Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Reviews or summaries of the recent literature are posted here.

EAORC Bulletin 520

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sun Jun 09, 2013 7:49 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 520 – 2 June 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Manly Sweat Makes Other Men More Cooperative. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – A Better Predictor of Autism.. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Who's (Socially) Smarter: The Dog or the Wolf?. 1

AAAS NEWS – Potent Social Learning and Conformity Shape a Wild Primate’s Foraging Decisions. 1

AAAS NEWS – Early Ceremonial Constructions at Ceibal, Guatemala, and the Origins of Lowland Maya Civilization. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Where Does Identity Come From?. 2

WORLDSCIENCE – Mammoths may have died after impact from space. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 22 July 2013. 2

New Scientist – 1 June 2013. 2

Science – 31 May 2013. 2

Nature – 30 May 2013. 2

PLOS One – 29 May 2013. 2

PNAS – 28 May 2013. 3

PLOS Biology – May 2013. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Manly Sweat Makes Other Men More Cooperative

Effect is more pronounced in men with high testosterone

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... tml?ref=em




SCIENCE NEWS – A Better Predictor of Autism

Brain activity forecasts how children with the condition will fare long-term

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... tml?ref=em




SCIENCE NEWS – Who's (Socially) Smarter: The Dog or the Wolf?

New study challenges assumptions about domestication

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... tml?ref=em




AAAS NEWS – Potent Social Learning and Conformity Shape a Wild Primate’s Foraging Decisions

Conformity to local behavioral norms reflects the pervading role of culture in human life. Laboratory experiments have begun to suggest a role for conformity in animal social learning, but evidence from the wild remains circumstantial. Here, we show experimentally that wild vervet monkeys will abandon personal foraging preferences in favor of group norms new to them. Groups first learned to avoid the bitter-tasting alternative of two foods. Presentations of these options untreated months later revealed that all new infants naïve to the foods adopted maternal preferences. Males who migrated between groups where the alternative food was eaten switched to the new local norm. Such powerful effects of social learning represent a more potent force than hitherto recognized in shaping group differences among wild animals.

Supporting online material

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/340/6131/483.abstract




AAAS NEWS – Early Ceremonial Constructions at Ceibal, Guatemala, and the Origins of Lowland Maya Civilization

The spread of plaza-pyramid complexes across southern Mesoamerica during the early Middle Preclassic period (1000 to 700 BCE) provides critical information regarding the origins of lowland Maya civilization and the role of the Gulf Coast Olmec. Recent excavations at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, documented the growth of a formal ceremonial space into a plaza-pyramid complex that predated comparable buildings at other lowland Maya sites and major occupations at the Olmec center of La Venta. The development of lowland Maya civilization did not result from one-directional influence from La Venta, but from interregional interactions, involving groups in the southwestern Maya lowlands, Chiapas, the Pacific Coast, and the southern Gulf Coast.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/340/6131/467.abstract




SCIAM NEWS – Where Does Identity Come From?

A fascinating new neuroscience experiment probes an ancient philosophical question—and hints that you might want to get out more

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20130529




WORLDSCIENCE – Mammoths may have died after impact from space

Tiny balls of carbon hint at a disaster that melted rock and affected at least four continents

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/130520_mammoth




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 22 July 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 1 June 2013

NEWS

Rise of the autistic workforce [Major international companies are headhunting people with autism, recognising that their abilities can provide a competitive advantage {most technology companies have been doing this for years, they just haven’t said so. Dilbert is real}] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... force.html



1 in 13 people have bendy chimp-like feet [You may be walking on chimp-like feet without knowing it: at least 1 in 13 of us has feet that are specially adapted for climbing trees] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -feet.html



ARTICLES

CHARLES FERNYHOUGH – The voices within: The power of talking to yourself [Our inner speech turns out to shape our thoughts and decisions in more ways than you might have imagined] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... rself.html




Science – 31 May 2013

REVIEWS

CATHERINE WOODS – Evolving Beyond Stone Age Fantasies [review of ‘Paleofantasy What Evolution Really Tells Us About Sex, Diet, and How We Live’ by Marlene Zuk] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/340/6136/1045.1.short




Nature – 30 May 2013

NEWS

Human evolution: Footprints reveal hominin size [Fossil footprints indicate that hominins were already as large as modern humans by 1.52 million years ago] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130530



ARTICLES

WILLIAM H KIMBEL – Palaeoanthropology: Hesitation on hominin history [“Extensive studies of fossil skeletons of Australopithecus sediba provide fascinating details of the anatomy of this hominin species, but do not convincingly indicate its position on the evolutionary route to modern humans.”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130530



PAPERS

DINA LIPKIND et al with GARY F MARCUS – Stepwise acquisition of vocal combinatorial capacity in songbirds and human infants [“In two species of songbirds and in pre-lingual human infants, vocal transitions across syllables are acquired slowly, one by one, indicating that combinatorial ability is not the starting point of vocal development but a laboriously achieved end point”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20130530




PLOS One – 29 May 2013

PAPERS

PATRICIA K KUHL et al – Brain Responses to Words in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Predict Developmental Outcomes at Age 6 [“We show that a brain measure (event-related potentials, ERPs) of word processing in children with ASD, assessed at the age of 2 years (N = 24), is a broad and robust predictor of receptive language, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior at ages 4 and 6 years, regardless of the form of intensive clinical treatment during the intervening years”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0064967



MARGRIET A GROEN – Associations between Handedness and Cerebral Lateralisation for Language: A Comparison of Three Measures in Children [“We investigated the associations of three different handedness assessments; 1) a hand preference inventory, 2) a measure of relative hand skill, and 3) performance on a reaching task; with cerebral lateralisation for language function as derived from functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound during a language production task, in a group of 57 typically developing children aged from 6 to 16 years. Significant correlations between cerebral lateralisation for language production and handedness were found for a short version of the inventory and for performance on the reaching task. However, confidence intervals for the correlations overlapped and no one measure emerged as clearly superior to the others. The best handedness measures accounted for only 8–16% of the variance in cerebral lateralisation”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0064876



PATRICK C M WONG, MARC ETTLINGER & JING ZHENG – Linguistic Grammar Learning and DRD2-TAQ-IA Polymorphism [“Here, English-speaking adults learned artificial concatenative and analogical grammars, which have been respectively associated with procedural and declarative memory. Language learning capabilities were tested while learners’ neural hemodynamic responses were simultaneously measured by fMRI. Behavioral learning and brain activation data were subsequently compared with the learners’ DRD2 (rs1800497) genotype. Learners who were homozygous for the A2 allele were better at concatenative (but not analogical) grammar learning and had higher striatal responses relative to those who have at least one A1 allele”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0064983



MICHAEL SCHAEFER et al – Communicative versus Strategic Rationality: Habermas Theory of Communicative Action and the Social Brain [“We found a network of brain areas including temporal pole, precuneus, and STS more activated when participants performed communicative reasoning compared with strategic thinking and a control condition. These brain regions have been previously linked to moral sensitivity. In contrast, strategic rationality compared with communicative reasoning and control was associated with less activation in areas known to be related to moral sensitivity, emotional processing, and language control. The results suggest that strategic reasoning is associated with reduced social and emotional cognitions and may use different language related networks”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0065111



MATTHIEU DUBOIS, DAVID POEPPEL & DENIS G PELLI – Seeing and Hearing a Word: Combining Eye and Ear Is More Efficient than Combining the Parts of a Word [“We show that the low human sensitivity for words is a cost of combining their many parts. We report a dichotomy between inefficient combining of adjacent features and efficient combining across senses. Joining our results with a survey of the cue-combination literature reveals that cues combine efficiently only if they are perceived as aspects of the same object. Observers give different names to adjacent letters in a word, and combine them inefficiently. Observers give the same name to a word’s image and sound, and combine them efficiently. The brain’s machinery optimally combines only cues that are perceived as originating from the same object”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0064803



ALEXANDRA G ROSATI & BRIAN HARE – Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Emotional Responses to Decision Outcomes [“To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1) chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2) both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3) some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0063058




PNAS – 28 May 2013

PAPERS

SAMUEL BOWLES & JUNG-KYOO CHOI – Coevolution of farming and private property during the early Holocene [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/22/8830.abstract



ROLF M QUAM et al – Early hominin auditory ossicles from South Africa [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/22/8847.abstract



ROBERT A BARTON & CHRIS VENDITTI – Human frontal lobes are not relatively large [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/22/9001.abstract



ANDREAS LEIBBRANDT, URI GNEEZY & JOHN A LIST – Rise and fall of competitiveness in individualistic and collectivistic

Societies [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



JAMES H WITTKE et al – Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago [“Distributed across four continents at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB), spherule peaks have been independently confirmed in eight studies, but unconfirmed in two others, resulting in continued dispute about their occurrence, distribution, and origin. To further address this dispute and better identify YDB spherules, we present results from one of the largest spherule investigations ever undertaken regarding spherule geochemistry, morphologies, origins, and processes of formation. We investigated 18 sites across North America, Europe, and the Middle East, performing nearly 700 analyses on spherules using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for geochemical analyses and scanning electron microscopy for surface microstructural characterization. Twelve locations rank among the world’s premier end-Pleistocene archaeological sites, where the YDB marks a hiatus in human occupation or major changes in site use. Our results are consistent with melting of sediments to temperatures >2,200 °C by the thermal radiation and air shocks produced by passage of an extraterrestrial object through the atmosphere; they are inconsistent with volcanic, cosmic, anthropogenic, lightning, or authigenic sources”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract




PLOS Biology – May 2013

ARTICLES

ROBIN MEADOWS – Genomics Recapitulates History in Europe [A genomic survey of recent genealogical relatedness reveals the close ties of kinship and the impact of events across the past 3,000 years of European history] http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info ... io.1001556



PAPERS

PETER RALPH & GRAHAM COOP – The Geography of Recent Genetic Ancestry across Europe [A genomic survey of recent genealogical relatedness reveals the close ties of kinship and the impact of events across the past 3,000 years of European history] http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info ... io.1001555
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 521

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sun Jun 09, 2013 9:52 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 521 – 9 June 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Neandertals Got Tumors, Too. 1

SCIAM NEWS – How to Really Eat Like a Hunter-Gatherer: Why the Paleo Diet Is Half-Baked. 1

THE ATLANTIC – Animal Behaviorist: We'll Soon Have Devices That Let Us Talk with Our Pets. 1

CONFERENCE – Consciousness & Experiential Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. 1

GRANTS – EHBEA Workshop Grants: Next deadline 1 August 2013. 2

NEXT WEEK – Late bulletin. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

New Scientist – 8 June 2013. 2

Science – 7 June 2013. 2

Nature – 6 June 2013. 2

PLOS One – 5 June 2013. 2

PNAS – 4 June 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Neandertals Got Tumors, Too

A 120,000-year-old rib reveals a bone growth in a Neandertal adult

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... tml?ref=em




SCIAM NEWS – How to Really Eat Like a Hunter-Gatherer: Why the Paleo Diet Is Half-Baked

By Ferris Jabr

We are not biologically identical to our Paleolithic predecessors, nor do we have access to the foods they ate. And deducing dietary guidelines from modern foraging societies is difficult because they vary so much by geography, season and opportunity

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20130603




THE ATLANTIC – Animal Behaviorist: We'll Soon Have Devices That Let Us Talk with Our Pets

We all try to talk with animals, but very few of us do so professionally. And even fewer are trying to build devices that could allow us to communicate with our pets and farm animals. Meet one person who is trying to do just that: Con Slobodchikoff, a professor emeritus at Northern Arizona University, and a modern-day Dr. Doolittle.

http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/a ... picks=true




CONFERENCE – Consciousness & Experiential Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society

REGISTRATION IS NOW OPEN: http://cep.yolasite.com/registration.php

CALL FOR PAPERS

The Consciousness and Experiential Psychology Section invites you to its Annual Conference, to be held at Clifton Hill House, University of Bristol, 6¬8 September 2013.

