIENCE NEWS – Searching for the Amazon's Hidden Civilizations

Statistical model predicts signs of agriculture in the rainforest

http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/ ... ilizations




SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: How to Understand Dog

Researchers decode emotions hidden in human and animal sounds

http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2014 ... rstand-dog




SCIAM NEWS – The Most Fascinating Human Evolution Discoveries of 2013

“There were so many exciting new findings that bear on scientists’ understanding of just about every chapter of humanity’s seven-million-year saga—from our ancestors’ first upright steps to the peopling of the Americas.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/obs ... O_20140106




SCIAM NEWS – Are Straight Women and Gay Men "Natural Allies"? An Evolutionary Account

“Not every gay man has a female best friend, nor does every straight woman have a gay man as her most trusted confidant. But according to a recent article in Evolutionary Psychology, every one should. The authors of this piece, the psychologist Eric Russell and his colleagues from Texas Christian University, claim that the age-old relationship between the homosexual male and the heterosexual female served (and likely continues to serve) a biologically adaptive function.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ber ... O_20140106




SCIAM NEWS – A New Method to Measure Consciousness Proposed

“Associating an emotional expression of the face with a “motion of the mind” was an astonishing insight by Da Vinci and a surprisingly modern metaphor. Today we correlate specific patterns of electrochemical dynamics (i.e. “motions”) of the central nervous system, with emotional feelings. Consciousness, the substrate for any emotional feeling, is itself a “motion of the mind,” an ephemeral state characterized by certain dynamical patterns of electrical activity. Even if all the neurons, their constituent parts and neuronal circuitry remained structurally the same, a change in the dynamics can mean the difference between consciousness and unconsciousness.”

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20140108




SCIAM NEWS – Chimps Choose Friends Like Themselves

Like humans, chimpanzees choose their friends on the basis of shared personality traits.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/video ... B_20140108




SCIAM NEWS – Can Chimpanzees Teach Us Anything about Differences between Boys and Girls?

” One recent study looked at the behaviour of eight female and twelve male chimpanzee infants to see if their behaviour differed from each other. They found that the young males were more sociable than the young females.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/not ... B_20140108




SCIAM NEWS – A Glimpse into the Sexual Lives of Chimpanzees

Chimpanzee sexual displays are conventionalised and use a small range of signals

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/not ... B_20140108




SCI-NEWS.COM – Ardipithecus ramidus: Study Links Ancient Hominid to Human Lineage

A new study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, confirms close relationship of Ardipithecus ramidus – a species of hominid that lived in the east of the African continent around 4.4 million years ago – to the subsequent Australopithecus and humans.

http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/a ... ce+News%29




WORLDSCIENCE – An evolutionary role for "Jackass"-like stunts?

Risk-prone people are perceived as larger and stronger.

http://www.world-science.net/exclusives ... astard.htm




WORLDSCIENCE – Earlier brain "pruning" may explain girls' faster maturation

The brain reorganizes its connections throughout life, but the process begins earlier in girls, which may explain why they mature faster in their teens.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/131219_brain.htm




PAID STUDY – Undergraduate Summer Research Program in Computational Biology

We are pleased to announce the 5th summer for our of our NSF/DOD-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program entitled, Training and Experimentation in Computational Biology (TECBio). The TECBio REU @ Pitt is a 10-week summer program hosted by the Department of Computational and Systems Biology in the School of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh. TECBio provides a challenging and fulfilling graduate-level research experience to students in the life, physical, and computer sciences and engineering.

· Program Dates: May 19 – July 25, 2014

· Application Deadline: March 2, 2014

· Website and Application Portal: www.tecbioreu.pitt.edu

· Student Support: $5000 stipend, housing, and travel

We would be most appreciative if you were to help us spread the word of our program to students who would benefit from our endeavor. A PDF version of a flyer that highlights our program can be obtained at our program’s website – www.tecbioreu.pitt.edu.

Thank you for your support of our efforts to train the next generations of great scientists!




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 February 2014

PAPERS

C H MCMICHAEL et al – Predicting pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in Amazonia [“Using known and newly discovered terra preta sites and maximum entropy algorithms (Maxent), we determined the influence of regional environmental conditions on the likelihood that terra pretas would have been formed at any given location in lowland Amazonia. Terra pretas were most frequently found in central and eastern Amazonia along the lower courses of the major Amazonian rivers”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 5.abstract



KEVIN P JOHNSON et al – Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice [“We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees {all this says to me is that lice have 14 generations to our one, but I may be missing something}] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 4.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 February 2014

PAPERS

MICHAEL F LAND – Do we have an internal model of the outside world? [“Our phenomenal world remains stationary in spite of movements of the eyes, head and body. In addition, we can point or turn to objects in the surroundings whether or not they are in the field of view. In this review, I argue that these two features of experience and behaviour are related. The ability to interact with objects we cannot see implies an internal memory model of the surroundings, available to the motor system. And, because we maintain this ability when we move around, the model must be updated, so that the locations of object memories change continuously to provide accurate directional information. The model thus contains an internal representation of both the surroundings and the motions of the head and body: in other words, a stable representation of space. Recent functional MRI studies have provided strong evidence that this egocentric representation has a location in the precuneus, on the medial surface of the superior parietal cortex. This is a region previously identified with ‘self-centred mental imagery’, so it seems likely that the stable egocentric representation, required by the motor system, is also the source of our conscious percept of a stable world”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 5.abstract




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 12 January 2014

STILL NOTHING OF INTEREST

If no activity by 28 January I’ll take them off the bulletin.




New Scientist – 11 January 2014

NEWS

Ancient hunter-gatherers had rotten teeth [Tooth decay is supposed to be a modern disease, caused by eating starchy crops, but it first became common thousands of years before the origin of farming] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... teeth.html



ARTICLES

STEPHEN BATTERSBY – Squelch! The mystery of Britain's young bogs [most of Britain’s smaller bogs are the product of deforestation and farming – the early farmers weren’t very good at it] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -bogs.html



SANDRINE CEURSTEMONT – Stonehenge Man: not just a pretty face [Forensic analysis of a prehistoric skull gives the UK's most iconic monument a human face (unfortunately, the face of someone 500 years older than the monument), and it can be seen at the Stonehenge Visitor Centre] http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn2 ... tKByn5FCUk




Science – 10 January 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 9 January 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




PLOS One – 8 January 2014

PAPERS

CLAUDIA BECK, BERND KARDATZKI & THOMAS ETHOFER – Mondegreens and Soramimi as a Method to Induce Misperceptions of Speech Content – Influence of Familiarity, Wittiness, and Language Competence [“Here, we propose a novel method to address [ambiguous stimuli] in the auditory modality during speech perception by means of Mondgreens and Soramimi which represent song lyrics with the potential for misperception within one or across two languages, respectively. We demonstrate that such phenomena can be induced by visual presentation of the alternative percept and occur with a sufficient probability to exploit them in neuroscientific experiments. Song familiarity did not influence the occurrence of such altered perception indicating that this tool can be employed irrespective of the participants’ knowledge of music. On the other hand, previous knowledge of the alternative percept had a strong impact on the strength of altered perception which is in line with frequent reports that these phenomena can have long-lasting effects. Finally, we demonstrate that the strength of changes in perception correlated with the extent to which they were experienced as amusing as well as the vocabulary of the participants as source of potential interpretations”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0084667



THOMAS HANNAGAN et al – Deep Learning of Orthographic Representations in Baboons [“We use deep convolutional networks to emulate the primate's ventral visual stream and explore the recent finding that baboons can be trained to discriminate English words from nonwords. The networks were exposed to the exact same sequence of stimuli and reinforcement signals as the baboons in the experiment, and learned to map real visual inputs (pixels) of letter strings onto binary word/nonword responses. We show that the networks' highest levels of representations were indeed sensitive to letter combinations as postulated in our previous research. The model also captured the key empirical findings, such as generalization to novel words, along with some intriguing inter-individual differences”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0084843



KATJA LIEBAL et al with MICHAEL TOMASELLO – Does Sympathy Motivate Prosocial Behaviour in Great Apes? [“Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underlying motivations. This study addresses this issue and investigates whether four species of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus) help a conspecific more after observing the conspecific being harmed (a human experimenter steals the conspecific’s food) compared to a condition where no harming occurred. Results showed that in regard to the occurrence of prosocial behaviours, only orangutans, but not the African great apes, help others when help is needed, contrasting prior findings on chimpanzees. However, with the exception of one population of orangutans that helped significantly more after a conspecific was harmed than when no harm occurred, prosocial behaviour in great apes was not motivated by concern for others”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0084299



ISABELLE CREVECOEUR et al – First Early Hominin from Central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo) [“Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma), and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine) branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25) from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0084652



GABRIELE A MACHO – Baboon Feeding Ecology Informs the Dietary Niche of Paranthropus boisei [“Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei’s food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%–42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2–4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0084942



P CÉDRIC M P KOOLSCHIJN, JISKA S PEPER & EVELINE A CRONE – The Influence of Sex Steroids on Structural Brain Maturation in Adolescence [“Here we used high-resolution structural MRI scans from 215 typically developing individuals between ages 8–25, to examine the association between cortical thickness, surface area and (sub)cortical brain volumes with luteinizing hormone, testosterone and estradiol, and pubertal stage based on self-reports. Our results indicate sex-specific differences in testosterone related influences on gray matter volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex after controlling for age effects. No significant associations between subcortical structures and sex hormones were found. Pubertal stage was not a stronger predictor than chronological age for brain anatomical differences. Our findings indicate that sex steroids are associated with cerebral gray matter morphology in a sex specific manner”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0083929




PNAS – 7 January 2014

PAPERS

WILLIAM RENDU et al – Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints [“For several decades, scholars have questioned the existence of burial in Western Europe prior to the arrival of Anatomically Modern Humans. Therefore, an approach combining a global field recovery and the reexamination of the previously discovered Neandertal remains has been undertaken in the site of La Chapelle-aux-Saints (France), where the hypothesis of a Neandertal burial was raised for the first time. This project has concluded that the Neandertal of La Chapelle-aux-Saints was deposit in a pit dug by other members of its group and protected by a rapid covering from any disturbance. These discoveries attest the existence of West European Neandertal burial and of the Neandertal cognitive capacity to produce it”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/1/81.abstract



JASON M KAMILAR & QUENTIN D ATKINSON – Cultural assemblages show nested structure in humans and chimpanzees but not orangutans [“The evolution of culture is well-documented in the human archeological and fossil records, but equivalent data are absent for nonhuman primates. Here, we use modern variation to learn about processes of temporal evolution by measuring nestedness across human and great ape “cultural repertoires.” Cultural assemblages are nested if cultures with a small repertoire of traits tend to comprise a proper subset of traits present in more complex cultures. We find a significant degree of nestedness in human and chimpanzee cultural repertoires, but not for orangutans”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/1/111.abstract



CAROL V WARD et al – Early Pleistocene third metacarpal from Kenya and the evolution of modern human-like hand morphology [“A newly discovered metacarpal from Kaitio, Kenya, dates to 1.42 Mya and provides evidence for the evolution of the modern human hand more than 600,000 y earlier than previously documented. This bone displays a styloid process, which is part of a distinctively human rearrangement of the wrist associated with enhanced hand function when making and using tools. Prior to this discovery, the first evidence of this anatomy was found only in post–Homo erectus archaic humans. This new find documents its appearance much earlier in time and suggests that an increased reliance on manipulatory behaviors indicated by the archeological record early in the Pleistocene selected
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 553

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sat Jan 25, 2014 7:24 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 553 – 19 January 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Can You Name That Smell?. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Evolutionary Significance of the Role of Family Units in a Broader Social System.. 1

SCINEWS.COM – Paranthropus boisei: Early Hominin Survived on Tiger-nut Diet 1

SCINEWS.COM – Çatalhöyük ‘Map’ Mural May Depict Volcanic Eruption 8,900 Years Ago. 1

SCINEWS.COM – Dog, Wolf, Jackal Genomes Shed More Light on Dog Domestication. 1

SCINEWS.COM – Chimpanzees Can Use Hand Gestures to Communicate, Study Finds. 2

WORKSHOP – 9th Mind Network Meeting: Oxford. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 March 2014. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 19 January 2014. 2

New Scientist – 18 January 2014. 2

Science – 17 January 2014. 2

Nature – 16 January 2014. 3

PLOS One – 15 January 2014. 3

PNAS – 14 January 2014. 3

Current Anthropology – December 2013. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 6




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Can You Name That Smell?

Nomadic rainforest people can describe odours as easily as the rest of us name colours

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavi ... name-smell




NATURE REPORTS – Evolutionary Significance of the Role of Family Units in a Broader Social System

Bradford R. Greening, Nina H. Fefferman

Building on previous models of selfishly-motivated self-organizing societies, we explore the evolutionary trade-off between inclusion and maintenance of family groups and the ability of a population to sustain a well-organized social structure. Our results demonstrate that the interactions between Hamiltonian and organizationally-based indirect benefits to individual fitness interact to favor certain types of social affiliation traits. Conversely, we show how particular types of social affiliation dynamics may provide selective pressures to limit the size of behaviorally-defined familial groups.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140109/ ... P-20140114




SCINEWS.COM – Paranthropus boisei: Early Hominin Survived on Tiger-nut Diet

Paranthropus boisei, an early hominin that lived in East Africa between 2.3 and 1.2 million years ago, mainly ate tiger-nuts – edible bulbous tubers of the sedge Cyperus esculentus (also known as nut grass, chufa sedge, yellow nutsedge or earth almond), according to a new study involving modern-day baboons.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCINEWS.COM – Çatalhöyük ‘Map’ Mural May Depict Volcanic Eruption 8,900 Years Ago

A new study published in the journal PLOS ONE suggests a mural excavated at the Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük in Central Anatolia, Turkey, may be based on the eruption of the nearby twin-coned volcano Mount Hasan around 6900 BC.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCINEWS.COM – Dog, Wolf, Jackal Genomes Shed More Light on Dog Domestication

A new analysis of modern dog, wolf and golden jackal genomes suggests that dogs and wolves evolved from a common ancestor between 11,000 and 16,000 years ago (or 9,000-34,000 years ago with mutation rate uncertainty).

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCINEWS.COM – Chimpanzees Can Use Hand Gestures to Communicate, Study Finds

New research published in the journal Nature Communications has found that chimpanzees can use gestures to coordinate actions in pursuit of a specific goal. In this study, scientists led by Dr Charles Menzel of Georgia State University examined how two language-trained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) communicated with a researcher to find food.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




WORKSHOP – 9th Mind Network Meeting: Oxford

Wednesday 26 March 2014

The 9th Mind Network workshop will take place in the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford.

The speakers are:

• Richard Holton (Cambridge): Actions and Thick Intentional Verbs

• Craig French (Cambridge): Vision and Knowledge

• Ellen Fridland (KCL): They've lost control: Reflections on Skill

Contact the local organisers to register (it's free).

The local organisers are:

• Joshua Shepard (joshualshep@gmail.com)

• Ian Philips (ian.phillips@st-annes.ox.ac.uk)




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 March 2014

PAPERS

ROMAN M WITTIG et al with CATHERINE CROCKFORD & KLAUS ZUBERBÜHLER – Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees [“In a population of wild chimpanzees, we measured urinary oxytocin levels following a rare cooperative event—food sharing. Subjects showed higher urinary oxytocin levels after single food-sharing events compared with other types of social feeding, irrespective of previous social bond levels. Also, urinary oxytocin levels following food sharing were higher than following grooming, another cooperative behaviour. Therefore, food sharing in chimpanzees may play a key role in social bonding under the influence of oxytocin”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 6.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 19 January 2014

STILL NOTHING OF INTEREST

If no activity by end January I’ll take them off the bulletin.




New Scientist – 18 January 2014

NEWS

Sluggish metabolisms are key to primates' long lives [Primates like humans and monkeys grow slowly, bear few young, and live a long time. Now we know why – primates simply use less energy] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... lives.html



Star-aligned temples hint at Pompeii's religious mix [Temples in the ill-fated Roman port seem to be aligned with stars important in Greek and Egyptian mythology, suggesting Pompeii was a cultural melting pot] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... s-mix.html



ARTICLES

LAURA SPINNEY – Talent for prejudice: Why humans dehumanise others [It isn't only warlords and dictators who treat others as if they are less than human. How can we tame the tendency to demean that lurks inside us all?] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... thers.html




Science – 17 January 2014

REVIEWS

YAEL PELED – One Tongue to Rule Them All? [Review of ‘Does Science Need a Global Language? English and the Future of Research’ by Scott L Montgomery] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6168/250.short




Nature – 16 January 2014

PAPERS

MATTHIAS MEYER et al with SVANTE PÄÄBO – A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos [A full mitochondrial genome from a 400,000-year-old Middle Pleistocene hominin from Spain unexpectedly reveals a close relationship to Denisovans, a sister group to the Neanderthals, raising interesting questions about the origins of Neanderthals and Denisovans] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140116




PLOS One – 15 January 2014

PAPERS

EMILIE GENTY et al with KLAUS ZUBERBÜHLER – Multi-Modal Use of a Socially Directed Call in Bonobos [“‘Contest hoots’ are acoustically complex vocalisations produced by adult and subadult male bonobos (Pan paniscus). These calls are often directed at specific individuals and regularly combined with gestures and other body signals. The aim of our study was to describe the multi-modal use of this call type and to clarify its communicative and social function. To this end, we observed two large groups of bonobos, which generated a sample of 585 communicative interactions initiated by 10 different males. We found that contest hooting, with or without other associated signals, was produced to challenge and provoke a social reaction in the targeted individual, usually agonistic chase. Interestingly, ‘contest hoots’ were sometimes also used during friendly play. In both contexts, males were highly selective in whom they targeted by preferentially choosing individuals of equal or higher social rank, suggesting that the calls functioned to assert social status”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0084738



TAKEHIRO MINAMOTO et al – Extrapunitive and Intropunitive Individuals Activate Different Parts of the Prefrontal Cortex under an Ego-Blocking Frustration [“Different people make different responses when they face a frustrating situation: some punish others (extrapunitive), while others punish themselves (intropunitive). Few studies have investigated the neural structures that differentiate extrapunitive and intropunitive individuals. The present fMRI study explored these neural structures using two different frustrating situations: an ego-blocking situation which blocks a desire or goal, and a superego-blocking situation which blocks self-esteem. In the ego-blocking condition, the extrapunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, indicating that these individuals prefer emotional processing. On the other hand, the intropunitive group (n = 9) showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting an effortful control for anger reduction. Such patterns were not observed in the superego-blocking condition”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0086036




PNAS – 14 January 2014

ARTICLES

LARRY CAHILL – Fundamental sex difference in human brain architecture [“Biomedical research in general, and neuroscience in particular, has been built on a false assumption. I refer to the assumption that one may safely ignore potential sex influences, for essentially every domain outside sexual functions and sex-specific issues like prostate function, and still learn everything fundamental there is to learn. Widespread acceptance of this false assumption among neuroscientists is the reason they still overwhelmingly use only males in their animal experiments while implying that their results will apply equally to females and why potential sex influences are still routinely ignored or dismissed even when both sexes are studied, as in many human subject and knockout mouse studies”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/2/577.extract



PAPERS

LAURI NUMMENMAA et al – Bodily maps of emotions [“Emotions coordinate our behavior and physiological states during survival-salient events and pleasurable interactions. Even though we are often consciously aware of our current emotional state, such as anger or happiness, the mechanisms giving rise to these subjective sensations have remained unresolved. Here we used a topographical self-report tool to reveal that different emotional states are associated with topographically distinct and culturally universal bodily sensations; these sensations could underlie our conscious emotional experiences”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/2/646.abstract



ARNE TRAULSEN, TORSTEN RÖHL & MANFRED MILINSKI – Democratic decisions establish stable authorities that overcome the paradox of second-order punishment [“Humans usually punish free riders but refuse to sanction those who cooperate but do not punish. However, such second-order punishment is essential to maintain cooperation. The central authorities established in modern societies punish both free riders and tax evaders. This is a paradox: would individuals who do not engage in second-order punishment strive for an authority that does? We address this puzzle with a mathematical model and an economic experiment. When individuals can choose between authorities by migrating between different communities, we find a costly bias against second-order punishment. When subjects use a majority vote instead, they vote for an authority with second-order punishment”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/2/752.abstract



MADHURA INGALHALIKAR et al – Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain [“This work … studies a very large population of 949 youths (8–22 y, 428 males and 521 females) using the diffusion-based structural connectome of the brain, identifying novel sex differences. The results establish that male brains are optimized for intrahemispheric and female brains for interhemispheric communication. The developmental trajectories of males and females separate at a young age, demonstrating wide differences during adolescence and adulthood. The observations suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/2/823.abstract




Current Anthropology – December 2013

PAPERS

EELCO J. ROHLING et al – Paleoclimate Variability in the Mediterranean and Red Sea Regions during the Last 500,000 Years: Implications for Hominin Migrations [“The Mediterranean–Red Sea region has been critical to dispersal of hominids and other species between Africa and the rest of the world, and climate and sea level are thought to be key controls on migration pathways. Assessing climate variations, we highlight increased millennial-scale variability at 480–460, 440–400, 380–360, 340–320, 260–220, 200–160, 140–120, and 80–40 thousand years ago (ka), which likely caused intermittent habitat fragmentation. We also find that passageways across the Sahara Desert and the northern out-of-Africa route (from Egypt into the Levant) were intermittently open during pluvials associated with orbital insolation maxima. No such relationship is apparent for the southern out-of-Africa route (across the Red Sea). Instead, we present a novel interpretation of combined sea-level and regional climate control on potential migrations via the southern route, with “windows of opportunity” at 458–448, 345–340, 272–265, 145–140, and 70–65 ka. The 145–140 ka window seems relevant for early colonization of Arabia at 127 ± 16 ka, and the 70–65 ka window agrees with estimates of 65 +5/−8 ka for the final out-of-Africa migration by the anatomically modern human founder group of all non-Africans”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673882



JEAN-PIERRE BOCQUET-APPEL & ANNA DEGIOANNI – Neanderthal Demographic Estimates [“Biological data suggest a similar demographic frame (life-history traits, such as potential maximum longevity, age at menarche, and duration of gestation) between Neanderthals and modern humans. Archaeological data have revealed a contradiction between the mortality pattern corresponding to 45+ yr in Neanderthals and the longevity displayed by the manifest continuum of extant mammals, including primates. Paleoclimatic data suggest that the demography of Neanderthals, living as they did under highly fluctuating climatic conditions, was subject to frequent bottlenecks”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673725



CARLES LALUEZA-FOX – Agreements and Misunderstandings among Three Scientific Fields: Paleogenomics, Archaeology, and Human Paleontology [“Here we explore some of the subjects creating confusion, such as the problems associated with molecular clocks, the difference between sequence divergence and species divergence, and the limitations of the uniparental markers. Limited understanding of how the expression of a genome shapes the phenotype (including morphology and cognition) is the main obstacle to linking the genetic and the morphological evidence available. In the case of Neanderthals (and probably Denisovans, too), it is obvious that the conspicuous morphological differences cannot be explained by differences in a list of about 100 genes alone, thus suggesting that regulatory genomic elements must have been involved. A functional analysis of the genes involved as well as a study of the genomic architecture—a complexity level above the simple DNA message—could help us fill this gap”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673387



OSBJORN M PEARSON – Hominin Evolution in the Middle-Late Pleistocene: Fossils, Adaptive Scenarios, and Alternatives [“Hominins from Europe and Africa shed light on functional adaptations and other aspects of lifeways during the Middle Paleolithic. By the end of that time span, Neanderthals and modern humans clearly differed physically and perhaps behaviorally. Explanations of the anatomical differences have largely focused on adaptation (directional selection) to climate and habitual activity, but it is hard to rule out the alternative of genetic drift. Drift would have accelerated during periods of low population numbers, while selection operates best when populations are large and expanding”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673503



CHRISTIAN A TRYON & J TYLER FAITH – Variability in the Middle Stone Age of Eastern Africa [“Eastern Africa is an important area to study early populations of Homo sapiens because subsets of those populations likely dispersed to Eurasia and subsequently throughout the globe during the Upper Pleistocene. The Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeology of this region, particularly aspects of stone-tool technology and typology, is highly variable with only rare cases of geographic and temporal patterning. Although there are differences in timing and perhaps frequency of occurrence, those elements that make up the MSA lithic tool kit are also found at contemporaneous sites elsewhere in Africa and Eurasia, making it difficult to identify a unique archaeological signal for hominin dispersals out of eastern Africa”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673752



STEVEN L KUHN – Roots of the Middle Paleolithic in Eurasia [“A key characteristic of the MP is diversity in lithic technology, manifest at various temporal and spatial scales. Looking more closely, this diversity is composed of repeated recurrences of a restricted range of alternatives. Many of the varieties of lithic production common in the MP first appeared during the early MP and some even earlier. Other typical behaviors include frequent use of fire, ochre, and hafting. These are first seen in Eurasia during the later MP (marine isotope stage [MIS] 6 and 7), the period when the entire suite of MP behaviors seems to coalesce”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673529



JAMIE L CLARK & ANDREW W KANDEL – The Evolutionary Implications of Variation in Human Hunting Strategies and Diet Breadth during the Middle Stone Age of Southern Africa [“The data indicate marked changes in subsistence over time—of particular note is a spike in the exploitation of small ungulates and other small mammals during MIS 4. Trends in shellfish utilization also suggest an increasing dietary breadth over time, although shellfish consistently represent only a small portion of the overall diet”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673386



MARY C STINER – An Unshakable Middle Paleolithic? Trends versus Conservatism in the Predatory Niche and Their Social Ramifications [“This paper focuses on MP predator economics and its social ramifications by examining the data for possible trends in the size of the hominin ecological footprint, hunting practices, trophic level, food sharing, and the intensity with which sites were occupied. Middle Paleolithic hominins were big game hunters, and they were rather specialized in their focus on ungulate prey. Low-cost gatherable small prey were a perennial if minor contribution to MP diets at lower latitudes, but the overall breadth of the meat diet remained narrow throughout the period. Discernible trends in the MP are few”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673285



SARAH WURZ – Technological Trends in the Middle Stone Age of South Africa between MIS 7 and MIS 3 [“The range of technological elements that marks the Middle Stone Age originated more than 300,000 years ago and formed the basic tool kit for an extended period of time. No spatial and chronological patterns can be identified from the Early Middle Stone Age until marine isotope stage (MIS) 5, and there is no cumulative trend of increasing complexity and diversity; instead, periods of complexity come and go”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673283



IGNACIO DE LA TORRE, JORGE MARTÍNEZ-MORENO & RAFAEL MORA – Change and Stasis in the Iberian Middle Paleolithic: Considerations on the Significance of Mousterian Technological Variability [“The European Mousterian has traditionally been portrayed as a long period of technological stasis as opposed to the technotypological dynamism of Upper Paleolithic cultures. The classic debate on Mousterian variability explained interassemblage differences either by ethnic, cultural, functional, and chronological or by paleoenvironmental causes, but variability was based on typological considerations. Recently, technological factors have been introduced in discussions over time trends and geographic differences in the Mousterian. This paper will address the topic by reviewing technological strategies in the Iberian Middle Paleolithic”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673861



ERELLA HOVERS & ANNA BELFER-COHEN – On Variability and Complexity: Lessons from the Levantine Middle Paleolithic Record [“A century of research has led to the recognition of multiple levels of technological variability in the Levantine Middle Paleolithic (MP) that cannot be resolved through single-cause explanatory models. Recent ecological models argue for continual occupation of the region and competitive coexistence of Neanderthal and modern human populations. Current paleogenetic studies underline the feasibility of the latter scenario”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673880



XING GAO – Paleolithic Cultures in China: Uniqueness and Divergence [“This paper presents an overview of the Chinese Paleolithic industries between 300 ka and 40 ka, a time span now termed the “later Early Paleolithic” (LEP) in the Chinese chronological scheme. It describes the unique features of LEP remains in China compared with contemporaneous materials in Africa and western Eurasia as well as the internal diversity and complexity of these Chinese Paleolithic assemblages. Basic features of LEP remains in China include the persistent and conservative pebble-tool and simple flake-tool traditions, the use of poor-quality local raw materials, tool fabrication on pebbles and direct use of unretouched flakes, opportunistic flaking, simple and casual modification, and the lack of obvious temporal trends”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673502



FRANCESCO D’ERRICO & WILLIAM E BANKS – Identifying Mechanisms behind Middle Paleolithic and Middle Stone Age Cultural Trajectories [“We propose a methodological framework that moves away from narrative explanations for the origin of “behavioral modernity” and instead focuses on the interplay between cultural adaptation and environmental change. We argue that by applying this approach to the many different instances of cultural change as well as stasis that characterized the last 300 kyr of human societies we may identify the mechanisms that have led us to become what we are and, if any, the underlying trends that guided this process”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673388



MARK COLLARD, BRIGGS BUCHANAN & MICHAEL J O’BRIEN – Population Size as an Explanation for Patterns in the Paleolithic Archaeological Record: More Caution Is Needed [“Here we report a study that used tool kit data from recent hunter-gatherers, in conjunction with correlation analysis and a global sample, a continental sample, and a regional sample. The results of the analyses do not support the hypothesis. Population size was correlated with some tool kit variables in the global sample, but these relationships disappeared when two factors that have previously been found to affect hunter-gatherer tool kits—risk of resource failure and mobility—were controlled for. Population size was not correlated with the tool kit variables in the other samples. The regression analyses also did not support the population size hypothesis”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673881



CHARLES PERREAULT et al – Measuring the Complexity of Lithic Technology [“Here we propose, in the spirit of Oswalt’s techno-units, that the complexity of lithic technology can be quantified by counting the procedural units involved in tool manufacture. We define procedural units as mutually exclusive manufacturing steps that make a distinct contribution to the finished form of a technology. As a proof of concept, we use the procedural-unit approach to measure the complexity of 13 Paleolithic assemblages. While preliminary, these results provide a quantitative benchmark confirming that lithic technological complexity increased throughout the Paleolithic period”] http://www.jstor.org/stable/info/10.1086/673264
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 554

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Thu Jan 30, 2014 8:55 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 554 – 26 January 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS - ScienceShot: Pupils Predict the Future. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Genetic Influences on Receptive Joint Attention in Chimpanzees. 1

NATURE REPORTS – How dolphins see the world: A comparison with chimpanzees and humans. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Collective behaviour across animal species. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Embodied social interaction constitutes social cognition in pairs of humans. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Jared Diamond, Please Stop Propagating the Myth of the Savage Savage! 2

SCIAM NEWS – “Supernova” Cave Art Myth Debunked. 2

WIRED NEWS – Warmer, Warmer, Hot! Chimpanzees Use Gestures to Communicate Location of Food. 2

SCI-NEWS.COM – Y-Chromosomal Adam Lived 208,300 Years Ago. 2

RAI RESEARCH SEMINAR – Gordon Childe, Neolithic Diffusion: a new model 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 March 2014. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 26 January 2014. 2

New Scientist – 25 January 2014. 2

Science – 24 January 2014. 3

Nature – 23 January 2014. 3

PLOS One – 22 January 2014. 3

PNAS – 21 January 2014. 3

Current Anthropology – February 2014. 4

Animal Behaviour – January 2014. 4

PLOS Biology – January 2014. 5

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 5




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS - ScienceShot: Pupils Predict the Future

Eyes reveal our decisions seconds before we make them.