KEYNOTES

· Prof. Colwyn Trevarthen, University of Edinburgh

· Prof. Eric Schwitzgebel, University of California, Riverside

· Prof. Vasudevi Reddy, University of Portsmouth

· Dr Elisabeth Schellekens, University of Durham

KEY DATES

· Submission deadline: 14 May 2013

· Early registration deadline: 30 June 2013

· Responses by: 31 May 2013

· Conference: 6 ¬ 8 September 2013

SECTION & WEBSITE

The Section was formed in 1997 to advance our understanding of consciousness, to bring scientific research on consciousness closer to other traditions of enquiry into the nature of mind, and to explore how this research can be used to improve quality of life.

For up-to-date conference information: http://cep.bps.org.uk/cep/events/




GRANTS – EHBEA Workshop Grants: Next deadline 1 August 2013

EHBEA is pleased to announce that its Workshop Grant competition will now run bi-annually. The aim is to support occasional workshops and meetings that promote understanding of evolution and human behaviour, and facilitate research collaborations and further research. Students organising workshops are also encouraged to apply for the workshop grants.

EHBEA is keen to support events organised by its membership that promote discussion of topics within its remit, and offers grants of up to €1000 to fund or part-fund such meetings. EHBEA is committed to rigorous, pluralistic and integrative science, and meetings which request EHBEA funding should demonstrate how they promote these aims.

The next grant application deadline is 5pm (GMT) on 1st August 2013. Thereafter, grant deadlines will be 1st March and 1st August each year.

To apply for the grant, a completed Application Form (see attached for further information) should be emailed to the EHBEA Secretary (ehbea.secretary@googlemail.com) by 5pm (GMT) on 1st August 2013. Event organisers must be current members of EHBEA in order to be eligible to apply.

Please contact the EHBEA Secretary if you have any questions.




NEXT WEEK – Late bulletin

Next week’s bulletin will be a little late as I will not be close to a computer over the weekend. Sorry!




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




New Scientist – 8 June 2013

NEWS

Finding the players in the symphony of IQ genes [A huge study of 125,000 people has found 10 genes linked to intelligence, but reinforces the idea that no particular genes have a large effect on IQ] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... genes.html



ARTICLES

PETER ULRIC TSE – A biological basis for free will [Our path through life isn't predetermined. Neuroscientist says he has identified the brain mechanism that lets us choose our fate] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -will.html



KIRSTEN WEIR – Mind readers: How we get inside other people's heads [Humans have an impressive ability to take on other viewpoints – it's crucial for a social species like ours. So why are some of us better at it than others?] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... heads.html




Science – 7 June 2013

ARTICLES

BRADLEY EFRON – Bayes' Theorem in the 21st Century [Bayes' theorem plays an increasingly prominent role in statistical applications but remains controversial among statisticians] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/340/6137/1177.short




Nature – 6 June 2013

PAPERS

DINA LIPKIND et al with GARY F MARCUS – Stepwise acquisition of vocal combinatorial capacity in songbirds and human infants [prepublication now publication] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130606




PLOS One – 5 June 2013

PAPERS

BENJAMIN J PITCHER, ALEX MESOUDI & ALAN G MCELLIGOTT – Sex-Biased Sound Symbolism in English-Language First Names [“We suggest that naming preferences are a product of … frequency-size relationship, driving male names to sound larger and female names smaller, through sound symbolism. In a 10-year dataset of the most popular British, Australian and American names we show that male names are significantly more likely to contain larger sounding phonemes (e.g. “Thomas”), while female names are significantly more likely to contain smaller phonemes (e.g. “Emily”)”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0064825



INGRID L C NIEUWENHUIS et al – Sleep Promotes the Extraction of Grammatical Rules [“During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep) or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1) the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2) the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0065046



KATE ARNOLD & KLAUS ZUBERBÜHLER – Female Putty-Nosed Monkeys Use Experimentally Altered Contextual Information to Disambiguate the Cause of Male Alarm Calls [“Many animal vocal signals are given in a wide range of contexts which can sometimes have little in common. Yet, to respond adaptively, listeners must find ways to identify the cause of a signal, or at least rule out alternatives. Here, we investigate the nature of this process in putty-nosed monkeys, a forest primate. In this species, adult males have a very restricted repertoire of vocalizations which are given in response to a wide variety of events occurring under conditions of limited visibility. We carried out a series of field playback experiments on females (N = 6) in a habituated group in Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria, in which male alarm/loud calls were presented either alone, or following acoustic information that simulated the occurrence of natural disturbances. We demonstrate that listeners appear to integrate contextual information in order to distinguish among possible causes of calls”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0065660




PNAS – 4 June 2013

PAPERS

THURE E CERLING et al with LOUISE N LEAKEY, MEAVE G LEAKEY & RICHARD E LEAKEY – Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins [“Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range—from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



MATT SPONHEIMER et al with MEAVE G LEAKEY – Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets [“Before 4 Ma, hominins had diets that were dominated by C3 resources and were, in that sense, similar to extant chimpanzees. By about 3.5 Ma, multiple hominin taxa began incorporating 13C-enriched [C4 or crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)] foods in their diets and had highly variable carbon isotope compositions which are atypical for African mammals. By about 2.5 Ma, Paranthropus in eastern Africa diverged toward C4/CAM specialization and occupied an isotopic niche unknown in catarrhine primates, except in the fossil relations of grass-eating geladas (Theropithecus gelada). At the same time, other taxa (e.g., Australopithecus africanus) continued to have highly mixed and varied C3/C4 diets. Overall, there is a trend toward greater consumption of 13C-enriched foods in early hominins over time, although this trend varies by region”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



THURE E CERLING et al with MEAVE G LEAKEY – Diet of Theropithecus from 4 to 1 Ma in Kenya [“Theropithecus was a common large-bodied primate that co-occurred with hominins in many Plio-Pleistocene deposits in East and South Africa. Stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel from T. brumpti (4.0–2.5 Ma) and T. oswaldi (2.0–1.0 Ma) in Kenya show that the earliest Theropithecus at 4 Ma had a diet dominated by C4 resources. Progressively, this genus increased the proportion of C4-derived resources in its diet and by 1.0 Ma, had a diet that was nearly 100% C4-derived. It is likely that this diet was comprised of grasses or sedges; stable isotopes cannot, by themselves, give an indication of the relative importance of leaves, seeds, or underground storage organs to the diet of this primate”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



JONATHAN G WYNN et al with WILLIAM H KIMBEL – Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia [“Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4–2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



JAMES H WITTKE et al – Evidence for deposition of 10 million tonnes of impact spherules across four continents 12,800 y ago [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/23/E2088.abstract
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 522

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Wed Jun 19, 2013 11:15 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 522 – 16 June 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

EAORC NEWS – 10th Anniversary. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Video: Babies Express Sympathy Before They Can Talk. 1

NATURE NEWS – Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction. 1

WORLDSCIENCE – Studies may have overestimated our generosity. 1

SCIENCE DAILY - Toddlers' Speech Is Far More Advanced Than Previously Thought 1

CONFERENCE – Matters of the Mind: Psychology and Language Learning. 1

EMPLOYMENT – PhD 'Computationally realistic architectures for a Bayesian brain' (1.0 fte) 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 August 2013. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 July 2013. 2

New Scientist – 15 June 2013. 2

Science – 14 June 2013. 2

Nature – 13 June 2013. 3

PLOS One – 12 June 2013. 3

PNAS – 11 June 2013. 4

Biolinguistics – 2013. 5

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 5




NOTICES


EAORC NEWS – 10th Anniversary

EAORC has now been in continuous publication for 10 years. Who knew that we would outlive Woolworths?




SCIENCE NEWS – Video: Babies Express Sympathy Before They Can Talk

Ten-month-olds can distinguish between victim and attacker in geometric stand-in for human fight

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... tml?ref=em




NATURE NEWS – Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction

Giovanna Miritello, Rubén Lara, Manuel Cebrian et al.

“Connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural and functional properties of social networks. However, the bursty activity of dyadic interactions may hinder the discrimination of inactive ties from large interevent times in active ones. We develop a principled method to detect tie de-activation and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset (≈19 months, ≈20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active in time. On average men display higher capacity than women, and this capacity decreases for both genders over their lifespan. Separating communication capacity from activity reveals a diverse range of tie activation strategies, from stable to exploratory. This allows us to draw novel relationships between individual strategies for human interaction and the evolution of social networks at global scale”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130606/ ... P-20130611




WORLDSCIENCE – Studies may have overestimated our generosity

Scientists recreated a game often used to assess people's altruism -- but this time there was a twist, and a darker result.

http://www.world-science.net/exclusives/130617_altruism




SCIENCE DAILY - Toddlers' Speech Is Far More Advanced Than Previously Thought

“The sound of small children chattering away as they learn to talk has always been considered cute -- but not particularly sophisticated. However, research by a Newcastle University expert has shown that toddlers' speech is far more advanced than previously understood.”