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavi ... ict-future




NATURE REPORTS – Genetic Influences on Receptive Joint Attention in Chimpanzees

William D. Hopkins, Alaine C. Keebaugh, Lisa A. Reamer et al.

Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanzees ... Results revealed that performance on the social cognition task was significantly heritable.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140120/ ... P-20140121




NATURE REPORTS – How dolphins see the world: A comparison with chimpanzees and humans

Masaki Tomonaga, Yuka Uwano, Toyoshi Saito

We tested dolphins on a visual-matching task using two-dimensional geometric forms including various features. Based on error patterns, we used multidimensional scaling to analyse perceptual similarities among stimuli. In addition to dolphins, we conducted comparable tests with terrestrial species: chimpanzees were tested on a computer-controlled matching task and humans were tested on a rating task. The overall perceptual similarities among stimuli in dolphins were similar to those in the two species of primates.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140116/ ... P-20140121




NATURE REPORTS – Collective behaviour across animal species

Pietro DeLellis, Giovanni Polverino, Gozde Ustuner et al.

We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140116/ ... P-20140121




NATURE REPORTS – Embodied social interaction constitutes social cognition in pairs of humans

Tom Froese, Hiroyuki Iizuka, Takashi Ikegami

Scientists have traditionally limited the mechanisms of social cognition to one brain, but recent approaches claim that interaction also realizes cognitive work. Experiments under constrained virtual settings revealed that interaction dynamics implicitly guide social cognition. Here we show that embodied social interaction can be constitutive of agency detection and of experiencing another's presence.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140114/ ... P-20140121




SCIAM NEWS – Jared Diamond, Please Stop Propagating the Myth of the Savage Savage!

Jared Diamond is one of the great science synthesizers and popularizers of our era, and he resists the biological determinism that infects so much modern theorizing about our species.

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cro ... ge-savage/




SCIAM NEWS – “Supernova” Cave Art Myth Debunked

Thousands of years ago a star exploded in a supernova, leaving behind the glorious riot of colored gas we see now as the Crab Nebula. The light from this explosion reached Earth in 1054 A.D., creating what looked like a new bright star in the sky as recorded by ancient Chinese and Arab astronomers. Native American cave paintings, too, have been thought to represent the supernova, but when one scientist went to look at the paintings in person recently he arrived at a different story altogether.

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/obs ... -cave-art/




WIRED NEWS – Warmer, Warmer, Hot! Chimpanzees Use Gestures to Communicate Location of Food

A new study shows chimpanzees are able to use hand gestures to coordinate actions to accomplish a specific goal, such as finding hidden food.

http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2014/ ... tion-food/




SCI-NEWS.COM – Y-Chromosomal Adam Lived 208,300 Years Ago

According to new research reported in the European Journal of Human Genetics, our most recent common ancestor – the co-called Y-chromosomal Adam – lived on the Earth 208,300 years ago.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




RAI RESEARCH SEMINAR – Gordon Childe, Neolithic Diffusion: a new model

Maxime Brami, University of Liverpool

Wednesday 5 February at 5.30 pm

Vere Gordon Childe, a founding father of modern archaeology, defined the Neolithic 'revolution' as the shift from food- gathering to food-producing. Central to this theory is the spatial division between hunters-and-gatherers, who live at the expense of nature, and farmers-and-herders, who produce their own means of subsistence. This seminar attempts to re- examine the influence of the British School of Diffusionism and, in particular, of Grafton Elliot Smith on the elaboration of Childe's model. Like Childe, Smith was born and raised in Australia; and there can be no doubt that both authors shared similar mindsets, inherited from their experience of a continent, which, until 1788, was occupied mainly by nomadic hunter-gatherers, who did not practise agriculture, ceramic or metal-working. While archaeology today still follows in the footsteps of Childe, and thus, indirectly, Smith, social anthropology since 1927 has taken another turn.

This event is free, but tickets must be booked. To book tickets please go to http://brami.eventbrite.co.uk.




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 March 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 26 January 2014

STILL NOTHING OF INTEREST

If no activity by end January I’ll take them off the bulletin.




New Scientist – 25 January 2014

NEWS

Long-lost lake may have helped humans out of Africa [A 45,000-square-kilometre lake, which has long since dried up, was at the right place at the right time for key migrations in the history of our species] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... frica.html



Insect minions banned from breeding by same signal [Queen insects, from ants to wasps, all use the same chemical messengers to stop their workers reproducing {I was wrong about queen pheromone, but it still doesn’t look like a costly signal}] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ignal.html

REVIEWS

ANIL ANANTHASWAMY – What separates us from other animals? [Review of ‘The Gap: The science of what separates us from other animals’ by Thomas Suddendorf] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... uUz535FCUk




Science – 24 January 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 23 January 2014

ARTICLES

SCOTT PITNICK & DAVID W PFENNIG – Evolutionary biology: Brotherly love benefits females [“Mating competition between males often has harmful consequences for females. But it seems that fruit flies alter their behaviour among kin, with brothers being less aggressive and females reproducing for longer as a result”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20140123




PLOS One – 22 January 2014

PAPERS

LINLIN ZHU et al – Temporal Reliability and Lateralization of the Resting-State Language Network [“In this study, we established a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity analysis of language network with seed regions located at Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and investigated temporal reliability of language network and its functional asymmetry. The language network was found to be temporally reliable in both short- and long-term. In the aspect of functional asymmetry, the Broca's area was found to be left lateralized, while the Wernicke's area is mainly right lateralized. Functional asymmetry of these two areas revealed high short- and long-term reliability as well”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0085880



DAVID W GOW JR & A CONRAD NIED – Rules from Words: A Dynamic Neural Basis for a Lawful Linguistic Process [“we tested the differential predictions of rule-based, frequency–based, and top-down lexical influence-driven explanations of processes that produce phonotactic biases in phoneme categorization. Consistent with the top-down lexical influence account, brain regions associated with the representation of words had a stronger influence on acoustic-phonetic regions in trials that led to the identification of phonotactically legal (versus illegal) word-initial consonant clusters. Regions associated with the application of linguistic rules had no such effect. Similarly, high frequency phoneme clusters failed to produce stronger feedforward influences by acoustic-phonetic regions on areas associated with higher linguistic representation”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0086212



HANNA B CYGAN et al – Neural Correlates of Own Name and Own Face Detection in Autism Spectrum Disorder [“Recent empirical and theoretical work has begun to reveal evidence for a reduced or even absent self-preference effect in patients with ASD. One may hypothesize that this is related to the impaired attentional processing of self-referential stimuli. The aim of our study was to test this hypothesis. We investigated the neural correlates of face and name detection in ASD. Four categories of face/name stimuli were used: own, close-other, famous, and unknown. Event-related potentials were recorded from 62 electrodes in 23 subjects with ASD and 23 matched control subjects. P100, N170, and P300 components were analyzed. The control group clearly showed a significant self-preference effect: higher P300 amplitude to the presentation of own face and own name than to the close-other, famous, and unknown categories, indicating preferential attentional engagement in processing of self-related information. In contrast, detection of both own and close-other's face and name in the ASD group was associated with enhanced P300, suggesting similar attention allocation for self and close-other related information”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0086020




PNAS – 21 January 2014

PAPERS

JARI SARAMÄKI et al with ROBIN I M DUNBAR – Persistence of social signatures in human communication [“We combine cell phone data with survey responses to show that a person’s social signature, as we call the pattern of their interactions with different friends and family members, is remarkably robust. People focus a high proportion of their communication efforts on a small number of individuals, and this behavior persists even when there are changes in the identity of the individuals involved. Although social signatures vary between individuals, a given individual appears to retain a specific social signature over time. Our results are likely to reflect limitations in the ability of humans to maintain many emotionally close relationships, both because of limited time and because the emotional “capital” that individuals can allocate between family members and friends is finite”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/3/942.abstract



DENIS PIERRON et al – Genome-wide evidence of Austronesian–Bantu admixture and cultural reversion in a hunter-gatherer group of Madagascar [“The Mikea are the last known Malagasy population reported to be still practicing a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Earlier writers thought the Mikea were descended from ancient forager groups who have maintained their way of life up to the present. However, our analyses show that the Mikea are not a remnant population and, to the contrary, derived from a recent admixture of two agriculturalist populations: the Bantu (from Africa) and the Austronesian (from east-Asia). Thus, it is probable that the Mikea have adopted their hunter-gatherer way of life through a recent cultural reversion”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/3/936.abstract



WILLIAM H KIMBEL et al – Ardipithecus ramidus and the evolution of the human cranial base [“The Pliocene (4.4 Ma) hominoid species Ardipithecus ramidus has been linked phylogenetically to the Australopithecus + Homo clade by nonhoning canines, a short basicranium, and postcranial features related to bipedality. However, aspects of the foot and pelvis indicative of arboreal locomotion have raised arguments that this taxon may instead exemplify parallel evolution of human-like traits among apes around the time of the chimpanzee-human split. Our investigation of the basicranium shows that Ar. ramidus shares with Australopithecus and Homo a relatively short, broad central cranial base and related modifications of the tympanic, petrous, and basioccipital elements. These similarities support the proposed relationship of Ar. ramidus to Australopithecus + Homo. Reorganization of the central basicranium is among the earliest morphological attributes of this group”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/3/948.abstract



LOUISE T HUMPHREY et al – Earliest evidence for caries and exploitation of starchy plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from Morocco [“We present early evidence linking a high prevalence of caries to a reliance on highly cariogenic wild plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from North Africa. This evidence predates other high caries populations and the first signs of food production by several thousand years. We infer that increased reliance on wild plants rich in fermentable carbohydrates caused an early shift toward a disease-associated oral microbiota. Systematic harvesting and processing of wild food resources supported a more sedentary lifestyle during the Iberomaurusian than previously recognized. This research challenges commonly held assumptions that high rates of caries are indicative of agricultural societies”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/3/954.abstract




Current Anthropology – February 2014

PAPERS

M DOMÍNGUEZ-RODRIGO – Is the “Savanna Hypothesis” a Dead Concept for Explaining the Emergence of the Earliest Hominins? [“There is a growing consensus in early hominin studies that savannas did not play a significant role in the emergence of human evolutionary processes. Early hominins have been reported to be associated with densely wooded environments and sometimes forest, thereby reducing the importance of a shift from closed to open ecosystems in shaping these processes. In the second half of the twentieth century, two versions of the savanna hypothesis emerged: one depicted savannas as grasslands, the other as seasonal mosaic environments. Research has shown that the former is no longer tenable, but an increasing amount of paleoecological information provides compelling support for the latter. Here a critical review of the available paleoecological evidence is presented, and it is concluded that the savanna hypothesis not only has not been falsified but its heuristics are stronger than ever before”] http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.1086/6 ... 3300219881



REVIEWS

JAMES SACKETT – Neanderthals and Scientific Archaeology (Jelinek's Neanderthal Lithic Industries at La Quina) [Review of ‘Neanderthal Lithic Industries at La Quina’ by Arthur Jelinek] http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.1086/6 ... 3300219881




Animal Behaviour – January 2014

PAPERS

SAMUEL L DÍAZ-MUÑOZ et al – Cooperating to compete: altruism, sexual selection and causes of male reproductive cooperation [“Given the expectation that males should compete vigorously for access to females, it may at first seem paradoxical that males in some species cooperate to reproduce, often resulting in the apparent sacrifice of direct fitness by some members of these cooperative partnerships ... Here, we define and review examples of reproductive cooperation among male animals. We take an integrative approach to reviewing the potential causes of male–male cooperation, including potential adaptive hypotheses, ecological correlates, phylogenetic patterns and physiological mechanisms. The impact of male reproductive cooperation on sexual selection theory is also discussed”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213005162



EMMA I GREIG & MICHAEL S WEBSTER – How do novel signals originate? The evolution of fairy-wren songs from predator to display contexts [“We investigated two hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of predator-elicited Type II songs: (1) they originated as antipredator signals, then shifted to a display context and subsequently became more elaborate because selection pressures changed; or alternatively (2) they originated as conspecific-directed songs, then shifted to a predator context to exploit an effective communication window. Using predator playbacks and samples of natural dawn chorus recordings, we found that many Malurus species gave trills in response to predators, but only a subset gave unprompted trills during dawn chorus displays, and ancestral state reconstructions suggested that the predator-elicited context evolved first”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213005216



ELIZABETH V LONSDORF et al with JANE GOODALL – Boys will be boys: sex differences in wild infant chimpanzee social interactions [“we investigated sex differences in sociability in wild chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, infants at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We used a long-term data set on mother–infant behaviour to analyse the diversity of infant chimpanzee social partners from age 30 to 36 months. Male infants (N = 12) interacted with significantly more individuals than female infants did (N = 8), even when maternal sociability was controlled for. Furthermore, male infants interacted with significantly more adult males than female infants did. Our data indicate that the well-documented sex differences in adult chimpanzee social tendencies begin to appear quite early in development”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 721300523X



BEN T COLEMAN & RUSSELL A HILL – Living in a landscape of fear: the impact of predation, resource availability and habitat structure on primate range use [“We exploited the acoustically distinct alarm calls of samango monkeys, Cercopithecus mitis erythrarchus, to create a predator-specific landscape of fear from eagles to assess its impact on space use within mixed regressive–spatial regressive models incorporating data on resource distribution and structural characteristics of the environment. The landscape of fear from eagles was the most significant determinant of samango range use, with no effect of resource availability. The monkeys also selected areas of their range with higher canopies and higher understory visibility, behaviour consistent with further minimizing risk of predation. These results contrast with those of vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus, at the same site for which the landscapes of fear from leopards and baboons were the most significant determinants of space use”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213005356



REVIEWS

BERNHARD VOELKL – Social learning: an introduction to mechanisms, methods, and models [Review of ‘Social Learning. An Introduction to Mechanisms, Methods, and Models’ by William Hoppitt & Kevin N Laland] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213005241




PLOS Biology – January 2014

PAPERS

MICHAEL C CORBALLIS – Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies [“Handedness and brain asymmetry are widely regarded as unique to humans, and associated with complementary functions such as a left-brain specialization for language and logic and a right-brain specialization for creativity and intuition. In fact, asymmetries are widespread among animals, and support the gradual evolution of asymmetrical functions such as language and tool use. Handedness and brain asymmetry are inborn and under partial genetic control, although the gene or genes responsible are not well established. Cognitive and emotional difficulties are sometimes associated with departures from the “norm” of right-handedness and left-brain language dominance, more often with the absence of these asymmetries than their reversal.”] http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info ... io.1001767
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

Re: Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Feb 28, 2014 9:22 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 555 – 2 February 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – How Farming Reshaped Our Genomes. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – From Football Fans to Communist Regimes, It Doesn't Take Much to Form a Group. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Which Genes Did We Get From Neandertals?. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – What Killed the Great Beasts of North America?. 1

SCIENCE REPORTS – Resurrecting Surviving Neandertal Lineages from Modern Human Genomes. 1

SCIENCE REPORTS – Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Perception of Direct Gaze Does Not Require Focus of Attention. 2

NATURE REPORTS – Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve performance in humans. 2

SCIAM NEWS – Psychopaths Might Have an Impaired Empathy Circuit 2

SCIAM NEWS – 60-Second Science Podcast Baby-Talking Adults Boost Infant Word Production. 2

SCI-NEWS.COM – European Hunter-Gatherers Had Dark Skin, Blue Eyes. 2

SCI-NEWS.COM – Archaeologists Unearth 300,000-Year-Old Hearth in Israel 2

SCI-NEWS.COM – Scientists Identify Neanderthal Genes in Modern Human DNA.. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 3

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 March 2014. 3

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B –No issue this week. 3

New Scientist – 1 February 2014. 3

Science – 31 January 2014. 3

Nature – 30 January 2014. 3

PLOS One – 29 January 2014. 3

PNAS – 28 January 2014. 4

PLOS Biology – January 2014. 5

Philosophy Now – January/February 2014. 5

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 5




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – How Farming Reshaped Our Genomes

Analysis of 8000-year-old European hunter-gatherer suggests cultivation of crops and livestock dramatically reshaped our DNA

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... af612bc1da




SCIENCE NEWS – From Football Fans to Communist Regimes, It Doesn't Take Much to Form a Group

Computer model suggests two simple rules drive the creation of "us”" versus "them"

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavi ... form-group




SCIENCE NEWS – Which Genes Did We Get From Neandertals?

Ancient mixed couples gave us key genes but were partially genetically incompatible, two new studies suggest

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 2315578308




SCIENCE NEWS – What Killed the Great Beasts of North America?

Humans may have had less to do with the demise of mammoths and other giant mammals than previously thought

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 2315578308




SCIENCE REPORTS – Resurrecting Surviving Neandertal Lineages from Modern Human Genomes

Benjamin Vernot and Joshua M. Akey

“We identified Neandertal lineages that persist in the DNA of modern humans, in whole-genome sequences from 379 European and 286 East Asian individuals, recovering over 15 Gb of introgressed sequence that spans ~20% of the Neandertal genome (FDR = 5%). Analyses of surviving archaic lineages suggests that there were fitness costs to hybridization, admixture occurred both before and subsequent to divergence of non-African modern humans, and Neandertals were a source of adaptive variation for loci involved in skin phenotypes”

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early ... ce.1245938




SCIENCE REPORTS – Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

Nima Mesgarani et al.

“Superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features”

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early ... ce.1245994




NATURE REPORTS – Perception of Direct Gaze Does Not Require Focus of Attention

Takemasa Yokoyama, Hiroki Sakai, Yasuki Noguchi et al.

“We conducted a dual-task paradigm in which attention was drawn away from gaze. Results showed performance on gaze-direction discrimination (direct vs. averted gaze) in the dual-task condition was only slightly lower than in the single-task condition; participants were able to discriminate direct from averted gaze without focusing their attention in a similar manner to when they did focus their attention. In contrast, when participants discriminated between averted gazes (leftward and rightward), performance dropped to near-chance levels”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140124/ ... P-20140128




NATURE REPORTS – Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve performance in humans

G. Ganesh, A. Takagi, R. Osu et al.

“Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140123/ ... P-20140128




SCIAM NEWS – Psychopaths Might Have an Impaired Empathy Circuit

Social apathy may arise from deficient connections among emotional brain centers

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20140129




SCIAM NEWS – 60-Second Science Podcast Baby-Talking Adults Boost Infant Word Production

“Adults using so-called baby talk provide particularly good phonetic examples—producing sounds that are clearer, longer and more distinct from each other”

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podca ... B_20140129




SCI-NEWS.COM – European Hunter-Gatherers Had Dark Skin, Blue Eyes

The genome sequence of a man who lived in what is modern Spain 7,000 years ago reveals that European hunter-gatherers were dark-skinned and blue-eyed.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCI-NEWS.COM – Archaeologists Unearth 300,000-Year-Old Hearth in Israel

An international team of archaeologists has uncovered a large, stone-lined hearth – dating to about 300,000 years ago – in a cave near the modern city of Rosh HaAyin. The cave, called Qesem, is located at the foothills of the Israel’s central mountain ridge.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCI-NEWS.COM – Scientists Identify Neanderthal Genes in Modern Human DNA

In two new studies, genetic researchers have shown that about 20 percent of the Neanderthal genome survives in modern humans of non-African ancestry and identified exactly which areas of the human genome retain segments of Neanderthal DNA.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 March 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B –No issue this week




New Scientist – 1 February 2014

NEWS

Neanderthal-human sex bred light skins and infertility [A handful of sexual encounters between humans and Neanderthals may have left people outside Africa with lighter skins, straight hair and some nasty diseases] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ility.html




Science – 31 January 2014

NEWS

Neandertals and Moderns Made Imperfect Mates [Our extinct cousins left us some key genes, according to two studies of Neandertal DNA in living people, but much of their genetic legacy has been wiped out of modern genomes] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6170/471.short



REVIEWS

CHRISTOF KOCH – In the Playing Ground of Consciousness [Review of ‘Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts’ by Stanislas Dehaene] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6170/487.short




Nature – 30 January 2014

NEWS

Broken teeth point to rough diet [Teeth from a 1.8-million-year-old human fossil show signs of disease and are extremely worn — possibly from eating hard and fibrous foods] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140130



REVIEWS

CHRIS FRITH – Neuroscience: Joined-up thinking [Review of ‘Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts’ by Stanislas Dehaene] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140130



PAPERS

IÑIGO OLALDE et al – Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European [“Here we sequence an approximately 7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Braña-Arintero site in León, Spain, to retrieve a complete pre-agricultural European human genome. Analysis of this genome in the context of other ancient samples suggests the existence of a common ancient genomic signature across western and central Eurasia from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. The La Braña individual carries ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes, suggesting that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times. Moreover, we provide evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated with pathogen resistance in modern Europeans were already present in this hunter-gatherer”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20140130



SRIRAM SANKARARAMAN et al with SVANTE PÄÄBO – The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans [“We systematically infer Neanderthal haplotypes in the genomes of 1,004 present-day humans9. Regions that harbour a high frequency of Neanderthal alleles are enriched for genes affecting keratin filaments, suggesting that Neanderthal alleles may have helped modern humans to adapt to non-African environments. We identify multiple Neanderthal-derived alleles that confer risk for disease, suggesting that Neanderthal alleles continue to shape human biology. An unexpected finding is that regions with reduced Neanderthal ancestry are enriched in genes, implying selection to remove genetic material derived from Neanderthals. Genes that are more highly expressed in testes than in any other tissue are especially reduced in Neanderthal ancestry, and there is an approximately fivefold reduction of Neanderthal ancestry on the X chromosome, which is known from studies of diverse species to be especially dense in male hybrid sterility genes”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20140130




PLOS One – 29 January 2014

PAPERS

THEMBI RUSSELL, FABIO SILVA & JAMES STEELE – Modelling the Spread of Farming in the Bantu-Speaking Regions of Africa: An Archaeology-Based Phylogeography [“The ‘deep split’ hypothesis suggests that an early-branching eastern Bantu stream spread around the northern boundary of the equatorial rainforest, but recent linguistic and genetic work tends not to support this. An alternative riverine/littoral hypothesis suggests that rivers and coastlines facilitated the migration of the first farmers/horticulturalists, with some extending this to include rivers through the rainforest as conduits to East Africa. More recently, research has shown that a grassland corridor opened through the rainforest at around 3000–2500 BP, and the possible effect of this on migrating populations is also explored. Our results indicate that rivers and coasts were important dispersal corridors, but do not resolve the debate about a ‘Deep Split’”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0087854



PENGHU LIAN et al – Moving Away from Exhaustion: How Core Self-Evaluations Influence Academic Burnout [“A total of 470 university students accomplished the core self-evaluation scale, Satisfaction with Life, and academic burnout scale … Both core self-evaluations and life satisfaction were significantly correlated with academic burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that life satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between core self-evaluations and academic burnout”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0087152



DMITRIJ AGROSKIN, JOHANNES KLACKL & EVA JONAS – The Self-Liking Brain: A VBM Study on the Structural Substrate of Self-Esteem [“Using structural magnetic resonance imaging of 48 healthy adults in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry and diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL), positive associations between self-esteem and regional grey matter volume were indeed found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), right hippocampus, and left hypothalamus. In addition, self-esteem positively covaried with grey matter volume in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), which has been implicated in pride and theory of mind”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0086430



MANUEL SOLER, TOMÁS PÉREZ-CONTRERAS & JUAN MANUEL PERALTA-SÁNCHEZ – Mirror-Mark Tests Performed on Jackdaws Reveal Potential Methodological Problems in the Use of Stickers in Avian Mark-Test Studies [“Here, we have replicated the experimental design used on magpies to determine whether jackdaws (Corvus monedula) are also capable of mirror self-recognition by passing the mark test. We found that our nine jackdaws showed a very high interest towards the mirror and exhibited self-contingent behavior as soon as mirrors were introduced. However, jackdaws were not able to pass the mark test: both sticker-directed actions and sticker removal were performed with a similar frequency in both the cardboard (control) and the mirror conditions. We conclude that our jackdaws' behaviour raises non-trivial questions about the methodology used in the avian mark test. Our study suggests that the use of self-adhesive stickers on sensitive throat feathers may open the way to artefactual results because birds might perceive the stickers tactilely”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0086193




PNAS – 28 January 2014

ARTICLES

ADRIAN VILIAMI BELL – Cultural evolution and the way we count [“In 1777, explorer Captain James Cook witnessed the ‘inasi ceremony, or annual tribute presentations, where yams and other food were presented to the chiefs of Tonga. There, as in other parts across Polynesia, tributes to ruling elites and trading between islands involved managing large quantities of food, requiring numerical operations such as addition, multiplication, and division of these resources both within and between islands. As an important management tool, the system to count these quantities arose and was maintained through cumulative social learning and innovation, a prime example of Darwinian evolution”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/4/1227.extract



PAPERS

ANDREA BENDER & SIEGHARD BELLER – Mangarevan invention of binary steps for easier calculation [“The paper describes the mixed counting system in Mangarevan, which is unique in that it had three binary steps superposed onto a decimal structure. In showing how these steps affect calculation, our analysis yields important insights for theorizing on numerical cognition: counting systems serve as complex cultural tools for numerical cognition, apparently unwieldy systems may in fact be cognitively advantageous, and such advantageous systems can be—and have been—developed by nonindustrialized societies and in the absence of notational systems” {bring back pounds, shillings and pence?}] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/4/1322.abstract



HERMAN PONTZER et al – Primate energy expenditure and life history [“Measurements of daily energy expenditure indicate that primates, including humans, expend only half of the calories expected for mammals of similar body size. As energy expenditure is central to organismal biology, these results hold important implications for life history, evolutionary biology, and foraging ecology for primates and other mammals. Specifically, we show that primates’ remarkably low metabolic rates account for their distinctively slow rates of growth, reproduction, and aging] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/4/1433.abstract



EMILY BARKLEY-LEVENSON & ADRIANA GALVÁN – Neural representation of expected value in the adolescent brain [“Here we show that adolescents place greater value on rewards than do adults through exaggerated activation of the ventral striatum and that this valuation increases gambling behavior. This developmental effect remains even when controlling for income and task performance. We also find that heightened reward sensitivity leads to more advantageous risk-taking in adolescents versus adults”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/4/1646.abstract




PLOS Biology – January 2014

PAPERS

MELISSA A WILSON SAYRES, KIRK E LOHMUELLER & RASMUS NIELSEN – Natural Selection Reduced Diversity on Human Y Chromosomes [“The human Y chromosome exhibits surprisingly low levels of genetic diversity. This could result from neutral processes if the effective population size of males is reduced relative to females due to a higher variance in the number of offspring from males than from females. Alternatively, selection acting on new mutations, and affecting linked neutral sites, could reduce variability on the Y chromosome. Here, using genome-wide analyses of X, Y, autosomal and mitochondrial DNA, in combination with extensive population genetic simulations, we show that low observed Y chromosome variability is not consistent with a purely neutral model. Instead, we show that models of purifying selection are consistent with observed Y diversity”] http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/inf ... en.1004064




Philosophy Now – January/February 2014

ARTICLES

ANTONY TOMLINSON – Do languages exist? [Should we be talking about languages as shared social experiences, or is everyone’s language an idiolect, and only an approximation to other people’s?]



ROBERT HORNER – How to understand words [If words get their meanings from context, intention and social convention, where does word-to-meaning correspondence (which we seem to base our social existences on) exist?]



PETER BENSON – Derrida on language [The post-structuralist approach provides timely reminders that the Anglo-saxon analytical philosophy of language may prove incapable of addressing key issues in language and communication]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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AlgisKuliukas
 
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Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 556

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Feb 28, 2014 9:24 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 556 – 9 February 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: What Did Corn's Ancestor Really Look Like?. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Sex with Neandertals Introduced Helpful and Harmful DNA into the Modern Human Genome. 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Benefits of Talking about Thoughts with Tots. 1

SCINEWS.COM – 800,000-Year-Old Human Footprints Discovered in UK. 1

SCINEWS.COM – Only Four Basic Emotions Exist, Researchers Say. 1

WORLDSCIENCE – "Unique" brain area seen only in humans. 2

CONFERENCE - Neuroscience Day 2014. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 March 2014. 2

New Scientist – 8 February 2014. 2

Science – 7 February 2014. 3

Nature – 6 February 2014. 3

PLOS One – 4 February 2014. 3

PNAS – 3 February 2014. 3

British Archaeology – March/April 2014. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: What Did Corn's Ancestor Really Look Like?