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20 ... _249973501




CONFERENCE – Matters of the Mind: Psychology and Language Learning

Thursday 29th May – Saturday 31st May, 2014, University of Graz, Austria

The international conference “Matters of the Mind: Psychology and Language Learning” will bring together scholars from across the globe interested in the role of psychology in language learning and teaching. It aims to generate new insights on a range of issues currently challenging this vibrant ! eld, such as discussions of theoretical frameworks, methodological decisions and practical implications. It will cover a wide range of topics including autonomy, beliefs, emotions, metacognition, goal setting, strategies, group dynamics, motivation, the self and willingness to communicate, among others.

We hope that you will join what promises to be an exciting debate. As part of the conference, we are proud to announce six plenary speakers:

· Andrew Cohen, University of Minnesota, USA

· Jean-Marc Dewaele, University of London, UK

· Zoltán Dörnyei, University of Nottingham, UK

· Paula Kalaja, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

· Peter D. MacIntyre, University College of Cape Breton, Canada

· Ema Ushioda, University of Warwick, UK

In addition to the plenary sessions, the programme will also consist of workshops, symposia, parallel paper sessions and poster sessions.

Deadline for submissions: 31st October, 2013.

For further details, please visit our website at: www.unifdz.at/pll2014

Or contact the conference team via email : pll2014@uni-graz.at

We look forward to welcoming you in Graz.

Alexander Koch




EMPLOYMENT – PhD 'Computationally realistic architectures for a Bayesian brain' (1.0 fte)

Faculty of Social Sciences

Vacancy number: 24.21.13

Closing date: 14 July 2013

This PhD project aims to advance our understanding of the computational foundations of probabilistic inference and learning in the brain. According to current theory, even only approximately computing probabilistic inferences is computationally intractable for situations of real-world complexity. This is in marked contrast to the efficiency of inference and learning as done by the brain in practice. The objective of the project is to resolve this paradox by developing a new theory that explains the efficiency of inference and learning as done by the brain in practice. Using an innovative approach that combines formal modeling, parameterized complexity analysis and computer simulation, we aim to identify parameters of a computational architecture that can make a probabilistic brain computationally efficient. The project will furthermore involve conceptual (philosophical) analysis to derive the implications of this new theory for current debates in the philosophy of cognitive science.

For more details about the position and its conditions, see: http://www.ru.nl/newstaff/working_at_ra ... cid=527875




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 July 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 15 June 2013

NEWS

Mind-reading monkey brains look similar to ours [Macaques and humans share similarities in a brain structure involved in theory of mind – the ability to infer what others are thinking or feeling] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... cBYZpzNmZw




Science – 14 June 2013

PAPERS

DOROTHY V M BISHOP – Cerebral Asymmetry and Language Development: Cause, Correlate, or Consequence? [“In most people, language is processed predominantly by the left hemisphere of the brain, but we do not know how or why. A popular view is that developmental language disorders result from a poorly lateralized brain, but until recently, evidence has been weak and indirect. Modern neuroimaging methods have made it possible to study normal and abnormal development of lateralized function in the developing brain and have confirmed links with language and literacy impairments. However, there is little evidence that weak cerebral lateralization has common genetic origins with language and literacy impairments. Our understanding of the association between atypical language lateralization and developmental disorders may benefit if we reconceptualize the nature of cerebral asymmetry to recognize its multidimensionality and consider variation in lateralization over developmental time. Contrary to popular belief, cerebral lateralization may not be a highly heritable, stable characteristic of individuals; rather, weak lateralization may be a consequence of impaired language learning”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/340/6 ... 1.abstract




Nature – 13 June 2013

REVIEWS

KELLY STEWART - Ethology: Primatological derring-do [Review of ‘Primates: The Fearless Science of Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, and Biruté Galdikas’ by Jim Ottaviani & Maris Wicks] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... 8169a.html




PLOS One – 12 June 2013

PAPERS

RODRIGO S LACRUZ et al – Facial Morphogenesis of the Earliest Europeans [“We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900–800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus ... The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0065199



CERI SHIPTON et al – Variation in Lithic Technological Strategies among the Neanderthals of Gibraltar [“The Gibraltar Mousterian, including the youngest assemblage from Layer IV of Gorham’s Cave, spans the typical Middle Palaeolithic range of variation from radial Levallois to unidirectional and multi-platform flaking schemas, with characteristic emphasis on the former. A diachronic pattern of change in the Gorham’s Cave sequence is documented, with the younger assemblages utilising more localized raw material and less formal flaking procedures. We attribute this change to a reduction in residential mobility as the climate deteriorated during Marine Isotope Stage 3 and the Neanderthal population contracted into a refugium”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0065185



AURORE GAUTREAU, MICHEL HOEN & FANNY MEUNIER – Let's All Speak Together! Exploring the Masking Effects of Various Languages on Spoken Word Identification in Multi-Linguistic Babble [“In these 3 experiments we always compared the masking effects of speech backgrounds (i.e., 4-talker babble) that were produced in the same language as the target language (i.e., French) or in unknown foreign languages (i.e., Irish and Italian) to the masking effects of corresponding non-speech backgrounds (i.e., speech-derived fluctuating noise) … although French and Italian had equivalent masking effects on French word identification, the nature of their interference was different. This finding suggests that the differences observed between the masking effects of Italian and Irish can be explained at an acoustic level but not at a linguistic level”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0065668



YASUHIRO KANAKOGI et al – Rudimentary Sympathy in Preverbal Infants: Preference for Others in Distress [“In Experiment 1, infants viewing an aggressive social interaction between a victim and an aggressor exhibited preference for the victim. In Experiment 2, when comparing the victim and the aggressor to a neutral object, infants preferred the victim and avoided the aggressor. These findings indicate that 10-month-olds not only evaluate the roles of victims and aggressors in interactions but also show rudimentary sympathy toward others in distress based on that evaluation”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi ... ne.0065292



ANITA EERLAND, JAN A A ENGELEN & ROLF A ZWAAN – The Influence of Direct and Indirect Speech on Mental Representations [“the literature suggests that people perceive direct speech (e.g., Joanne said: ‘I went out for dinner last night’) as more vivid and perceptually engaging than indirect speech (e.g., Joanne said that she went out for dinner last night). But how is this alleged vividness evident in comprehenders’ mental representations? We sought to address this question in a series of experiments. Our results do not support the idea that, compared to indirect speech, direct speech enhances the accessibility of information from the communicative or the referential situation during comprehension. Neither do our results support the idea that the hypothesized more vivid experience of direct speech is caused by a switch from the visual to the auditory modality. However, our results do show that direct speech leads to a stronger mental representation of the exact wording of a sentence than does indirect speech”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi ... ne.0065480



CALEB EVERETT – Evidence for Direct Geographic Influences on Linguistic Sounds: The Case of Ejectives [“We present evidence that the geographic context in which a language is spoken may directly impact its phonological form. We examined the geographic coordinates and elevations of 567 language locations represented in a worldwide phonetic database. Languages with phonemic ejective consonants were found to occur closer to inhabitable regions of high elevation, when contrasted to languages without this class of sounds. In addition, the mean and median elevations of the locations of languages with ejectives were found to be comparatively high. The patterns uncovered surface on all major world landmasses, and are not the result of the influence of particular language families. They reflect a significant and positive worldwide correlation between elevation and the likelihood that a language employs ejective phonemes”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi ... ne.0065275




PNAS – 11 June 2013

PAPERS

MENGHAN ZHANG & TAO GONG – Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition [“Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka–Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/24/9698.abstract



STEVE W C CHANG et al – Neuroethology of primate social behaviour [“Focusing on recent research from nonhuman primates, we describe how the primate brain might implement social functions by coopting and extending preexisting mechanisms that previously supported nonsocial functions. This approach reveals that highly specialized mechanisms have evolved to decipher the immediate social context, and parallel circuits have evolved to translate social perceptual signals and nonsocial perceptual signals into partially integrated social and nonsocial motivational signals, which together inform general-purpose mechanisms that command behaviour”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



RICHARD G KLEIN & TERESA E STEELE – Archaeological shellfish size and later human evolution in Africa [“Approximately 50 ka, one or more subgroups of modern humans expanded from Africa to populate the rest of the world. Significant behavioral change accompanied this expansion, and archaeologists commonly seek its roots in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA; ∼200 to ∼50 ka). Easily recognizable art objects and “jewelry” become common only in sites that postdate the MSA in Africa and Eurasia, but some MSA sites contain possible precursors, especially including abstractly incised fragments of ocher and perforated shells interpreted as beads. These proposed art objects have convinced most specialists that MSA people were behaviorally (cognitively) modern, and many argue that population growth explains the appearance of art in the MSA and its post-MSA florescence. The average size of rocky intertidal gastropod species in MSA and later coastal middens allows a test of this idea, because smaller size implies more intense collection, and more intense collection is most readily attributed to growth in the number of human collectors. Here we demonstrate that economically important Cape turban shells and limpets from MSA layers along the south and west coasts of South Africa are consistently and significantly larger than turban shells and limpets in succeeding Later Stone Age (LSA) layers that formed under equivalent environmental conditions. We conclude that whatever cognitive capacity precocious MSA artifacts imply, it was not associated with human population growth. MSA populations remained consistently small by LSA standards, and a substantial increase in population size is obvious only near the MSA/LSA transition, when it is dramatically reflected in the Out-of-Africa expansion”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



DANIEL A ABRAMS et al – Underconnectivity between voice-selective cortex and reward circuitry in children with autism [“Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often show insensitivity to the human voice, a deficit that is thought to play a key role in communication deficits in this population. The social motivation theory of ASD predicts that impaired function of reward and emotional systems impedes children with ASD from actively engaging with speech. Here we explore this theory by investigating distributed brain systems underlying human voice perception in children with ASD ... Our results suggest that weak connectivity of voice-selective cortex and brain structures involved in reward and emotion may impair the ability of children with ASD to experience speech as a pleasurable stimulus, thereby impacting language and social skill development in this population”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



POOJA VISWANATHAN & ANDREAS NIEDER – Neuronal correlates of a visual “sense of number” in primate parietal and prefrontal cortices [“we recorded from neurons in the ventral intraparietal sulcus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of numerically naive monkeys. Neurons in both brain areas responded maximally to a given number of items, showing tuning to a preferred numerosity. Numerosity was encoded earlier in area ventral intraparietal area, suggesting that numerical information is conveyed from the parietal to the frontal lobe. Visual numerosity is thus spontaneously represented as a perceptual category in a dedicated parietofrontal network”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