Ancient plant was more useful than previously believed

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... d95881dff1




SCIAM NEWS – Sex with Neandertals Introduced Helpful and Harmful DNA into the Modern Human Genome

By Kate Wong

“Over the past few years a number of studies of ancient and contemporary genomes have reached the same stunning conclusion: early human species interbred, and people today carry DNA from archaic humans, including the Neandertals, as a result of those interspecies trysts. Now two new analyses of modern human genomes are providing insights into how the acquisition of Neandertal DNA affected anatomically modern Homo sapiens tens of thousands of years ago and how it continues to affect people today.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/obs ... an-genome/




SCIAM NEWS – The Benefits of Talking about Thoughts with Tots

By Rebecca Schwarzlose

“Every parent knows that toddlers are strange and inscrutable creatures. They are capricious and contradictory, particularly when trying to interact with other people. My two-year-old daughter is no exception. One moment she is worrying about a crying baby. The next, she is snatching away her friend’s toy and shouting, “Mine!” When I tell her not to do something, it feels like I’m talking to a brick wall. Yet a new study suggests that what I say to her today could shape her ability to reason about other minds for years to come.”

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20140203




SCINEWS.COM – 800,000-Year-Old Human Footprints Discovered in UK

“Archaeologists today announced the discovery of a series of footprints left by a group of adults and children about 800,000 years ago. The prints were first discovered and recorded on the foreshore at Happisburgh in Norfolk, England, in May 2013.”

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCINEWS.COM – Only Four Basic Emotions Exist, Researchers Say

“According to scientists from the University of Glasgow’s Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, there are only four basic emotions that we all experience. A commonly-held belief, first proposed by Dr Paul Ekman, posits there are six basic emotions – happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust, which are universally recognized and easily interpreted through specific facial expressions.

“But the Glasgow team challenges this view. The researchers claim that while the facial expression signals of happiness and sadness are clearly distinct across time, fear and surprise share a common signal – the wide open eyes – early in the signaling dynamics. Similarly, anger and disgust share the wrinkled nose. It is these early signals that could represent more basic danger signals. Later in the signaling dynamics, facial expressions transmit signals that distinguish all six ‘classic’ facial expressions of emotion.”

http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/p ... ce+News%29




WORLDSCIENCE – "Unique" brain area seen only in humans

“Oxford University researchers have identified a small zone at the very front of the human brain that looks unlike anything in the brains of some of our closest monkey relatives. The brain area is considered to be intimately involved in some of the most advanced planning and decision-making processes that we think of as being especially human.”

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/140128_brain.htm




CONFERENCE - Neuroscience Day 2014

Wednesday 12th March 2014, 9am - 5pm

Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Queen Street, Edinburgh

Registration for Neuroscience Day 2014 is now open. Places are limited to 300 so don't leave it too late to register. As the previous two years students at the University of Edinburgh (BSc Hons, MSc and PhD) are able to attend for free while postdocs and staff are asked to contribute £10 towards the cost of the day. Neuroscience Honours students should register via Caroline Morris, as detailed in the email to you all this morning; everyone else should register via the university epay system which is accessed from the meeting website.

Annual Distinguished Lecture

· What patients and their genetic variation can teach us about haemorrhagic stroke

· Dr Jonathan Rosand , Professor of Neurology, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and J.P. Kistler Chair in Neurology, Director, Neurocritical Care Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital

· 4pm, Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Queen Street, Edinburgh

· This lecture will be open to all to attend - you don't need to be registered for the meeting

Posters

Once again we look forward to all your posters - you need to secure a board by submitting an abstract. Takeda Cambridge UK have generously agreed to provide prizes for the PhD student poster competition and this year we plan to award a prize for each theme and an overall prize. Unfortunately, online Abstract Submission is not quite ready, but that will give you a little time to write your abstract ready for submission. I will notify you when it is ready.

Meeting website with link to registration: www.edinburghneuroscience.ed.ac.uk/neuroscienceday/2014

Please note the programme timings are currently provisional and there may well be some timing changes

Dr Jane Haley




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 March 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 8 February 2014

NEWS

Humanity's forgotten return to Africa revealed in DNA [Our species spread across the world from its African heartland about 60,000 years ago – but 3000 years ago, some humans went back to the homeland] http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn2 ... n-dna.html



Brain zapping makes role of mirror neurons clearer [Damping down brain activity with a powerful magnetic field may reveal the workings of mirror neurons, thought to help us interpret what other people do] http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn2 ... earer.html



First brain map of speech units could aid mind-reading [The map is the first to show brain areas devoted to distinct types of phoneme – it could allow what someone is hearing to be read from a brain scan] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ading.html



ARTICLES

KATE DOUGLAS – Talk is cheep: Do caged birds sing a key to language? [Understand how the Bengalese finch acquired its virtuoso singing, and you can learn a lot about the forces that freed our own tongues] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... guage.html




Science – 7 February 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 6 February 2014

NEWS

Britain's Anglo-Saxons were local [Anglo-Saxons succeeded the Romans in Britain during the early fifth century, probably through cultural adoption by local individuals rather than through invasion by Germanic people] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140206



REVIEWS

HENRY GEE – Evolution: The human puzzle [Review of ‘Neanderthal Man: In Search of Lost Genomes’ by Svante Pääbo] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140206




PLOS One – 4 February 2014

PAPERS

C FABIAN BENITEZ-QUIROZ et al – Discriminant Features and Temporal Structure of Nonmanuals in American Sign Language [“To fully define the grammar of American Sign Language (ASL), a linguistic model of its nonmanuals needs to be constructed. While significant progress has been made to understand the features defining ASL manuals, after years of research, much still needs to be done to uncover the discriminant nonmanual components. The major barrier to achieving this goal is the difficulty in correlating facial features and linguistic features, especially since these correlations may be temporally defined. For example, a facial feature (e.g., head moves down) occurring at the end of the movement of another facial feature (e.g., brows moves up), may specify a Hypothetical conditional, but only if this time relationship is maintained. In other instances, the single occurrence of a movement (e.g., brows move up) can be indicative of the same grammatical construction. In the present paper, we introduce a linguistic–computational approach to efficiently carry out this analysis”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0086268



MARIE DEVAINE, GUILLAUME HOLLARD & JEAN DAUNIZEAU – Theory of Mind: Did Evolution Fool Us? [“Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs and desires) to other people in order to understand and predict their behaviour. If others are rewarded to compete or cooperate with you, then what they will do depends upon what they believe about you. This is the reason why social interaction induces recursive ToM, of the sort “I think that you think that I think, etc.”. Critically, recursion is the common notion behind the definition of sophistication of human language, strategic thinking in games, and, arguably, ToM. Although sophisticated ToM is believed to have high adaptive fitness, broad experimental evidence from behavioural economics, experimental psychology and linguistics point towards limited recursivity in representing other’s beliefs. In this work, we test whether such apparent limitation may not in fact be proven to be adaptive, i.e. optimal in an evolutionary sense”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0087619



ELLEN EVERS et al – The EMO-Model: An Agent-Based Model of Primate Social Behavior Regulated by Two Emotional Dimensions, Anxiety-FEAR and Satisfaction-LIKE [“Agent-based models provide a promising tool to investigate the relationship between individuals’ behavior and emerging group-level patterns. An individual’s behavior may be regulated by its emotional state and its interaction history with specific individuals. Emotional bookkeeping is a candidate mechanism to keep track of received benefits from specific individuals without requiring high cognitive abilities. However, how this mechanism may work is difficult to study in real animals, due to the complexity of primate social life. To explore this theoretically, we introduce an agent-based model, dubbed EMO-model, in which we implemented emotional bookkeeping”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0087955




PNAS – 3 February 2014

PAPERS

JAN WILLEM DE GEE, TOMAS KNAPEN & TOBIAS H DONNER – Decision-related pupil dilation reflects upcoming choice and individual bias [“A number of studies reported that the pupil dilates (under constant illumination) during decision-making. Pupil dilation is also associated with the brain-wide release of modulatory neurotransmitters. It has remained unknown which specific elements of decision processes drive pupil dilation. Using a visual detection task, we here show that pupil dilation is primarily driven during, and not at the end of, a protracted decision. Further, pupil dilation differentiates between “yes” and “no” choices for conservative subjects deciding yes against their bias. Thus, pupil dilation reveals the content of the evolving decision and the decision maker’s attitude. These findings have important implications for interpreting decision-related brain activity. They also point to a possible role of neuromodulation in interacting with decision biases”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/5/E618.abstract




British Archaeology – March/April 2014

ARTICLES

NICK ASHTON – News from Happisburgh: footprints [footprints of five individuals show that humans were present in Britain nearly 1mya]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 557

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Feb 28, 2014 9:26 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 557 – 16 February 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Your Brain Sees :-) as a Real Smile. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Vikings' Secret Code Cracked. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Native Americans Descend From Ancient Montana Boy. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Why You Should Talk to Your Baby. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Human Footprints Discovered on England’s Coast Are Oldest Outside Africa. 1

SCINEWS.COM – Scientists Sequence Genome of 12,600-Year-Old Clovis Boy. 1

NATURE REPORTS - Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in macaques. 1

CONFERENCE – EVOLANG X early registration closing soon. 2

RAI RESEARCH SEMINAR - People-wildlife interactions and the human dimensions of conservation. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 April 2014. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 3

New Scientist – 15 February 2014. 3

Science – 14 February 2014. 3

Nature – 13 February 2014. 3

PLOS One – 12 February 2014. 3

PNAS – 11 February 2014. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Your Brain Sees :-) as a Real Smile

The human brain now reacts to the smiley face emoticon, :-), in the same way it reacts to a real smiling human.

http://news.sciencemag.org/signal-noise ... real-smile




SCIENCE NEWS – Vikings' Secret Code Cracked

What may look like mere scratches is much more. A 900-year-old Viking code known as jötunvillur has been cracked.

http://news.sciencemag.org/signal-noise ... de-cracked




SCIENCE NEWS – Native Americans Descend From Ancient Montana Boy

Genome of 12,700-year-old infant ties native peoples across the Americas to early hunting culture

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 688cdcfbab




SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Why You Should Talk to Your Baby

Conversing with infants increases their success later in life

http://news.sciencemag.org/social-scien ... -your-baby




SCIAM NEWS – Human Footprints Discovered on England’s Coast Are Oldest Outside Africa

Archaeologists working on the eastern coast of England have found a series of footprints that were made by human ancestors sometime between 780,000 and one million years ago. Pressed into ancient estuary mudflats now hard with age, these prints are the oldest ones known outside of Africa, where humanity got its start.




SCINEWS.COM – Scientists Sequence Genome of 12,600-Year-Old Clovis Boy

The first genome sequencing of the 12,600 years old skeletal remains of a small boy discovered at the Anzick Clovis site in Wilsall, Montana shows that the first settlers in North America came from Asia and were the direct ancestors of modern Native Americans.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




NATURE REPORTS - Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in macaques

Luisa Sartori, Andrea Camperio-Ciani, Maria Bulgheroni et al.

“Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140207/ ... P-20140211




CONFERENCE – EVOLANG X early registration closing soon

Early registration for EVOLANG X closes on 28 February.

EVOLANG X, the 10th International Conference on the Evolution of Language will take place at Vienna University from 14 to 17 April 2014. Since its foundation in 1996, the series has evolved into one of the most exciting and most interdisciplinary conferences in the field of contemporary language studies. Going far beyond exploring the biological emergence of the language faculty, it addresses a broad range of fundamental linguistic issues from evolutionary perspectives.

EVOLANG conferences are attended by linguists, anthropologists, archaeologists, biologists, cognitive scientists, geneticists, palaeontologists, physiologists, primatologists, psychologists, computer scientists, musicologists and mathematicians. Approaching the study of language from a multitude of different perspectives, they explore the role of evolutionary thinking in the study of human language and its diverse manifestations. More information about the series is available at www.evolang.org.

The 2014 event marks the 18th birthday of EVOLANG. Representing the 10th conference in the series, it demonstrates that evolutionary language studies have developed a mature and sustainable programme that continues to produce stimulating and fruitful research.

As stated above, the early registration period is ending soon. While it will remain possible to register for EVOLANG X up to the beginning of the event itself, it is only until the end of this month (i.e. until February 28) that reduced application fees apply. Registration can be done online via the EVOLANG X site http://evolangx.univie.ac.at/.




RAI RESEARCH SEMINAR - People-wildlife interactions and the human dimensions of conservation

- Human-Wildlife Conflicts, People-Wildlife Interactions, or People-People Conflicts?

Professor Catherine M Hill, Oxford Brookes University

Wednesday 26 February at 5.30 pm

Once the undisputed domain of biologists and ecologists, conservation science is increasingly recognised as a multidisciplinary field that seeks to understand and manage the interface between “environmental and human interests”, incorporating perspectives from the social sciences where deemed appropriate. Within this revised conservation science, understanding human-environment interactions and people-wildlife relationships is often presented as critical to developing effective conservation strategies. This integrated perspective is strongly advocated by researchers in the context of ‘human-wildlife conflicts’, a term commonly used to indicate situations where wildlife behaviour or presence impacts negatively on human interests/activities, for example, elephants feeding on and trampling crops, wolves predating livestock, or even raptors predating game birds.

Using ‘human-wildlife conflict’ as a focal point I (i) examine the contribution of anthropology and/or social sciences to our understanding of the nature of these conflicts, and (ii) consider the implications of these changing perspectives for managing existing ‘human-wildlife conflicts’.

This event is free, but tickets must be booked. To book tickets please go to http://katehill.eventbrite.co.uk.




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 April 2014

COMMENTARY

MARCO DEL GIUDICE – Life history plasticity in humans: the predictive value of early cues depends on the temporal structure of the environment http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 32222.full



DANIEL NETTLE, WILLEM E FRANKENHUIS & AND IAN J RICKARD – The evolution of predictive adaptive responses in humans: response http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 32822.full



PAPERS

PATRICK FORBER & RORY SMEAD – The evolution of fairness through spite [“The presence of apparently irrational fair play in the ultimatum game remains a focal point for studies in the evolution of social behaviour. We investigate the role of negative assortment in the evolution of fair play in the ultimatum game. Spite—social behaviour that inflicts harm with no direct benefit to the actor—can evolve when it is disproportionally directed at individuals playing different strategies. The introduction of negative assortment alters the dynamics in a way that increases the chance fairness evolves, but at a cost: spite also evolves. Fairness is usually linked to cooperation and prosocial behaviour, but this study shows that it may have evolutionary links to harmful antisocial behaviour”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 9.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




New Scientist – 15 February 2014

NEWS

Ancestry of first Americans revealed by a boy's genome [The genes of a boy who died 12,600 years ago show that all indigenous people in the Americas seem to be descended from the same group of ancestors] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... enome.html




Science – 14 February 2014

NEWS

Ancient Infant Was Ancestor of Today's Native Americans [A child who lived nearly 13,000 years ago in what is today Montana was closely related to the ancestors of today's Native Americans] http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 906196dc6c



PAPERS

GARRETT HELLENTHAL et al – A Genetic Atlas of Human Admixture History [“Modern genetic data combined with appropriate statistical methods have the potential to contribute substantially to our understanding of human history. We have developed an approach that exploits the genomic structure of admixed populations to date and characterize historical mixture events at fine scales. We used this to produce an atlas of worldwide human admixture history, constructed by using genetic data alone and encompassing over 100 events occurring over the past 4000 years. We identified events whose dates and participants suggest they describe genetic impacts of the Mongol empire, Arab slave trade, Bantu expansion, first millennium CE migrations in Eastern Europe, and European colonialism, as well as unrecorded events, revealing admixture to be an almost universal force shaping human populations”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6172/747.abstract




Nature – 13 February 2014

NEWS

Palaeogenomics: Genetic roots of the first Americans [The whole-genome sequence of a human associated with the earliest widespread culture in North America confirms the Asian ancestry of the Clovis people and their relatedness to present-day Native Americans] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140213



REVIEWS

JASCHA HOFFMAN – Q&A: Acoustic archaeologist [Rupert Till at the University of Huddersfield, UK, studies the sonic properties of caves containing prehistoric paintings. As he addresses a conference in Malta on the archaeology of sound, he talks about the hum of Stonehenge, acoustic fingerprinting and simulating primeval concerts in the dark] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140213



PAPERS

MORTEN RASMUSSEN et al with RASMUS NIELSEN & ESKE WILLERSLEV – The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana [“The first individual genome from the Clovis culture is presented; the origins and genetic legacy of the people who made Clovis tools have been under debate, and evidence here suggests that the individual is more closely related to all Native American populations than to any others, refuting the hypothesis that the Clovis people arrived via European (Solutrean) migration to the Americas”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140213




PLOS One – 12 February 2014

PAPERS

NICK ASHTON et al with MARK LEWIS & CHRIS STRINGER – Hominin Footprints from Early Pleistocene Deposits at Happisburgh, UK [“Investigations at Happisburgh, UK, have revealed the oldest known hominin footprint surface outside Africa at between ca. 1 million and 0.78 million years ago. The site has long been recognised for the preservation of sediments containing Early Pleistocene fauna and flora, but since 2005 has also yielded humanly made flint artefacts, extending the record of human occupation of northern Europe by at least 350,000 years”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0088329



ISABELLE CREVECOEUR et al – First Early Hominin from Central Africa (Ishango, Democratic Republic of Congo) [“Despite uncontested evidence for fossils belonging to the early hominin genus Australopithecus in East Africa from at least 4.2 million years ago (Ma), and from Chad by 3.5 Ma, thus far there has been no convincing evidence of Australopithecus, Paranthropus or early Homo from the western (Albertine) branch of the Rift Valley. Here we report the discovery of an isolated upper molar (#Ish25) from the Western Rift Valley site of Ishango in Central Africa in a derived context, overlying beds dated to between ca. 2.6 to 2.0 Ma. We used µCT imaging to compare its external and internal macro-morphology to upper molars of australopiths, and fossil and recent Homo. We show that the size and shape of the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) surface discriminate between Plio-Pleistocene and post-Lower Pleistocene hominins, and that the Ishango molar clusters with australopiths and early Homo from East and southern Africa. A reassessment of the archaeological context of the specimen is consistent with the morphological evidence and suggest that early hominins were occupying this region by at least 2 Ma”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0084652



GRAHAM M HUGHES, EMMA C TEELING & DESMOND G HIGGINS – Loss of Olfactory Receptor Function in Hominin Evolution [“The mammalian sense of smell is governed by the largest gene family, which encodes the olfactory receptors (ORs). The gain and loss of OR genes is typically correlated with adaptations to various ecological niches. Modern humans have 853 OR genes but 55% of these have lost their function. Here we show evidence of additional OR loss of function in the Neanderthal and Denisovan hominin genomes using comparative genomic methodologies. Ten Neanderthal and 8 Denisovan ORs show evidence of loss of function that differ from the reference modern human OR genome. Some of these losses are also present in a subset of modern humans, while some are unique to each lineage. Morphological changes in the cranium of Neanderthals suggest different sensory arrangements to that of modern humans. We identify differences in functional olfactory receptor genes among modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting varied loss of function across all three taxa”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0084714



MARIE-HÉLÈNE MONCEL et al – Early Evidence of Acheulean Settlement in Northwestern Europe - La Noira Site, a 700 000 Year-Old Occupation in the Center of France [“At la Noira (Brinay, Central France), the Middle Pleistocene alluvial formation of the Cher River covers an archaeological level associated with a slope deposit (diamicton). The lithic assemblage from this level includes Large Cutting Tools (LCTs), flakes and cores, associated with numerous millstone slabs. The lithic series is classified as Acheulean on the basis of both technological and typological analyses. Cryoturbation features indicate that the slope deposits and associated archaeological level were strongly frozen and disturbed after hominin occupation and before fluvial deposition. Eight sediment samples were dated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) method and the weighted average age obtained for the fluvial sands overlying the slope deposits is 665±55 ka. This age is older than previous chronological data placing the first European Acheulean assemblages north of 45th parallel north at around 500 ka and modifies our current vision of the initial peopling of northern Europe”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0075529



YONATAN SAHLE et al – Earliest Stone-Tipped Projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift Date to >279,000 Years Ago [“Composite projectile technologies are considered indicative of complex behavior and pivotal to the successful spread of Homo sapiens. Direct evidence for such projectiles is thus far unknown from >80,000 years ago. Data from velocity-dependent microfracture features, diagnostic damage patterns, and artifact shape reported here indicate that pointed stone artifacts from Ethiopia were used as projectile weapons (in the form of hafted javelin tips) as early as >279,000 years ago. In combination with the existing archaeological, fossil and genetic evidence, these data isolate eastern Africa as a source of modern cultures and biology”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0078092



NICOLAS BEDO, URS RIBARY & LAWRENCE M WARD – Fast Dynamics of Cortical Functional and Effective Connectivity during Word Reading [“Independent component analysis of high-density EEG recorded during a word reading task recovered multiple sources of electrical brain activity previously identified by fMRI and PET. Results confirmed the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOT) as a central hub for word reading, showing a progression of theta-band (3–7 Hz) and gamma-band (30–50 Hz) phase synchronization and directed theta-band and gamma-band information flow with both early visual areas and high-level language-processing areas”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0088940




PNAS – 11 February 2014

PAPERS

PONTUS SKOGLUND et al with SVANTE PÄÄBO – Separating endogenous ancient DNA from modern day contamination in a Siberian Neandertal [“Strict laboratory precautions against present day human DNA contamination are standard in ancient DNA studies, but contamination is already present inside many ancient human fossils from previous handling without specific precautions. We designed a statistical framework to isolate endogenous ancient DNA sequences from contaminating sequences using postmortem degradation patterns and were able to reduce high-contamination fractions to negligible levels. We captured DNA sequences from a contaminated Neandertal bone from Okladnikov Cave in Siberia and used our method to assemble its mitochondrial genome sequence, which we find to be from a lineage basal to five of six previously published complete Neandertal mitochondrial genomes. Our method paves the way for the large-scale genetic analysis of contaminated human remains”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/6/2229.abstract
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 558

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Feb 28, 2014 9:27 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 558 – 23 February 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Elephants Console Each Other. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Mom Makes Different Milk for Boys and Girls. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – How Dogs Know What You're Feeling. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Jazz Music Activates Some Language Centers of Brain. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Ancient Genome Suggests Native Americans Really Did Descend from First Americans. 1

SCI-NEWS.COM – Asian Elephants Reassure Others in Distress, Study Finds. 1

SCI-NEWS.COM – Indus Script Based on Sanskrit Language. 1

CONFERENCE – EHBEA 2014 conference early bird registration. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 April 2014. 2

New Scientist – 22 February 2014. 2

Science – 21 February 2014. 2

Nature – 20 February 2014. 2

PLOS One – 19 February 2014. 2

PNAS – 18 February 2014. 3

Animal Behaviour – March 2014. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 3




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Elephants Console Each Other

More evidence for empathy in elephants

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... e4b0e78e52




SCIENCE NEWS – Mom Makes Different Milk for Boys and Girls

“Your mom’s breast milk was made just for you. Scientists have found that the milk mothers produce can vary in content and quantity depending on the baby’s gender”

http://news.sciencemag.org/signal-noise ... -and-girls




SCIENCE NEWS – How Dogs Know What You're Feeling

The canine brain has a humanlike voice area

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 329d74b033




SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Jazz Music Activates Some Language Centers of Brain

Brain sees musical improvisation as a form of communication

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 329d74b033




SCIAM NEWS – Ancient Genome Suggests Native Americans Really Did Descend from First Americans

The new analysis of "Clovis boy" DNA also stirs an ethics debate about the handling of tribal remains

http://links.email.scientificamerican.c ... &mt=1&rt=0




SCI-NEWS.COM – Asian Elephants Reassure Others in Distress, Study Finds

A study led by Dr Joshua Plotnik from Mahidol University and the Think Elephants International has found that Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) console others who are in distress, using physical touches and vocalizations.

http://www.sci-news.com/biology/science ... ce+News%29




SCI-NEWS.COM – Indus Script Based on Sanskrit Language

Inscriptions on Indus seals give details about animals sacrificed and nature of ceremony. Some ceremonies were performed for obtaining remission of sins and others were for pleasing the souls of dead ancestors (Pithru Karma ceremony).

http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/l ... ce+News%29




CONFERENCE – EHBEA 2014 conference early bird registration

6-9 April 2014, Bristol, UK

Just a brief reminder that EHBEA 2014 conference early bird registration rates end Friday 28 February.

You can register for the conference here: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/european ... 9813738155.

The conference website provides further information: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/expsych/events/ehbea2014




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 April 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 22 February 2014

NEWS

Legacy of Empire visible in our genes [“we can see the impact of major chapters in history, like the Mongol conquests, in our genes today]




Science – 21 February 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 20 February 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




PLOS One – 19 February 2014

PAPERS

CLAUDIA KUBICEK et al – Cross-Modal Matching of Audio-Visual German and French Fluent Speech in Infancy [“In Experiment 1, 4.5- and 6-month-old infants’ audio-visual matching ability of native (German) and non-native (French) fluent speech was assessed by presenting auditory and visual speech information sequentially, that is, in the absence of temporal synchrony cues. The results showed that 4.5-month-old infants were capable of matching native as well as non-native audio and visual speech stimuli, whereas 6-month-olds perceived the audio-visual correspondence of native language stimuli only. This suggests that intersensory matching narrows for fluent speech between 4.5 and 6 months of age. In Experiment 2, auditory and visual speech information was presented simultaneously, therefore, providing temporal synchrony cues. Here, 6-month-olds were found to match native as well as non-native speech indicating facilitation of temporal synchrony cues on the intersensory perception of non-native fluent speech. Intriguingly, despite the fact that audio and visual stimuli cohered temporally, 12-month-olds matched the non-native language only”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0089275



VITÓRIA PIAI et al – Distinct Patterns of Brain Activity Characterise Lexical Activation and Competition in Spoken Word Production [“Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog) with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat), unrelated (pin), or identical (dog). Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350–650 ms (4–10 Hz) in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0088674



GABRIEL F DONNAY et al – Neural Substrates of Interactive Musical Improvisation: An fMRI Study of ‘Trading Fours’ in Jazz [“Here we show that interactive improvisation between two musicians is characterized by activation of perisylvian language areas linked to processing of syntactic elements in music, including inferior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal gyrus, and deactivation of angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, brain structures directly implicated in semantic processing of language. These findings support the hypothesis that musical discourse engages language areas of the brain specialized for processing of syntax but in a manner that is not contingent upon semantic processing. Therefore, we argue that neural regions for syntactic processing are not domain-specific for language but instead may be domain-general for communication”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0088665



JOSÉ MARÍA BERMÚDEZ DE CASTRO et al – On the Variability of the Dmanisi Mandibles [“Our study reveals remarkable shape differences between D2600 and the other two mandibles, that are established early in the ontogeny (during childhood or even before) and that do not depend on size or sexual dimorphism. In addition, D2600 exhibits a mosaic of primitive and derived features regarding the Homo clade, which is absent in D211 and D2735. This mosaic expression is related to the location of the features and can be explained under the concept of modularity. Our study would support the possibility of two different paleodemes represented at the Dmanisi site”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0088212




PNAS – 18 February 2014

PAPERS

JOSEPH K PICKRELL et al with DAVID REICH – Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa [“The history of southern Africa involved interactions between indigenous hunter–gatherers and a range of populations that moved into the region. Here we use genome-wide genetic data to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter–gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants). One involved populations related to Niger–Congo-speaking African populations, and the other introduced ancestry most closely related to west Eurasian (European or Middle Eastern) populations. We date this latter admixture event to ∼900–1,800 y ago and show that it had the largest demographic impact in Khoisan populations that speak Khoe–Kwadi languages. A similar signal of west Eurasian ancestry is present throughout eastern Africa. In particular, we also find evidence for two admixture events in the history of Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ethiopian populations, the earlier of which involved populations related to west Eurasians and which we date to ∼2,700–3,300 y ago. We reconstruct the allele frequencies of the putative west Eurasian population in eastern Africa and show that this population is a good proxy for the west Eurasian ancestry in southern Africa. The most parsimonious explanation for these findings is that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/7/2632.abstract




Animal Behaviour – March 2014

PAPERS

MIKE MESTERTON-GIBBONS & TOM N SHERRATT – Bourgeois versus anti-Bourgeois: a model of infinite regress [“One of the first applications of game theory in the field of animal behaviour was to show that respect for ownership (Bourgeois behaviour) can arise as an arbitrary convention to avoid costly disputes. However, this same theory indicated that a mirror-image dispute-avoiding convention in which owners concede their property to intruders (anti-Bourgeois) is also stable under the same conditions. It has since been shown repeatedly that the first individuals to find resources are frequently left unchallenged, while evidence for the alternative convention, according to which owners relinquish property to intruders without conflict, is rare at best. By far the most commonly invoked explanation for the rarity of anti-Bourgeois is that two individuals employing such behaviour over repeated rounds would be swapping roles continually, a potentially inefficient outcome known as ‘infinite regress.’ Here we set out to test the validity of this verbal reasoning by analysing a Hawk–Dove model with ownership asymmetry but introducing a fixed probability w that two individuals meet again. While assuming that the resource has value to the winner (realized either at the end of the interaction, or after each round) and losers of fights pay costs, we also assume that individuals incur costs in taking ownership and relinquishing it. Contrary to expectation and despite the inefficiency of the anti-Bourgeois equilibrium, ‘infinite regress’ does not always render anti-Bourgeois unviable. Indeed if fighting is cheap, then repeated interactions can generate an anti-Bourgeois equilibrium where previously only obligate Hawk was a stable population strategy. Nevertheless, when probability w exceeds thresholds determined by the costs of taking and relinquishing ownership, Bourgeois can become the only stable convention. Collectively, our model demonstrates that although infinite regress can facilitate the evolution of Bourgeois-like conventions, it is no panacea”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7214000086
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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AlgisKuliukas
 