SHU ZHANG et al – Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants’ second-language processing through triggering first-language interference [“The present studies investigate the proposal that heritage-culture cues hinder immigrants’ second-language processing by priming first-language structures. For Chinese immigrants in the United States, speaking to a Chinese (vs. Caucasian) face reduced their English fluency, but at the same time increased their social comfort, effects that did not occur for a comparison group of European Americans (study 1). Similarly, exposure to iconic symbols of Chinese (vs. American) culture hindered Chinese immigrants’ English fluency, when speaking about both culture-laden and culture-neutral topics (study 2). Finally, in both recognition (study 3) and naming tasks (study 4), Chinese icon priming increased accessibility of anomalous literal translations, indicating the intrusion of Chinese lexical structures into English processing”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



JOHN SEARLE – Theory of mind and Darwin’s legacy [We do not have an adequate theory of consciousness. Both dualism and materialism are mistaken because they deny consciousness is part of the physical world. False claims include (i) behaviorism, (ii) computationalism, (iii) epiphenomenalism, (iv) the readiness potential, (v) subjectivity, and (vi) materialism … The Darwinian revolution gave us a new form of explanation; two levels were substituted: a causal level, where we specify the mechanism by which the phenotype functions, and a functional level, where we specify the selectional advantage that the phenotype provides”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



ROBERT M SEYFARTH & DOROTHY L CHENEY – Affiliation, empathy, and the origins of theory of mind [“To understand the evolution of a Theory of Mind, we need to understand the selective factors that might have jumpstarted its initial evolution. We argue that a subconscious, reflexive appreciation of others’ intentions, emotions, and perspectives is at the roots of even the most complex forms of Theory of Mind and that these abilities may have evolved because natural selection has favored individuals that are motivated to empathize with others and attend to their social interactions. These skills are adaptive because they are essential to forming strong, enduring social bonds, which in turn enhance reproductive success”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract




Biolinguistics – 2013

PAPERS

LLUÍS BARCELO-COBLIJN & ANTONIO BENÍTEZ-BURRACO – Disentangling the Neanderthal Net: A Comment on Johansson (2013) [“We agree with Johansson when he says that Neanderthals had to count on some form of language. The amount of evidence he has reviewed points in this direction without doubt. We also agree with him in conceding Neanderthals a much more sophisticated capacity for oral production than as sometimes been depicted in the past. Nevertheless, we think that the real, productive debate is whether or not Neanderthals had the same faculty of language that anatomically modern humans (henceforth, AMHs) have. The author distances himself from this debate and, at the end, he does not take a stance”] http://www.biolinguistics.eu/index.php/ ... ew/304/305

[Johansson’s paper is at http://www.biolinguistics.eu/index.php/ ... ew/283/295]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 523

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jun 24, 2013 8:35 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 523 – 23 June 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

NATURE NEWS – Predicting future conflict between team-members with models of social networks. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Trying to Learn a Foreign Language? Avoid Reminders of Home. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – First Farmers Were Also Inbred. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Stone Age Snails. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Can Geography Shape the Way We Speak?. 1

AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY NEWS – How to Learn a Language Quickly. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

New Scientist – 22 June 2013. 2

Science – 21 June 2013. 2

Nature – 20 June 2013. 2

PLOS One – 19 June 2013. 2

PNAS – 18 June 2013. 3

Animal Behaviour – June 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


NATURE NEWS – Predicting future conflict between team-members with models of social networks

Núria Rovira-Asenjo, Tània Gumí, Marta Sales-Pardo & Roger Guimerà

Despite the well-documented benefits of working in teams, teamwork also results in communication, coordination and management costs, and may lead to personal conflict between team members. In a context where teams play an increasingly important role, it is of major importance to understand conflict and to develop diagnostic tools to avert it. Here, we investigate empirically whether it is possible to quantitatively predict future conflict in small teams using parameter-free models of social network structure. We analyze data of conflict appearance and resolution between 86 team members in 16 small teams, all working in a real project for nine consecutive months. We find that group-based models of complex networks successfully anticipate conflict in small teams whereas micro-based models of structural balance, which have been traditionally used to model conflict, do not.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130617/ ... P-20130618




SCIENCE NEWS – Trying to Learn a Foreign Language? Avoid Reminders of Home

Familiar sights and faces can cause people to revert to their native tongue

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... tml?ref=em




SCIENCE NEWS – First Farmers Were Also Inbred

Missing teeth suggest sex with close relatives helped bind early farming communities together

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... tml?ref=em




SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Stone Age Snails

Stone Age humans may have carried snails to Ireland from the Pyrenees

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... tml?ref=em




SCIAM NEWS – Can Geography Shape the Way We Speak?

Krystal D'Costa

“while accents can be hidden or faked, the sounds that we’re able to make may not be so readily manipulated. A recent study published in PLOS One shares evidence that geography may play a part in shaping these sounds. Anthropologist Caleb Everett analyzed 567 language locations and found a commonality that crossed dialectical boundaries and language families: languages with ejective phonemes tend to occur at higher elevations throughout the world.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ant ... B_20130619




AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY NEWS – How to Learn a Language Quickly

Simulations show that you can learn the meaning of words rapidly if you assume that every object has only one word associated with it.

Children learn the meanings of about ten words per day, but it isn’t clear which techniques they use to achieve this fast rate. A research team simulated word learning and showed that a specific strategy, where the learner assumes there are no exact synonyms, is so effective that it can reduce the total learning time to the shortest time possible, which is just as soon as every word has been heard at least once.

http://physics.aps.org/articles/v6/70




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




New Scientist – 22 June 2013

NEWS

New signs of language surface in mystery Voynich text [Some had dismissed the unknown script in a mysterious 15th-century illustrated text as gibberish, but statistical analysis indicates it could be a cipher] http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn2 ... cbQIpzNmZw




Science – 21 June 2013

PAPERS

KATRIN AMUNTS et al – BigBrain: An Ultrahigh-Resolution 3D Human Brain Model [“We created an ultrahigh-resolution three-dimensional (3D) model of a human brain at nearly cellular resolution of 20 micrometers, based on the reconstruction of 7404 histological sections. “BigBrain” is a free, publicly available tool that provides considerable neuroanatomical insight into the human brain, thereby allowing the extraction of microscopic data for modeling and simulation. BigBrain enables testing of hypotheses on optimal path lengths between interconnected cortical regions or on spatial organization of genetic patterning, redefining the traditional neuroanatomy maps such as those of Brodmann and von Economo” {uh oh! Mention of “the human brain” rather than the statistically standard human brain. Lefties of the world unite! We have nothing to lose but our pathological status!}] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/340/6 ... 2.abstract




Nature – 20 June 2013

PAPERS

ANDREW WHITEN – Behavioural biology: Archaeology meets primate technology [“A study of wild capuchin monkeys that crack nuts using stone hammers reveals temporal and spatial patterning of the relics of their technological efforts, confirming that such behaviours can be studied from an archaeological perspective”]

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130620




PLOS One – 19 June 2013

PAPERS

MARCELO A MONTEMURRO & DAMIÁN H ZANETTE – Keywords and Co-Occurrence Patterns in the Voynich Manuscript: An Information-Theoretic Analysis [“The Voynich manuscript has remained so far as a mystery for linguists and cryptologists. While the text written on medieval parchment -using an unknown script system- shows basic statistical patterns that bear resemblance to those from real languages, there are features that suggested to some researches that the manuscript was a forgery intended as a hoax. Here we analyse the long-range structure of the manuscript using methods from information theory. We show that the Voynich manuscript presents a complex organization in the distribution of words that is compatible with those found in real language sequences. We are also able to extract some of the most significant semantic word-networks in the text. These results together with some previously known statistical features of the Voynich manuscript, give support to the presence of a genuine message inside the book”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0066344



SHANE LINDSAY, CHRISTOPH SCHEEPERS & YUKI KAMIDE – To Dash or to Dawdle: Verb-Associated Speed of Motion Influences Eye Movements during Spoken Sentence Comprehension [“We used eye tracking to investigate how inferences about this verb-associated speed of motion would influence the time course of attention to a visual scene that matched an event described in language. Eye movements were recorded as participants heard spoken sentences with verbs that implied a fast (“dash”) or slow (“dawdle”) movement of an agent towards a goal. These sentences were heard whilst participants concurrently looked at scenes depicting the agent and a path which led to the goal object. Our results indicate a mapping of events onto the visual scene consistent with participants mentally simulating the movement of the agent along the path towards the goal: when the verb implies a slow manner of motion, participants look more often and longer along the path to the goal; when the verb implies a fast manner of motion, participants tend to look earlier at the goal and less on the path”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0067187



ANNE SELTMANN et al – The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques [“Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism)”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0067285




PNAS – 18 June 2013

ARTICLES

JUDITH F KROLL & RHONDA MCCLAIN - What bilinguals tell us about culture, cognition, and language [“Zhang et al. demonstrate that bilingual speakers are sensitive to cultural cues in the environment that signal the presence of the native language”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... l.pdf+html



PAPERS

JOSEPH HENRICH & JOAN B SILK – Interpretative problems with chimpanzee ultimatum game [“In an effort to compare fairness preferences in chimpanzees and children, Proctor et al. have devised experiments aimed at replicating the essential features of two common experiments, the dictator game (DG) and the ultimatum game (UG). Here, we present both methodological concerns and broader interpretative issues”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... l.pdf+html



DARBY PROCTOR, REBECCA A WILLIAMSON, FRANS B M DE WAAL & SARAH F BROSNAN – Reply to Henrich and Silk: Toward a unified explanation for apes and humans [“We appreciate the methodological concerns of Henrich and Silk, which resemble those of Jensen et al. Both critiques focus on the lack of refusals by the responders in our ultimatum game (UG) (3), an option on which the subjects were never trained. As discussed previously, we fail to see how this lack of refusals would invalidate the behavioral change measured in the proposers. Both the children and the chimpanzees behaved far more equitably when a partner was actively involved in the task. It is this dramatic behavioral shift from selfish to equitable, which was highly significant in each of the four tested chimpanzee pairs as well as in the children, that begs an explanation”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... l.pdf+html



ILAN FISCHER et al – Fusing enacted and expected mimicry generates a winning strategy that promotes the evolution of cooperation [“Although cooperation and trust are essential features for the development of prosperous populations, they also put cooperating individuals at risk for exploitation and abuse. Empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that the solution to the problem resides in the practice of mimicry and imitation, the expectation of opponent’s mimicry and the reliance on similarity indices. Here we fuse the principles of enacted and expected mimicry and condition their application on two similarity indices to produce a model of mimicry and relative similarity. Testing the model in computer simulations of behavioral niches, populated with agents that enact various strategies and learning algorithms, shows how mimicry and relative similarity outperforms all the opponent strategies it was tested against, pushes noncooperative opponents toward extinction, and promotes the development of cooperative populations”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/25/10229.abstract