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Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 559

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sun Mar 16, 2014 7:01 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 559 – 2 March 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Linguist Takes Over as Italy's Science Minister. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Neandertals and Moderns Made Imperfect Mates. 1

NATURE NEWS – PastCast – February 1925: The Man-Ape of South Africa. 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Hunt for Neandertal Genes [Excerpt] 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Science Is In: Elephants Are Even Smarter Than We Realized [Video] 1

SCIAM NEWS – Where do Savant Skills Come From?. 2

SCINEWS.COM – Scientists Discover Dedicated Voice Area in Dog Brain. 2

SCINEWS.COM – Ancestors of Native Americans Spent 10,000 Years on Bering Land Bridge. 2

BIOME NEWS – Anthropology fingerprints. 2

BIOME NEWS – Music of the genes. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 April 2014. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 3

Frontiers in Psychology (Evolutionary Psychology and Neuroscience) – 2 March 2014. 3

New Scientist – 1 March 2014. 3

Science – 28 February 2014. 4

Nature – 27 February 2014. 4

PLOS One – 26 February 2014. 5

PNAS – 25 February 2014. 5

Language and Cognition – March 2014. 5

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 6




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Linguist Takes Over as Italy's Science Minister

“On Friday, Italy's new prime minister, Matteo Renzi, announced that Stefania Giannini will be his minister of education, universities, and research. Giannini will have the unthankful job of preserving what's left of Italy's scientific legacy at a time of shrinking budgets.”

http://news.sciencemag.org/europe/2014/ ... e-minister




SCIENCE NEWS – Neandertals and Moderns Made Imperfect Mates

Living people in Europe and Asia still carry traces of long-ago unions between Neandertals and modern humans. Two studies pinpoint genes we have inherited from our extinct cousins, including some that leave their mark on hair and skin and others that are implicated in disease. But the studies also show that those ancient mixed couples were not fully compatible genetically. The descendants of their unions—especially the males—became less fertile over time, purging many Neandertal genes from modern genomes.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6170/471.Summary




NATURE NEWS – PastCast – February 1925: The Man-Ape of South Africa

February's PastCast: Paleontologist Raymond Dart had newly arrived in South Africa when he came across a fossil that would change his life and his science. It was the face, jaw and brain cast of an extinct primate – not quite ape and not quite human. The paleontology community shunned the find, and proving that the creature was a human relative took decades.

http://links.ealert.nature.com/ctt?kn=1 ... &mt=1&rt=0




SCIAM NEWS – The Hunt for Neandertal Genes [Excerpt]

Biologist Svante Pääbo describes the thrilling discovery of DNA from the bones of an ancient Neandertal in this excerpt from his new book

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20140224




SCIAM NEWS – The Science Is In: Elephants Are Even Smarter Than We Realized [Video]

We now have solid evidence that elephants are some of the most intelligent, social and empathic animals around—so how can we justify keeping them in captivity?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20140226




SCIAM NEWS – Where do Savant Skills Come From?

“There’s a scene in the 1988 movie Rain Man in which Raymond Babbitt (played by Dustin Hoffman) recites a waitress’s phone number. Naturally the waitress is shocked. Instead of mental telepathy, Raymond had memorized the entire telephone book and instantly recognized the name on her nametag.

“Hoffman’s character was heavily influenced by the life of Kim Peek, a real memory savant who recently passed away. Peek was born without a corpus callosum, the fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres of the brain. He was also born missing parts of the cerebellum, which is important for motor control and the learning of complex, well-rehearsed routines.

“When Peek was 9 months old, a doctor recommended he be institutionalized due to his severe mental disability. By the age of 6, when Peek had already memorized the first eight volumes of the family encyclopedia, another doctor recommended a lobotomy. By 14, Peek completed a high school curriculum.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/bea ... come-from/




SCINEWS.COM – Scientists Discover Dedicated Voice Area in Dog Brain

Dogs have dedicated voice area in their brains, just as people do, say scientists from Hungary led by Dr Attila Andics of MTA-ELTE’s Comparative Ethology Research Group.

http://www.sci-news.com/biology/science ... ce+News%29




SCINEWS.COM – Ancestors of Native Americans Spent 10,000 Years on Bering Land Bridge

An international team of scientists led by Dr Dennis O’Rourke from the University of Utah has discovered how Native Americans may have survived the last Ice Age after splitting from their Asian relatives 25,000 years ago.

http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/a ... ce+News%29




BIOME NEWS – Anthropology fingerprints

DNA fingerprinting revolutionised the field of forensic science in the 1980s, however it went on to leave its mark across a far wider range of disciplines, including that of anthropological genetics. Michael Crawford explains how the field of anthropological genetics has changed since his career began, and the future of DNA markers in this area of research.

http://www.biomedcentral.com/biome/mich ... mailvision




BIOME NEWS – Music of the genes

One of the most famous musical dynasties is that of the Bachs, with seven generations of noted musicians. Is such musical prowess wired in our genes? Mark Jobling, professor of genetics at the University of Leicester and Investigative Genetics Editorial Board member, discusses the possibility.

http://www.biomedcentral.com/biome/the- ... mailvision




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 April 2014

PAPERS

MEL GREAVES – Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution? [“Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1–2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins” {I have included this for completeness, but the use of the word “emergence” in the final sentence seems to ignore the melanism in our primate relatives. It’s a free paper, so judge for yourselves.}] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 5.abstract



MIKOŁAJ HERNIK, PASCO FEARON & GERGELY CSIBRA – Action anticipation in human infants reveals assumptions about anteroposterior body-structure and action [“We examine the hypothesis that the evolutionarily ancient relation between anteroposterior body-structure and behaviour guides our cognitive processing of agents and their actions. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that, after limited exposure, human infants as young as six months of age spontaneously encode a novel agent as having a certain axial direction with respect to its actions and rely on it when anticipating the agent's further behaviour. We found that such encoding is restricted to objects exhibiting cues of agency and does not depend on generalization from features of familiar animals”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 5.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Psychology (Evolutionary Psychology and Neuroscience) – 2 March 2014

{I wrote to Frontiers (Nature) to find out why Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience was inactive, and they told me it had become a historical site, closed for new submissions. They directed me to the above publication, the plundering of which is given below. There is still nothing on the FiEN web page to indicate that it is closed.}



PAPERS

JOSEPH A BULBULIA – Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization [“Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negative valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video footage and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage predictions, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers”] http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/ ... 0/abstract



ALEXANDER BENTLEY & MICHAEL J O’BRIEN – Cultural evolutionary tipping points in the storage and transmission of information [“Human culture has evolved through a series of major tipping points in information storage and communication. The first was the appearance of language, which enabled communication between brains and allowed humans to specialize in what they do and to participate in complex mating games. The second was information storage outside the brain, most obviously expressed in the “Upper Paleolithic Revolution” – the sudden proliferation of cave art, personal adornment, and ritual in Europe some 35,000–45,000 years ago. More recently, this storage has taken the form of writing, mass media, and now the Internet, which is arguably overwhelming humans’ ability to discern relevant information. The third tipping point was the appearance of technology capable of accumulating and manipulating vast amounts of information outside humans, thus removing them as bottlenecks to a seemingly self-perpetuating process of knowledge explosion”] http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/ ... 9/abstract



DARIO MAESTRIPIERI et al – A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women’s loss of reproductive value [“In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35–50 years and 51–65 years, respectively) and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: (1) that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; (2) that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and (3) that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female) middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data” {another study with an unstated and unexamined adposition: is “attractiveness of” as fundamental a measure as “attractiveness to”?}] http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/ ... 9/abstract



REVIEWS

IAIN DEWITT – Language evolution and recursive thought [Review of ‘The Recursive Mind: The Origins of Human Language, Thought, and Civilization’, edited by Michael C Corballis] http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/ ... 00812/full




New Scientist – 1 March 2014

NEWS

Dog brains respond to calls just like human brains [The brains of humans and dogs light up in the same place in response to vocal sounds, suggesting these processing areas are inherited from a common ancestor] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... rains.html



Mystery Voynich manuscript gets preliminary alphabet [Symbols in the medieval text have been mapped to sounds using a method reminiscent of the one that helped linguists decode Egyptian hieroglyphs] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... habet.html



Racial categories aren't hardwired in our minds [Psychologists have shown that people subconsciously identify their peers more strongly by how they work with others than by the colour of their skin] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... minds.html



ARTICLES

DAVID ROBSON – Sharp thinking: How shaping tools built our brains [How did we become the smartest creatures on Earth? The story of our ancestors' mental leaps can be found in stones – a modern-day flint-knapper is our guide] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... rains.html




Science – 28 February 2014

NEWS

Welcome to Beringia [A flurry of studies suggests that instead of being simply a bridge from Asia to the Americas, Beringia may have beckoned the ancestors of the first Americans to linger] http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 1cbc4c9183



ARTICLES

YOSEF GRODZINSKY & ISRAEL NELKEN – The Neural Code That Makes Us Human [“Speech provides a fascinating window into brain processes. It is understood effortlessly, and despite a huge variability, manifests both within and across speakers. It is also a stable and reliable carrier of linguistic meaning, complex and intricate as it may be. How speech is encoded and decoded has puzzled those seeking to understand how the brain extracts sense from an ambiguous, noisy environment (see the figure). On page 1006 in this issue, Mesgarani et al. demonstrate the neural basis of speech perception by combining linguistic, electrophysiological, clinical, and computational approaches”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6174/978.short



JOHN F HOFFECKER et al – Out of Beringia? [“Based on the distribution of tundra plants around the Bering Strait region, Eric Hultén proposed in the 1930s that the now-submerged plain between Chukotka and Alaska—the Bering land bridge—became a refugium for shrub tundra vegetation during cold periods (1), which include the last glacial maximum (LGM) between ∼28,000 and 18,000 cal BP (calibrated radiocarbon years before the present). Adjoining areas to the west and east supported drier plant communities with a higher percentage of grasses during glacial periods. According to Hultén, when warmer and wetter conditions returned to these areas, the land bridge, which he named Beringia, became a center of dispersal for tundra plants. Now it appears that it also may have been a glacial refugium and postglacial center of dispersal for the people who first settled the Americas”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6174/979.short



PAPERS

NIMA MESGARANI et al – Phonetic Feature Encoding in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus [“During speech perception, linguistic elements such as consonants and vowels are extracted from a complex acoustic speech signal. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) participates in high-order auditory processing of speech, but how it encodes phonetic information is poorly understood. We used high-density direct cortical surface recordings in humans while they listened to natural, continuous speech to reveal the STG representation of the entire English phonetic inventory. At single electrodes, we found response selectivity to distinct phonetic features. Encoding of acoustic properties was mediated by a distributed population response. Phonetic features could be directly related to tuning for spectrotemporal acoustic cues, some of which were encoded in a nonlinear fashion or by integration of multiple cues. These findings demonstrate the acoustic-phonetic representation of speech in human STG”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6 ... 6.abstract



BENJAMIN VERNOT & JOSHUA M AKEY – Resurrecting Surviving Neandertal Lineages from Modern Human Genomes [“Anatomically modern humans overlapped and mated with Neandertals such that non-African humans inherit ~1 to 3% of their genomes from Neandertal ancestors. We identified Neandertal lineages that persist in the DNA of modern humans, in whole-genome sequences from 379 European and 286 East Asian individuals, recovering more than 15 gigabases of introgressed sequence that spans ~20% of the Neandertal genome (false discovery rate = 5%). Analyses of surviving archaic lineages suggest that there were fitness costs to hybridization, admixture occurred both before and after divergence of non-African modern humans, and Neandertals were a source of adaptive variation for loci involved in skin phenotypes. Our results provide a new avenue for paleogenomics studies, allowing substantial amounts of population-level DNA sequence information to be obtained from extinct groups, even in the absence of fossilized remains”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6 ... 7.abstract




Nature – 27 February 2014

NEWS

Monkey brains wired to share [Prisoners’ Dilemma game-theory test exposes circuits for social interaction] http://www.nature.com/news/monkey-brain ... E-20140227



Ancient artists' gender is a mystery [Efforts to infer the sex of ancient hand-painting artists by comparing their prints with those of modern humans could be flawed, according to a team in the Czech Republic] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140227




PLOS One – 26 February 2014

PAPERS



KATHY N ANDREW, JENNIFER HOSHOOLEY & MARC F JOANISSE – Sign Language Ability in Young Deaf Signers Predicts Comprehension of Written Sentences in English [“We investigated the robust correlation between American Sign Language (ASL) and English reading ability in 51 young deaf signers ages 7;3 to 19;0. Signers were divided into ‘skilled’ and ‘less-skilled’ signer groups based on their performance on three measures of ASL. We next assessed reading comprehension of four English sentence structures (actives, passives, pronouns, reflexive pronouns) using a sentence-to-picture-matching task. Of interest was the extent to which ASL proficiency provided a foundation for lexical and syntactic processes of English. Skilled signers outperformed less-skilled signers overall”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0089994



MIKAEL VEJDEMO-JOHANSSON, SUSANNE VEJDEMO & CARL-HENRIK EK – Comparing Distributions of Color Words: Pitfalls and Metric Choices [“In the analysis of color naming from WCS [the World Color Survey] … the choice of analysis method is an important factor of the analysis. We demonstrate concrete problems with the choice of metrics made in recent analyses of WCS data, and offer approaches for dealing with the problems we can identify. Picking a metric for the space of color naming distributions that ignores perceptual distances between colors assumes a decorrelated system, where s
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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AlgisKuliukas
 
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EAORC Bulletin 560

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sun Mar 16, 2014 7:02 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 560 – 9 March 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Error in the Honeybee Waggle Dance Improves Foraging Flexibility. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Jazz Improvisers Appear to Use Language Brain Areas. 1

SCIAM NEWS – New Evidence Suggests That Neandertals Buried Their Dead. 1

CONFERENCE – 13th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference (ICLC-13) 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 April 2014. 2

New Scientist – 8 March 2014. 2

Science – 7 March 2014. 2

Nature – 6 March 2014. 2

PLOS One – 5 March 2014. 2

PNAS – 4 March 2014. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 3




NOTICES


NATURE REPORTS – Error in the Honeybee Waggle Dance Improves Foraging Flexibility

Ryuichi Okada, Hidetoshi Ikeno, Toshifumi Kimura et al.

“We simulated one-day colonial foraging to address the biological significance of information error in the waggle dance. When the error was 30° or larger, the waggle dance was not beneficial. If the error was 15°, the waggle dance was beneficial when the food sources were scarce. When the error was 10° or smaller, the waggle dance was beneficial under all the conditions tested. Our simulation also showed that precise information (0–5° error) yielded great success in finding feeders, but also caused failures at finding new feeders, i.e., a high-risk high-return strategy. The observation that actual bees perform the waggle dance with an error of 10–15° might reflect, at least in part, the maintenance of a successful yet risky foraging trade-off.”