Animal Behaviour – June 2013

PAPERS

ANDREW WHITEN – Humans are not alone in computing how others see the world [“It is 35 years since Premack & Woodruff famously asked, ‘Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?’ (1978, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 515–526). The first wave of experiments designed to tackle this provocative question in the context of cooperative transactions with humans offered largely negative answers. It was not until a landmark Animal Behaviour paper by Hare et al. (2000, Animal Behaviour, 59, 771–786) that a different approach based around foraging competition between conspecifics delivered an affirmative (if limited) verdict that, at least, ‘Chimpanzees know what conspecifics do and do not see’. This influential paper laid the foundations for a much more productive decade of studies that provided evidence for apes' recognition in others of states corresponding to knowing, intending and inferring. It further stimulated related studies in other mammalian and avian species too. Here I set the Hare et al. paper in its historical, scientific context, provide an overview of the variety of studies that have followed in its wake and address some core questions about the scientific tractability of identifying phenomena in nonverbal creatures that may be akin to human ‘theory of mind’”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213002029



SANDRA MOLESTI & BONAVENTURA MAJOLO – Grooming increases self-directed behaviour in wild Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus [“We recorded all the occurrences of self-directed behaviours (i.e. self-scratching and self-grooming) as these are reliable indicators of anxiety. The occurrence of self-directed behaviour was greater in PGs [post-grooming] than in MCs [matched control] for both the donor and recipient. This increase in postgrooming anxiety was more evident for the recipient than for the donor. The postgrooming increase in anxiety was not due to a higher risk of receiving aggression after grooming. Unlike previous studies, our results indicate that anxiety may increase after grooming in Barbary macaques. If so, the social and hygienic benefits of grooming may outweigh its short-term anxiety cost”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213002091
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 524

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jul 15, 2013 9:44 am

EAORC BULLETIN 524 – 30 June 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

NATURE NEWS – Representations of Chinese Action Verbs in the Motor and Premotor Cortex. 1

NATURE NEWS – A tale of two contribution mechanisms for nonlinear public goods. 1

NATURE NEWS – A Quantitative Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Studies of Social Rejection. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 August 2013. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 August 2013. 2

New Scientist – 29 June 2013. 2

Science – 28 June 2013. 2

Nature – 27 June 2013. 2

PLOS One – 26 June 2013. 2

PNAS – 25 June 2013. 3

Journal of Linguistics – July 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


NATURE NEWS – Representations of Chinese Action Verbs in the Motor and Premotor Cortex

Haiyan Wu et al.

The embodied view of language processing holds that language comprehension involves the recruitment of sensorimotor information, as evidenced by the somatotopic representation of action verbs in the motor system. However, this review has not yet been examined in logographic scripts such as Chinese, in which action verbs can provide explicit linguistic cues to the effectors (arm, leg, mouth) that conduct the action (hit, jump, drink). We compared the somatotopic representation of Chinese verbs that contain such effector cues and those that do not. The results showed that uncued verbs elicited similar somatotopic representation in the motor and premotor cortex as found in alphabetic scripts. However, effector-cued verbs demonstrated an inverse somatotopic pattern by showing reduced activation in corresponding motor areas, despite that effector-cued verbs actually are rated higher in imageability than uncued verbs.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130621/ ... P-20130625




NATURE NEWS – A tale of two contribution mechanisms for nonlinear public goods

Yanling Zhang et al.

Amounts of empirical evidence, ranging from microbial cooperation to collective hunting, suggests public goods produced often nonlinearly depend on the total amount of contribution. The implication of such nonlinear public goods for the evolution of cooperation is not well understood. There is also little attention paid to the divisibility nature of individual contribution amount, divisible vs. non-divisible ones. The corresponding strategy space in the former is described by a continuous investment while in the latter by a continuous probability to contribute all or nothing. Here, we use adaptive dynamics in finite populations to quantify and compare the roles nonlinearity of public-goods production plays in cooperation between these two contribution mechanisms. Although under both contribution mechanisms the population can converge into a coexistence equilibrium with an intermediate cooperation level, the branching phenomenon only occurs in the divisible contribution mechanism.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130619/ ... P-20130625




NATURE NEWS – A Quantitative Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Studies of Social Rejection

Stephanie Cacioppo et al.

Our statistical multi-level kernel density analysis (MKDA) of Cyberball neuroimaging studies with 244 participants fails to support the claim that social rejection operates on the same pain matrix as nociceptive stimuli, questioning whether social pain is more figurative or literal. We also performed an MKDA of the neuroimaging studies of reliving a romantic rejection to test whether the pain matrix was activated if the rejection were more meaningful. Results again failed to support the notion that rejection activates the neural matrix identified in studies of physical pain. Reliving an unwanted rejection by a romantic partner was significantly characterized by activation within and beyond the “Cyberball” brain network, suggesting that the neural correlates of social pain are more complex than previously thought.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130619/ ... P-20130625




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 August 2013

PAPERS

T DÁVID-BARRETT & R I M DUNBAR – Processing power limits social group size: computational evidence for the cognitive costs of sociality [“Sociality is primarily a coordination problem. However, the social (or communication) complexity hypothesis suggests that the kinds of information that can be acquired and processed may limit the size and/or complexity of social groups that a species can maintain. We use an agent-based model to test the hypothesis that the complexity of information processed influences the computational demands involved. We show that successive increases in the kinds of information processed allow organisms to break through the glass ceilings that otherwise limit the size of social groups: larger groups can only be achieved at the cost of more sophisticated kinds of information processing that are disadvantageous when optimal group size is small. These results simultaneously support both the social brain and the social complexity hypotheses”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 1.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 29 June 2013

NEWS

New signs of language surface in mystery Voynich text [Some had dismissed the unknown script in a mysterious 15th-century illustrated text as gibberish, but statistical analysis indicates it could be a cipher] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... c_7PZzNmZw



Ready, aim, throw! Lobbing rocks key to meat-eating [The ability to throw stones quickly and accurately may have been a crucial step in our evolution, because it allowed us to hunt big game] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... c_76pzNmZw




Science – 28 June 2013

REVIEWS

CHARLES GROSS – Between Brain and Imaging Hype [Review of ‘Brainwashed: The Seductive Appeal of Mindless Neuroscience’ by Sally Satel and Scott O. Lilienfeld] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/340/6140/1526.1.short




Nature – 27 June 2013

NEWS

Shells show rise of Homo sapiens [The size of ancient limpet shells suggests that human populations began swelling around 50,000 years ago, long after key cultural innovations appear in the archaeological record] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130627



PAPERS

NEIL T ROACH et al – Elastic energy storage in the shoulder and the evolution of high-speed throwing in Homo [Here we use experimental studies of humans throwing projectiles to show that our throwing capabilities largely result from several derived anatomical features that enable elastic energy storage and release at the shoulder. These features first appear together approximately 2 million years ago in the species Homo erectus. Taking into consideration archaeological evidence suggesting that hunting activity intensified around this time, we conclude that selection for throwing as a means to hunt probably had an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130627






PLOS One – 26 June 2013

PAPERS

HONG SHI et al – Genetic Evidence of an East Asian Origin and Paleolithic Northward Migration of Y-chromosome Haplogroup N [“The Y-chromosome haplogroup N-M231 (Hg N) is distributed widely in eastern and central Asia, Siberia, as well as in eastern and northern Europe ... However, the root of this Y chromosome lineage and its detailed dispersal pattern across eastern Asia are still unclear. We analyzed haplogroup profiles and phylogeographic patterns of 1,570 Hg N individuals from 20,826 males in 359 populations across Eurasia ... The highest Y-STR diversity of the ancestral Hg N sub-haplogroups was observed in the southern part of mainland East Asia, and further phylogeographic analyses supports an origin of Hg N in southern China. Combined with previous data, we propose that the early northward dispersal of Hg N started from southern China about 21 thousand years ago (kya), expanding into northern China 12–18 kya, and reaching further north to Siberia about 12–14 kya before a population expansion and westward migration into Central Asia and eastern/northern Europe around 8.0–10.0 kya”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0066102




PNAS – 25 June 2013

PAPERS

ERICA A CARTMILL et al with LILA R GLEITMAN & SUSAN GOLDIN-MEADOW – Quality of early parent input predicts child vocabulary 3 years later [“we asked 218 adult participants to guess 50 parents’ words from (muted) videos of their interactions with their 14- to 18-mo-old children. We found systematic differences in how easily individual parents’ words could be identified purely from this socio-visual context. Differences in this kind of input quality correlated with the size of the children’s vocabulary 3 y later, even after controlling for differences in input quantity. Although input quantity differed as a function of socioeconomic status, input quality (as here measured) did not, suggesting that the quality of nonverbal cues to word meaning that parents offer to their children is an individual matter, widely distributed across the population of parents”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



THURE E CERLING et al with LOUISE N LEAKEY, MEAVE G LEAKEY & RICHARD E LEAKEY – Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/26/10501.abstract



MATT SPONHEIMER et al with MEAVE G LEAKEY – Isotopic evidence of early hominin diets [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/26/10513.abstract



THURE E CERLING et al with MEAVE G LEAKEY – Diet of Theropithecus from 4 to 1 Ma in Kenya [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/26/10507.abstract



JONATHAN G WYNN et al with WILLIAM H KIMBEL – Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/26/10495.abstract



ROGIER B MARS et al – Connectivity profiles reveal the relationship between brain areas for social cognition in human and monkey temporoparietal cortex [“The human ability to infer the thoughts and beliefs of others, often referred to as “theory of mind,” as well as the predisposition to even consider others, are associated with activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) area. Unlike the case of most human brain areas, we have little sense of whether or how TPJ is related to brain areas in other nonhuman primates. It is not possible to address this question by looking for similar task-related activations in nonhuman primates because there is no evidence that nonhuman primates engage in theory-of-mind tasks in the same manner as humans. Here, instead, we explore the relationship by searching for areas in the macaque brain that interact with other macaque brain regions in the same manner as human TPJ interacts with other human brain regions. In other words, we look for brain regions with similar positions within a distributed neural circuit in the two species. We exploited the fact that human TPJ has a unique functional connectivity profile with cortical areas with known homologs in the macaque. For each voxel in the macaque temporal and parietal cortex we evaluated the similarity of its functional connectivity profile to that of human TPJ. We found that areas in the middle part of the superior temporal cortex, often associated with the processing of faces and other social stimuli, have the most similar connectivity profile. These results suggest that macaque face processing areas and human mentalizing areas might have a similar precursor”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/26/10806.abstract



PAUL MELLARS et al – Genetic and archaeological perspectives on the initial modern human colonization of southern Asia [“It has been argued recently that the initial dispersal of anatomically modern humans from Africa to southern Asia occurred before the volcanic “supereruption” of the Mount Toba volcano (Sumatra) at ∼74,000 y before present (B.P.)—possibly as early as 120,000 y B.P. We show here that this “pre-Toba” dispersal model is in serious conflict with both the most recent genetic evidence from both Africa and Asia and the archaeological evidence from South Asian sites. We present an alternative model based on a combination of genetic analyses and recent archaeological evidence from South Asia and Africa. These data support a coastally oriented dispersal of modern humans from eastern Africa to southern Asia ∼60–50 thousand years ago (ka). This was associated with distinctively African microlithic and “backed-segment” technologies analogous to the African “Howiesons Poort” and related technologies, together with a range of distinctively “modern” cultural and symbolic features (highly shaped bone tools, personal ornaments, abstract artistic motifs, microblade technology, etc.), similar to those that accompanied the replacement of “archaic” Neanderthal by anatomically modern human populations in other regions of western Eurasia at a broadly similar date”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/26/10699.abstract




Journal of Linguistics – July 2013

REVIEWS

MAGGIE TALLERMAN – Join the dots: a musical interlude in the evolution of language? [Review of ‘The Evolution of Language’ by W. Tecumseh Fitch {At over 30 pages, this is a detailed, close read of Fitch’s book. It confirms my own, less well-formulated, views of the book, and raises many of my subconscious disgruntlements to conscious awareness. If you are thinking of buying or reading Fitch’s book, read this first.}]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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AlgisKuliukas
 
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EAORC Bulletin 525

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jul 15, 2013 9:45 am

EAORC BULLETIN 525 – 7 July 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIAM NEWS – What Can Social Behavior in Lemurs Tell Us About Ourselves?. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Why Chimps Don't Play Baseball 1

SCIAM NEWS – Ladybusiness Anthropologist Throws Up Hands, Concedes Men Are the Reason for Everything Interesting in Human Evolution. 1

CONFERENCE – Toward a Science of Consciousness 2014. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

New Scientist – 6 July 2013. 2

Science – 5 July 2013. 2

Nature – 4 July 2013. 2

PLOS One – 3 July 2013. 2

PNAS – 2 July 2013. 3

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – June 2013. 3

National Geographic – July 2013. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIAM NEWS – What Can Social Behavior in Lemurs Tell Us About Ourselves?

By Krystal D'Costa

“Lemurs can be deceptive. Most animals are—it comes in handy when you’re competing for food or mates, or trying to hide from a predator. However, lemurs are particularly interesting because they can possibly help us better understand the development of our own sociality.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/ant ... B_20130703




SCIAM NEWS – Why Chimps Don't Play Baseball

Humans are much better at throwing than any other animal. Even our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, can't match our pitching performance. This video shows how our skill is down to the anatomy of our shoulders.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/video ... O_20130701




SCIAM NEWS – Ladybusiness Anthropologist Throws Up Hands, Concedes Men Are the Reason for Everything Interesting in Human Evolution

By Kate Clancy

“Like most modern anthropologists, I have challenged the idea that human evolution is entirely motivated by men’s desires, interests, behaviors and strategies. But feelings of doubt have nagged at me for years – impostor syndrome, internalized sexism, and just a general feeling of inferiority and small-brainedness. Then, PLoS Computational Biology published a piece by Morton et al (2013) suggesting that men’s preferences for younger women are what drove the evolution of menopause.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/con ... O_20130701




CONFERENCE – Toward a Science of Consciousness 2014

April 21-26, 2014, Tucson, Arizona

Speakers will include: Ned Block, David Chalmers, Karl Deisseroth, Daniel Dennett, David

Eagleman, Rebecca Goldstein, Stuart Hameroff, Christof Koch, Henry Markram, John Searle, Petra Stoerig, Giulio Tononi and many more.

For the first time, the conference will be held at the Marriott - University Park Hotel, steps from the Main Gate of the beautiful campus of the University of Arizona and from shops, restaurants and bars on University Blvd. A special conference hotel rate of $109 has been arranged and this rate is extended for 2-3 days pre/post conference start/finish dates.

For additional area hotels, see the CCS website: www.consciousness.arizona.edu

ABSTRACT SUBMISSION - TSC 2014

Abstracts will be considered for oral and poster presentations and for art/tech demo sessions. Online submissions will open by August 15.

REGISTRATION - TSC 2014

Registration for attendance uses the same online system as abstract submission, but you do not have to submit an abstract.




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




New Scientist – 6 July 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Science – 5 July 2013

ARTICLES

VIRGINIA MORELL – Into the Minds of Birds [A new brain-scanning method offers a window into the brains of birds, which have emerged as the surprising stars of many animal cognition studies] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6141/22.short



GEORGE WILLCOX – The Roots of Cultivation in Southwestern Asia [Evidence of early cultivation of crops in the Zagros Mountains of Iran helps to elucidate where and when humans first started to cultivate wild cereals] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6141/39.short



PAPERS

SIMONE RIEHL, MOHSEN ZEIDI & NICHOLAS J CONARD – Emergence of Agriculture in the Foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran [“High stratigraphic resolution and rich archaeological remains at the aceramic Neolithic site of Chogha Golan (Ilam Province, present-day Iran) reveal a sequence ranging over 2200 years of cultivation of wild plants and the first appearance of domesticated-type species. The botanical record from Chogha Golan documents how the inhabitants of the site cultivated wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and other wild progenitor species of modern crops, such as wild lentil and pea. Wild wheat species (Triticum spp.) are initially present at less than 10% of total plant species but increase to more than 20% during the last 300 years of the sequence. Around 9800 calendar years before the present, domesticated-type emmer appears”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6141/65.abstract




Nature – 4 July 2013

NEWS

JAVIER PRADO-MARTINEZ et al with KAY PRÜFER & MICHAEL LACHMANN – Great ape genetic diversity and population history [“Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria–Cameroon/western and central/eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... E-20130704




PLOS One – 3 July 2013

PAPERS

TAHAR RABAHI et al – Effect of Action Verbs on the Performance of a Complex Movement [“The interaction between language and motor action has been approached by studying the effect of action verbs, kinaesthetic imagery and mental subtraction upon the performance of a complex movement, the squat vertical jump (SVJ). The time of flight gave the value of the height of the SVJ and was measured with an Optojump® and a Myotest® apparatuses. The results obtained by the effects of the cognitive stimuli showed a statistically significant improvement of the SVJ performance after either loudly or silently pronouncing, hearing or reading the verb saute (jump in French language). Action verbs specific for other motor actions (pince = pinch, lèche = lick) or non-specific (bouge = move) showed no or little effect. A meaningless verb for the French subjects (tiáo = jump in Chinese) showed no effect as did rêve (dream), tombe (fall) and stop. The verb gagne (win) improved significantly the SVJ height, as did its antonym perds (lose) suggesting a possible influence of affects in the subjects’ performance”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0068687



ADRIANO R LAMEIRA et al – Population-Specific Use of the Same Tool-Assisted Alarm Call between Two Wild Orangutan Populations (Pongopygmaeus wurmbii) Indicates Functional Arbitrariness [“Arbitrariness is an elementary feature of human language, yet seldom an object of comparative inquiry. While arbitrary signals for the same function are relatively frequent between animal populations across taxa, the same signal with arbitrary functions is rare and it remains unknown whether, in parallel with human speech, it may involve call production in animals. To investigate this question, we examined a particular orangutan alarm call – the kiss-squeak – and two variants – hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. In Tuanan (Central Kalimantan, Indonesia), the acoustic frequency of unaided kiss-squeaks is negatively related to body size. The modified variants are correlated with perceived threat and are hypothesized to increase the perceived body size of the sender, as the use of a hand or leaves lowers the kiss-squeak’s acoustic frequency”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0069749



JUDITH MARIA BURKART & KATJA RUETH – Preschool Children Fail Primate Prosocial Game Because of Attentional Task Demands [“Various nonhuman primate species have been tested with prosocial games (i.e. derivates from dictator games) in order to better understand the evolutionary origin of proactive prosociality in humans. Results of these efforts are mixed, and it is difficult to disentangle true species differences from methodological artifacts. We tested 2- to 5-year-old children with a costly and a cost-free version of a prosocial game that differ with regard to the payoff distribution and are widely used with nonhuman primates. Simultaneously, we assessed the subjects’ level of Theory of Mind understanding. Prosocial behavior was demonstrated with the prosocial game, and did not increase with more advanced Theory of Mind understanding. However, prosocial behavior could only be detected with the costly version of the game, whereas the children failed the cost-free version that is most commonly used with nonhuman primates”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0068440



ANKE MAATZ, BERNHARD STRAUSS & KARL-JÜRGEN BÄR – Development and Validation of a Set of German Stimulus- and Target Words for an Attachment Related Semantic Priming Paradigm [“Experimental research in adult attachment theory is faced with the challenge to adequately activate the adult attachment system. In view of the multitude of methods employed for this purpose so far, this paper suggests to further make use of the methodological advantages of semantic priming. In order to enable the use of such a paradigm in a German speaking context, a set of German words belonging to the semantic categories ‘interpersonal closeness’, ‘interpersonal distance’ and ‘neutral’ were identified and their semantics were validated combining production- and rating method. 164 university students answered corresponding online-questionnaires”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0067684




PNAS – 2 July 2013

ARTICLES

KARL SKORECKI & DORON M BEHAR – North Africans traveling north [“Humans have always loved to move and to mate. In doing so, we generate complex patterns of diversity in language, custom, and culture across and within geographic regions. However, the richest and most durable signals of migration and admixture are evident in patterns of DNA sequence variation”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... l.pdf+html



PAPERS

DANI NADEL et al – Earliest floral grave lining from 13,700–11,700-y-old Natufian burials at Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel [“It is difficult to establish when people started to use flowers in public and ceremonial events because of the scarcity of relevant evidence in the archaeological record. We report on uniquely preserved 13,700–11,700-y-old grave linings made of flowers, suggesting that such use began much earlier than previously thought. The only potentially older instance is the questionable use of flowers in the Shanidar IV Neanderthal grave”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



RICHARD G KLEIN & TERESA E STEELE – Archaeological shellfish size and later human evolution in Africa [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/27/10910.abstract




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – June 2013

I have decided to add this title to the regular list (http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary_Neuroscience). Over the next few weeks I’ll be listing relevant papers from the publication, not just current ones. If you know of any other journal which this bulletin should cover, let me know.