{A metaphor of the direction is better than an index of the direction}

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140225/ ... P-20140304




SCIAM NEWS – Jazz Improvisers Appear to Use Language Brain Areas

Brain scans of musicians as they improvised in a musical dialogue with another player showed that the improvisers used regions involved in syntax during production of language.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podca ... B_20140305




SCIAM NEWS – New Evidence Suggests That Neandertals Buried Their Dead

In their treatment of the dead, Neandertals were a lot like us

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20140303




CONFERENCE – 13th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference (ICLC-13)

http://www.northumbria.ac.uk/iclc13

20-25 July 2015, Northumbria University

We are pleased to announce the 13th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference (ICLC-13), which is being held 20-25 July 2015 in Northumbria University, Newcastle, England. ICLC is the biennial conference of the International Cognitive Linguistics Association (ICLA, http://www.cognitivelinguistics.org).

Confirmed plenary speakers are:

· Adele Goldberg (Princeton University)

· Martin Haspelmath (Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology)

· Mirjam Fried (Charles University in Prague)

· Hans-Jörg Schmid (Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)

· Ronald Langacker (University of California, San Diego)

· Gabriella Vigliocco (University College London)

The special theme of this edition of the International Cognitive Linguistics Conference is "bringing together theory and method". This reflects one of the main outcomes of ICLC-12, Alberta: that the future of cognitive linguistics lies in the successful union of a robust empirical approach with sound theory.

Information about the conference can be found at http://www.northumbria.ac.uk/iclc13, which will be updated as more details become available.

Amanda Patten (on behalf of the Organising Committee and the ICLA) ICLC13@northumbria.ac.uk




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 April 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 8 March 2014

NEWS

Girls may be more resilient to autism-linked mutations [Among autistic kids, the finding that girls have more of a type of genetic mutation than boys backs up the idea that females are somehow shielded] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... xxKJ35FCUk



REVIEWS

ALUN ANDERSON – Hot on the trail of consciousness in brain and machine [Review of ‘Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering how the brain codes our thoughts’ by Stanislas Dehaene; and ‘The Future of the Mind: The scientific quest to understand, enhance and empower the mind’ by Michio Kaku] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... xxK6n5FCUk




Science – 7 March 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 6 March 2014

ARTICLES

VIRGINIA HUGHES – Epigenetics: The sins of the father [The roots of inheritance may extend beyond the genome, but the mechanisms remain a puzzle] http://www.nature.com/news/epigenetics- ... E-20140306



REVIEWS

EWEN CALLAWAY – Palaeontology: Migrant nation [Review of the Natural History Museum exhibition chronicling the ebb and flow of early humanity over the British Isles – open until 28 September 2014] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140306



PAPERS

GREGORY B COGAN et al – Sensory–motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally [“Whether the speech sensory–motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory–motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory–motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory–motor neural responses during both perception and production in an overt word-repetition task. Using a non-word transformation task, we show that bilateral sensory–motor responses can perform transformations between speech-perception- and speech-production-based representations. These results establish a bilateral sublexical speech sensory–motor system”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140306




PLOS One – 5 March 2014

PAPERS

ALICE MADO PROVERBIO et al - Comprehending Body Language and Mimics: An ERP and Neuroimaging Study on Italian Actors and Viewers [“ERP data and source reconstruction indicated that the first recognition of incongruent body language occurred 300 ms post-stimulus. swLORETA performed on the N400 identified the strongest generators of this effect in the right rectal gyrus (BA11) of the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, the bilateral uncus (limbic system) and the cingulate cortex, the cortical areas devoted to face and body processing (STS, FFA EBA) and the premotor cortex (BA6), which is involved in action understanding. These results indicate that face and body mimics undergo a prioritized processing that is mostly represented in the affective brain and is rapidly compared with verbal information. This process is likely able to regulate social interactions by providing on-line information about the sincerity and trustfulness of others”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0091294



NASTASSJA MOREL et al – Brain Activity and Functional Coupling Changes Associated with Self-Reference Effect during Both Encoding and Retrieval [“Information that is processed with reference to oneself, i.e. Self-Referential Processing (SRP), is generally associated with better remembering compared to information processed in a condition not related to oneself. This positive effect of the self on subsequent memory performance is called as Self-Reference Effect (SRE). The neural basis of SRE is still poorly understood. The main goal of the present work was thus to highlight brain changes associated with SRE in terms of activity and functional coupling and during both encoding and retrieval so as to assess the relative contribution of both processes to SRE. For this purpose, we used an fMRI event-related self-referential paradigm in 30 healthy young subjects and measured brain activity during both encoding and retrieval of self-relevant information compared to a semantic control condition. We found that SRE was associated with brain changes during the encoding phase only, including both greater activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and greater functional coupling between these brain regions and the posterior cingulate cortex. These findings highlight the contribution of brain regions involved in both SRP and episodic memory and the relevance of the communication between these regions during the encoding process as the neural substrates of SRE. This is consistent with the idea that SRE reflects a positive effect of the reactivation of self-related memories on the encoding of new information in episodic memory”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0090488




PNAS – 4 March 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 561

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Fri Apr 18, 2014 5:13 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 561 – 16 March 2014




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Elephants Have Learned to 'Understand Human' 1

SCIENCE NEWS – New Diet, Sexual Attraction May Have Spurred Europeans' Lighter Skin. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Gestures Help Children Grasp Math. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – The Secret to Making a Good First Impression. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Land Bridge Connects North American and Siberian Languages. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – 'Little Foot' Fossil Could Be Human Ancestor. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Pupillometry Reveals Mechanism for Autism Spectrum Disorder Advantage in Visual Tasks. 1

NATURE REPORTS – Relationship between moral judgment & cooperation in children with high-functioning autism.. 2

SCIAM NEWS – Infants Use Verbs They Know to Learn New Nouns. 2

SCIAM NEWS – Self-Controlled Crows Ace the Marshmallow Test 2

SCI-NEWS.COM – African Elephants Make Alarm Call in Response to Danger of Humans. 2

SCI-NEWS.COM – Linguistic Study Reveals Back-Migration of Early Native Americans. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 May 2014. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

New Scientist – 15 March 2014. 3

Science – 14 March 2014. 3

Nature – 13 March 2014. 3

PLOS One – 12 March 2014. 3

PNAS – 11 March 2014. 4

Animal Behaviour – March 2014. 4

Biolinguistics – 2014. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Elephants Have Learned to 'Understand Human'

Pachyderms can distinguish our language, age, and threat level just by listening to us

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 774227e217




SCIENCE NEWS – New Diet, Sexual Attraction May Have Spurred Europeans' Lighter Skin

Study suggests Europeans became paler much more recently than thought

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 774227e217




SCIENCE NEWS – Gestures Help Children Grasp Math

” Children who are taught to use gestures to solve math problems demonstrate a deeper understanding of concepts, but why? A group of psychologists thinks it’s because the physical actions help youths understand abstract ideas”

http://news.sciencemag.org/signal-noise ... grasp-math




SCIENCE NEWS – The Secret to Making a Good First Impression

People form an opinion of you just by the way you say "hello"

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavi ... impression




SCIENCE NEWS – Land Bridge Connects North American and Siberian Languages

Indigenous languages in North America and central Siberia may have stemmed from the same place.

http://news.sciencemag.org/signal-noise ... -languages




SCIENCE NEWS – 'Little Foot' Fossil Could Be Human Ancestor

Dating of a mysterious South African skeleton might upend ideas on where our species first evolved

http://app.aaas-science.org/e/er?s=1906 ... 89caea1cdf




NATURE REPORTS – Pupillometry Reveals Mechanism for Autism Spectrum Disorder Advantage in Visual Tasks

Erik Blaser, Luke Eglington, Alice S. Carter et al.

“We recently found that 2-year-olds with ASD dramatically outperform age-matched, typically developing controls on visual search. Here we use task-evoked, phasic pupil responses – a sensitive, involuntary measure of effort and a biomarker of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system's modulation of attention – to isolate a causal factor: a ‘hyperphasic’ LC-NE system compels (here, advantageously) focussed attention. However, this focussed attention in other contexts may contribute to restricted behaviors and interests.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140307/ ... P-20140311




NATURE REPORTS – Relationship between moral judgment & cooperation in children with high-functioning autism

Jing Li, Liqi Zhu & Michaela Gummerum

“Thirty-eight 6- to 12-year-old high-functioning autistic (HFA) children and 31 typically developing (TD) children were recruited. Children were asked to judge story protagonists' morality. After making this moral judgment correctly, they were asked to play with the morally nice and the morally naughty child in a repeated prisoner's dilemma game. Results showed that both HFA and TD children made correct moral judgments, and that HFA children might even have more rigid criteria for what constitutes morally naughty acts. HFA children's cooperation did not differ depending on the morality of the interaction partner, while TD children showed higher cooperation when interacting with the morally nice than the morally naughty child did.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140307/ ... P-20140311




SCIAM NEWS – Infants Use Verbs They Know to Learn New Nouns

Babies learning speech figure out what an object is by listening to others talk about what that object does.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podca ... B_20140312




SCIAM NEWS – Self-Controlled Crows Ace the Marshmallow Test

Crows and ravens hold off on gobbling a tidbit when they can see a better one coming after a short wait. But they’ll only act with restraint if the future treat is something they like more than what they already have, not if it’s just more of the same.

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/min ... llow-test/




SCI-NEWS.COM – African Elephants Make Alarm Call in Response to Danger of Humans

According to a study of wild African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya published in the open-access journal PLoS ONE, elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of Samburu – a local tribe from North Kenya.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




SCI-NEWS.COM – Linguistic Study Reveals Back-Migration of Early Native Americans

Evolutionary analysis applied to North American and Siberian languages suggests that while most of the Beringia people migrated into North America, some migrated back to central Asia.

http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/Breaking ... dium=email




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 May 2014

PAPERS

MATTHEW W CAMPBELL & FRANS B M DE WAAL – Chimpanzees empathize with group mates and humans, but not with baboons or unfamiliar chimpanzees [“Human empathy can extend to strangers and even other species, but it is unknown whether non-humans are similarly broad in their empathic responses. We explored the breadth and flexibility of empathy in chimpanzees, a close relative of humans. We used contagious yawning to measure involuntary empathy and showed chimpanzees videos of familiar humans, unfamiliar humans and gelada baboons (an unfamiliar species). We tested whether each class of stimuli elicited contagion by comparing the effect of yawn and control videos. After including previous data on the response to ingroup and outgroup chimpanzees, we found that familiar and unfamiliar humans elicited contagion equal to that of ingroup chimpanzees. Gelada baboons did not elicit contagion, and the response to them was equal to that of outgroup chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees watched the outgroup chimpanzee videos more than any other. The combination of high interest and low contagion may stem from hostility towards unfamiliar chimpanzees, which may interfere with an empathic response”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 3.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




New Scientist – 15 March 2014

NEWS

Spider monkey society is sexually segregated [Male and female Geoffroy's spider monkeys spend most of their time apart – apparently because the males are prone to attack the females] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... gated.html




Science – 14 March 2014

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 13 March 2014

PAPERS

IÑIGO OLALDE et al – Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European [“A complete pre-agricultural European human genome from a ∼7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton suggests the existence of a common genomic signature across western and central Eurasia from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic, and ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes suggest that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20140313




PLOS One – 12 March 2014

PAPERS

MARK A SICOLI & GARY HOLTON – Linguistic Phylogenies Support Back-Migration from Beringia to Asia [“Recent arguments connecting Na-Dene languages of North America with Yeniseian languages of Siberia have been used to assert proof for the origin of Native Americans in central or western Asia. We apply phylogenetic methods to test support for this hypothesis against an alternative hypothesis that Yeniseian represents a back-migration to Asia from a Beringian ancestral population. We coded a linguistic dataset of typological features and used neighbor-joining network algorithms and Bayesian model comparison based on Bayes factors to test the fit between the data and the linguistic phylogenies modeling two dispersal hypotheses. Our results support that a Dene-Yeniseian connection more likely represents radiation out of Beringia with back-migration into central Asia than a migration from central or western Asia to North America”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0091722



DOUG HYUN HAN et al – Brain Activity of Adolescents with High Functioning Autism in Response to Emotional Words and Facial Emoticons [“Ten male adolescents with ASDs and ten age and sex matched healthy comparison subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The diagnosis of autism was further evaluated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Brain activity was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to emotional words and facial emoticon presentation. Sixty emotional words (45 pleasant words +15 unpleasant words) were extracted from a report on Korean emotional terms and their underlying dimensions. Sixty emoticon faces (45 pleasant faces +15 unpleasant faces) were extracted and modified from on-line sites. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, patients with ASD have increased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to emotional aspects of words. In contrast, patients with ASD have decreased activation of fusiform gyrus in response to facial emoticons, relative to healthy comparison subjects. We suggest that patients with ASD are more familiar with word descriptions than facial expression as depictions of emotion”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0091214



PABLO POLO, VICTORIA HERNÁNDEZ-LLOREDA & FERNANDO COLMENARES – Male Takeovers Are Reproductively Costly to Females in Hamadryas Baboons: A Test of the Sexual Coercion Hypothesis [“The present study uses 15 years of data on inter-birth intervals from a large multilevel colony of baboons, mostly Papio h. hamadryas, with a mating system based on harem-defence polygyny to examine if male takeovers impact the length of the abducted females’ inter-birth intervals. Our analysis of 121 inter-birth intervals from 45 adult females indicates that male takeovers are reproductively costly to abducted females as they are associated with an increase in the time they take to conceive and a lengthening of the inter-birth intervals”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0090996



GAOWA WUYUN et al – Neural Representations of the Self and the Mother for Chinese Individuals [“In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) when Chinese participants passively listened to their self-name (SN), their mother’s name (MN), and unknown names (UN). The results showed that compared with UN recognition, SN perception was associated with a robust activation in a widely distributed bilateral network, including the cortical midline structure (the MPFC and ACC), the inferior frontal gyrus, and the middle temporal gyrus. The SN invoked the bilateral superior temporal gyrus in contrast to the MN; the MN recognition provoked a stronger activation in the central and posterior brain regions in contrast to the SN recognition. The SN and MN caused an activation of overlapping areas, namely, the ACC, MPFC, and superior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that Chinese individuals utilize certain common brain region in processing both the SN and the MN”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0091556




PNAS – 11 March 2014

PAPERS

ASSAF HAREL, DWIGHT J KRAVITZ & CHRIS I BAKER – Task context impacts visual object processing differentially across the cortex [“Visual recognition is often thought to depend on neural representations that primarily reflect the physical properties of the environment. However, in this study we demonstrate that the intent of the observer fundamentally perturbs cortical representations of visual objects. Using functional MRI we measured the patterns of response to identical objects under six different tasks. In any given task, these patterns could be used to distinguish which object was being viewed. However, this ability was disrupted when the task changed, indicating that object representations reflect not only the physical properties of the stimulus, but also the internal state of the observer”] http://www.pnas.org/content/111/10/E962.abstract



RYAN D ENOS – Causal effect of intergroup contact on exclusionary attitudes [“There is generally conflict when members of different social groups, such as racial, ethnic,
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Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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