ARTICLES

CONSTANCE SCHARFF, ANGELA D FRIEDERICI & MICHAEL PETRIDES – Neurobiology of human language and its evolution: primate and non-primate perspectives [“A couple of decades ago, the comparisons were mainly drawn between human and non-human primates, investigating the cytoarchitecture of particular brain areas and their structural connectivity. Moreover, comparative studies were conducted with respect to their ability to process grammars of different complexity. So far the available data suggest that non-human primates are able to learn simple probabilistic grammars, but not hierarchically structured complex grammars. The human brain, which easily learns both grammars, differs from the non-human brain (among others) in how two language-relevant brain regions (Broca's area in the inferior frontal cortex and the superior temporal cortex) are connected structurally by fiber tracts which run dorsally and ventrally in the primate brain”]



PAPERS

CHRISTOPHER I PETKOV & ERICH D JARVIS – Birds, primates, and spoken language origins: behavioral phenotypes and neurobiological substrates [“Here we critically review the behavioral and neurobiological evidence for parallels and differences between the so-called vocal learners and vocal non-learners in the context of motor and cognitive theories. In doing so, we note that behaviorally vocal-production learning abilities are more distributed than categorical, as are the auditory-learning abilities of animals”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... /abstract#



MICHEL RIJNTJES et al – The dual loop model: its relation to language and other modalities [“The current neurobiological consensus of a general dual loop system scaffolding human and primate brains gives evidence that the dorsal and ventral connections subserve similar functions, independent of the modality and species. However, most current commentators agree that although bees dance and chimpanzees grunt, these systems of communication differ qualitatively from human language. So why is language unique to humans? We discuss anatomical differences between humans and other animals, the meaning of lesion studies in patients, the role of inner speech, and compare functional imaging studies in language with other modalities in respect to the dual loop model”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 9/abstract



THOMAS LACHMANN et al – Learning to read aligns visual analytical skills with grapheme-phoneme mapping: evidence from illiterates [“Learning to read puts evolutionary established speech and visual object recognition functions to novel use. As we previously showed, this leads to particular rearrangements and differentiations in these functions, for instance the habitual preference for holistic perceptual organization in visual object recognition and its suppression in perceiving letters. We performed the experiment in which the differentiation between holistic non-letter processing and analytic letter processing in literates was originally shown (van Leeuwen and Lachmann, 2004) with illiterate adults. The original differentiation is absent in illiterates; they uniformly showed analytic perception for both letters and non-letters”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 8/abstract




National Geographic – July 2013

ARTICLES

JAMIE SHREEVE – The case of the missing ancestor [The discovery of the Denisovan lineage has changed our view of how Homo sapiens became the dominant hominin species]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 526

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jul 15, 2013 9:45 am

EAORC BULLETIN 526 – 14 July 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Neuroscience of Social Influence. 1

WORLD SCIENCE – Neanderthals may have talked -- even contributed to our languages. 1

CALL FOR PAPERS – Language Under Discussion Journal 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 September 2013. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 August 2013. 2

New Scientist – 13 July 2013. 2

Science – 12 July 2013. 3

Nature – 11 July 2013. 3

PLOS One – 3 July 2013. 3

PNAS – 2 July 2013. 3

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – Missing articles back to 2011. 3

The Linguistics Journal – July 2013. 5

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 5




NOTICES


SCIAM NEWS – The Neuroscience of Social Influence

By Scott Barry Kaufman

researchers recruited undergraduate participants and randomly assigned them to two groups: the “interns” and the “producers.” The 20 interns were asked to view ideas for television pilots and provide recommendations to the 79 producers about which shows should be considered for further development and production. All of the interns had their brains scanned by fMRI while they viewed the videos, and they were then videotaped while they discussed the merits of each pilot show idea. The producers rated which ideas they would like to further recommend. How was neural activity related to the spread of ideas?

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/bea ... B_20130710




WORLD SCIENCE – Neanderthals may have talked -- even contributed to our languages

Surprising proposals come on the heels of findings that Neanderthals interbred with ancestors of modern humans.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... anderthals




CALL FOR PAPERS – Language Under Discussion Journal

Language Under Discussion (http://ludjournal.org/index.php?journal=LUD) is a new open-access peer-reviewed journal devoted to promoting open-minded debate on central questions in the study of language, from all relevant disciplinary and theoretical perspectives. We are now looking for open-minded and original authors, volunteer reviewers, and, once the first issue is out, interested readers from all academic disciplines that deal with human languages in one way or another.



Language Under Discussion is a journal that seeks, unapologetically, to promote scholarly discussion of the "big" questions about language, such as: What kind of a thing is language? What is the nature of linguistic meaning? How to best conceptualize structure and regularity in human languages? What is the role language plays in culture and how do cultural phenomena reflect on language? What are the roles of cognition and communication in language? We believe that specialized and applied studies are at their best when they are informed by a vision or model of language in general and reflect back on it, just as theoretical discussions are only truly valuable when grounded in empirical research.



Each issue of the journal will be composed of a focus paper and discussion notes responding to it. An issue will remain 'open' for adding discussion notes to it for a year after the focus paper is out, after which the author(s) of the focus paper will be invited to respond to the discussion notes. In addition, the journal will occasionally feature round-table discussions.



Insofar as formatting citations and other technical aspects of style are concerned, LUD will publish papers in any consistent style (we recommend using one of the major standards, such as the APA style, the MLA style, the Chicago Manual of Style, as appropriate within your discipline). A list of references should appear at the end of each paper. It is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain and present permissions for reproducing copyrighted materials in the paper, if any. Authors should state their argument clearly and be explicit about their assumptions, their conclusions, and the implications of their work for our understanding of language. Write in a way that would explain your ideas, not hide them, and provoke your readers to respond. Please remember that your paper's readers come from different disciplines. This means you should explicitly state, and if necessary, explain, the theoretical framework (or frameworks) within which you are working. Assuming everybody knows does not work. Also, please avoid using jargon and keep the use of abbreviations and acronyms only for those rare occasions on which it would improve the readability of your text. Remember that the same term or abbreviation often has conflicting uses in different disciplines and fields and remember to define key terms according to the ways in which you use them.



Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. The journal's website can be found at the following URL: http://www.ludjournal.org/



No fees of any kind will be levied on the journal's authors or readers at any stage.



As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

· The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).

· The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.

· Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.

· The text layout is reasonably legible (we recommend using 1.5 line spacing and 12pt fonts).

· The text adheres to the stylistic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal, and ends with a list of references.

· No information identifying the author(s), including self-citations, first-person references, headers with names, acknowledgements, etc., remains in the text if submitted for blind review (when necessary, these references can be restored at the copy-editing stage).

This call for papers is ongoing and there is no specific deadline. To contact the co-editors for any purpose, please write us at: editors@ludjournal.org.



The Editorial Team:

Dr. Esther Pascual, University of Groningen, Netherlands Dr. Marla Perkins, Northern Arizona University, United States Dr. Sergeiy Sandler, Independent scholar




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 September 2013

PAPERS

DANIEL NETTLE, WILLEM E FRANKENHUIS & IAN J RICKARD – The evolution of predictive adaptive responses in human life history [“Many studies in humans have shown that adverse experience in early life is associated with accelerated reproductive timing, and there is comparative evidence for similar effects in other animals. There are two different classes of adaptive explanation for associations between early-life adversity and accelerated reproduction, both based on the idea of predictive adaptive responses (PARs). According to external PAR hypotheses, early-life adversity provides a ‘weather forecast’ of the environmental conditions into which the individual will mature, and it is adaptive for the individual to develop an appropriate phenotype for this anticipated environment. In internal PAR hypotheses, early-life adversity has a lasting negative impact on the individual's somatic state, such that her health is likely to fail more rapidly as she gets older, and there is an advantage to adjusting her reproductive schedule accordingly”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 3.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 13 July 2013

NEWS

Cockatoo cracks lock with no prior training [“The bird removed a pin, a screw and a bolt, before turning a wheel and releasing a latch – all to reach a nut”] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... eJEX23Nky0



ARTICLES

COLIN BARRAS – The strange ape that's rewriting our family tree [A new assessment of the role of Homo habilis in our evolutionary history is causing a reconsideration of where we came from] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -tree.html



TIFFANY O'CALLAGHAN – Voice almighty: Decoding speech's secret signals [You voice is used as an indicator of your social status by others, particularly pitch] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... gnals.html




Science – 12 July 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 11 July 2013

NEWS

Anthropology: Crops ingrained in Iranian past [“Pre-pottery Neolithic remains from Iran show agriculture emerging in the Zagros Mountains around 12,000 years ago.”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130711




PLOS One – 3 July 2013

PAPERS

ALEX BRANDMEYER et al –Decoding Speech Perception by Native and Non-Native Speakers Using Single-Trial Electrophysiological Data [“Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. ... Two principal questions were asked: 1) Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2) Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across) of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0068261



MARTIN ROHRMEIER & IAN CROSS – Artificial Grammar Learning of Melody Is Constrained by Melodic Inconsistency: Narmour's Principles Affect Melodic Learning [“Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0066174




PNAS – 2 July 2013

PAPERS

ERICA A CARTMILL et al with LILA R GLEITMAN & SUSAN GOLDIN-MEADOW – Quality of early parent input predicts child vocabulary 3 years later [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



JUDITH F KROLL & RHONDA MCCLAIN - What bilinguals tell us about culture, cognition, and language [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/28/11219.extract



SHU ZHANG et al – Heritage-culture images disrupt immigrants’ second-language processing through triggering first language interference [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/28/11272.abstract




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – Missing articles back to 2011

PAPERS

ROBERT C BERWICK, GABRIËL J L BECKERS, KAZUO OKANOYA & JOHAN J BOLHUIS – A bird’s eye view of human language evolution [“Comparative studies of linguistic faculties in animals pose an evolutionary paradox: language involves certain perceptual and motor abilities, but it is not clear that this serves as more than an input–output channel for the externalization of language proper. Strikingly, the capability for auditory–vocal learning is not shared with our closest relatives, the apes, but is present in such remotely related groups as songbirds and marine mammals. There is increasing evidence for behavioral, neural, and genetic similarities between speech acquisition and birdsong learning. At the same time, researchers have applied formal linguistic analysis to the vocalizations of both primates and songbirds. What have all these studies taught us about the evolution of language?”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 5/abstract



JUSTIN T KIGGINS, JORDAN A COMINS & TIMOTHY Q GENTNER – Targets for a comparative neurobiology of language [“Here we deconstruct language perception into a minimal set of cognitive processes necessary to support grammatical processing. We then review the current state of our understanding about the neural mechanisms of these requisite cognitive processes in songbirds”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 6/abstract



STEFAN HEIM et al – The language–number interface in the brain: a complex parametric study of quantifiers and quantities [“As linguistic and numerical knowledge can only be compared in humans, we used a new fMRI paradigm in an attempt to dissociate Estimation from Comparison, and at the same time uncover the neural relation between numerosity and language. ... Both Estimation and Comparison recruited adjacent, partially overlapping bi-hemispheric fronto-parietal regions. Additional semantic analysis of positive vs. negative quantifiers involving the interpretation of quantity and numerosity specifically recruited left area 45”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 4/abstract



ANGELA D FRIEDERICI – Language development and the ontogeny of the dorsal pathway [“In the adult human brain, language-relevant regions located in the frontal and temporal cortex are connected via different fiber tracts: ventral and dorsal pathways. Ontogenetically, it has been shown that newborns display an adult-like ventral pathway at birth. The dorsal pathway, however, seems to display two subparts which mature at different rates: one part, connecting the temporal cortex to the premotor cortex, is present at birth, whereas the other part, connecting the temporal cortex to Broca’s area, develops much later and is still not fully matured at the age of seven. At this age, typically developing children still have problems in processing syntactically complex sentences. We therefore suggest that the mastery of complex syntax, which is at the core of human language, crucially depends on the full maturation of the fiber connection between the temporal cortex and Broca’s area”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 3/abstract



FRANCISCO ABOITIZ – Gestures, vocalizations, and memory in language origins [“The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced in the non-human primate brain. At its core, this circuit constitutes an auditory–vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a “ventral pathway” connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a “dorsal pathway” connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homolog of the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal–premotor network for hand and gesture selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of the dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to represent a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of vocal language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 2/abstract



JAMES K RILLING et al – Continuity, divergence, and the evolution of brain language pathways [“Here, we argue for the importance of evolutionary divergence in understanding brain language evolution. We present new comparative data reinforcing our previous conclusion that the dorsal arcuate fasciculus pathway was more significantly modified than the ventral extreme capsule pathway in human evolution. Twenty-six adult human and twenty-six adult chimpanzees were imaged with diffusion-weighted MRI and probabilistic tractography was used to track and compare the dorsal and ventral language pathways. Based on these and other data, we argue that the arcuate fasciculus is likely to be the pathway most essential for higher-order aspects of human language such as syntax and lexical–semantics”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 1/abstract



W TECUMSEH FITCH – The evolution of syntax: an exaptationist perspective [“Two perspectives on the evolution of syntax can be contrasted. The “continuist” perspective seeks the evolutionary roots of complex human syntax in simpler combinatory systems used in animal communication systems, such as iteration and sequencing. The “exaptationist” perspective posits evolutionary change of function, so that systems today used for linguistic communication might previously have served quite different functions in earlier hominids. I argue that abundant biological evidence supports an exaptationist perspective, in general, and that it must be taken seriously when considering language evolution”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 9/abstract



ADAM MCNAMARA – Can we measure memes? [“Here it is argued that although a precise definition of memes is rather difficult it does not preclude highly controlled experiments studying the neural substrates of their initiation and replication. In this paper, memes are termed as either internally or externally represented (i-memes/e-memes) in relation to whether they are represented as a neural substrate within the central nervous system or in some other form within our environment. It is argued that neuroimaging technology is now sufficiently advanced to image the connectivity profiles of i-memes and critically, to measure changes to i-memes over time, i.e., as they evolve”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 1/abstract



SIMON BARON-COHEN et al – Emotion word comprehension from 4 to 16 years old: a developmental survey [“Between 4 and 11 years old, the size of the emotional lexicon doubled every 2 years, but between 12 and 16 years old, developmental rate of growth of the emotional lexicon leveled off ... Studies using emotion terms in English need to be developmentally sensitive, since during childhood there is considerable change. The absence of change after adolescence may be an artifact of the words included in this study”] http://www.frontiersin.org/Evolutionary ... 9/abstract




The Linguistics Journal – July 2013

PAPERS

MATTHEW COOMBER – Which ‘I’ is really me? Identity, pronouns and language learning [“This article reports on the linguistic choices of male learners of Japanese as a second language, examining the ways in which their masculine identities may intersect and interact with their identities as language learners. In Japanese, a speaker’s choice of pronoun can be used to display gender differences”] http://www.linguistics-journal.com/July-2013-mc.php
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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AlgisKuliukas
 
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EAORC Bulletin 527

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jul 22, 2013 8:37 am

EAORC BULLETIN 527 – 21 July 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS - Apes Capable of 'Mental Time Travel' 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Neuroscience of Everybody's Favorite Topic. 1

NY TIMES – A Village Invents a Language All Its Own. 1

CONFERENCE – iCog – Call for Abstracts. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 21 July 2013. 2

New Scientist – 20 July 2013. 2

Science – 19 July 2013. 2

Nature – 18 July 2013. 2

PLOS One – 17 July 2013. 3

PNAS – 16 July 2013. 3

Animal Behaviour – July 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS - Apes Capable of 'Mental Time Travel'

Chimpanzees and orangutans have humanlike memories of specific activities

http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2 ... tml?ref=em




SCIAM NEWS – The Neuroscience of Everybody's Favorite Topic

By Adrian F. Ward

Why do people spend so much time talking about themselves?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20130717




NY TIMES – A Village Invents a Language All Its Own

By Nicholas Bakalar

There are many dying languages in the world. But at least one has recently been born, created by children living in a remote village in northern Australia.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/16/scien ... 03483&_r=0




CONFERENCE – iCog – Call for Abstracts

An interdisciplinary conference for postgraduate and early-career researchers in cognitive science

29 November - 1 December 2013, University of Sheffield

Deadline for submission: 20 September 2013



The inaugural conference of the iCog network will take place at the University of Sheffield on 29 November - 1 December 2013.

Guest speakers will be:

· Margaret A Boden (Cognitive Science, Sussex) (keynote; provisional title: "Cognitive Science and Interdisciplinarity")

· Rita Astuti (Anthropology, LSE)

· Andy Clark (Philosophy, Edinburgh)

· Vyv Evans (Linguistics, Bangor)

· Danielle Matthews (Psychology, Sheffield)

· Edmund T Rolls (Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience) (provisional title: "Mind mechanisms")

We invite the submission of extended abstracts for 30-minute presentations or posters.

Submissions are invited from postgraduate and early-career researchers in anthropology, computational intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, and related disciplines. Presentations should concern how the constituent disciplines can profitably work together and/or case studies of research questions and topics that have benefited or would benefit from interdisciplinary work.

SUBMISSION GUIDELINES:

Submissions should be e-mailed to <icog@sheffield.ac.uk> with the subject line 'Submission' and include two Word (.doc, .docx) or PDF documents:

· A cover page containing your name, institutional and departmental affiliation(s), status (postgraduate, postdoctoral, or early-career researcher), and the title of your paper. Please also indicate for which category (presentation or poster or both) you would like your submission to be considered.

· A separate file containing the title of your paper and an extended abstract (500-1,000 words), suitable for blind review.

· Submissions must be received by midnight on Friday, 20 September 2013.

For more information on iCog, visit i-cog.com, or contact icog@sheffield.ac.uk with any queries. Registration for the conference will open in October.




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 21 July 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 20 July 2013

NEWS

First look into workings of the Neanderthal brain [in a technological breakthrough, the system of gene switches in Neanderthals has been uncovered, allowing us to assess their mental life] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... brain.html



Chimps have experimented with sex more than humans [A look at sperm plugs used by chimps may help establish how the last common ancestor of chimps and humans mated] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... exJAm3Nky0




Science – 19 July 2013

NEWS

Latest Skirmish over Ancestral Violence Strikes Blow for Peace [Are hunter-gatherer societies warlike? That question has sparked a war of its own among scientists. Now in this issue of Science, a study fires a salvo in support of peace among mobile foraging cultures] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6143/224.short



PAPERS

DOUGLAS P FRY & PATRIK SÖDERBERG – Lethal Aggression in Mobile Forager Bands and Implications for the Origins of War [“We investigated lethal aggression in a sample of 21 mobile forager band societies (MFBS) derived systematically from the standard cross-cultural sample. We hypothesized, on the basis of mobile forager ethnography, that most lethal events would stem from personal disputes rather than coalitionary aggression against other groups (war). More than half of the lethal aggression events were perpetrated by lone individuals, and almost two-thirds resulted from accidents, interfamilial disputes, within-group executions, or interpersonal motives such as competition over a particular woman. Overall, the findings suggest that most incidents of lethal aggression among MFBS may be classified as homicides, a few others as feuds, and a minority as war”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6143/270.abstract



TIAGO B QUENTAL & CHARLES R MARSHALL – How the Red Queen Drives Terrestrial Mammals to Extinction [“We analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of 19 Cenozoic terrestrial mammalian clades with rich fossil records that are now fully extinct or in diversity decline. We find their diversity loss was not just a consequence of “gamblers ruin” but resulted from the evolutionary loss to the Red Queen, a failure to keep pace with a deteriorating environment. Diversity loss is driven equally by both depressed origination rates and elevated extinction rates”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6143/290.abstract




Nature – 18 July 2013

NEWS

Old origins for New World dogs [Ancestors of American dog breeds may have walked across the Bering Strait rather than being brought across the ocean] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130718



REVIEWS

JOHN WHITFIELD – In retrospect: The Prince [review of ‘The Prince’ by Niccolò Machiavelli, begun five centuries ago this month] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130718



CHRIS FRITH - Neurophilosophy: My brain and I [Review of ‘Touching a Nerve: the self as brain’ by Patricia Churchland] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130718




PLOS One – 17 July 2013

PAPERS

EYAL SAGI, DANIEL DIERMEIER & STEFAN KAUFMANN – Identifying Issue Frames in Text [“In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S.”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0069185




PNAS – 16 July 2013

PAPERS

ROBERT E DEWAR et al – Stone tools and foraging in northern Madagascar challenge Holocene extinction models [“Recent archaeological excavations in northern Madagascar provide evidence of occupational sites with microlithic stone technologies related to foraging for forest and coastal resources. A forager occupation of one site dates to earlier than 2000 B.C., doubling the length of Madagascar’s known occupational history, and thus the time during which people exploited Madagascar’s environments”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



AMY BOGAARD et al – Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe’s first farmers [“Here, we present previously undescribed stable isotope determinations of charred cereals and pulses from 13 Neolithic sites across Europe (dating ca. 5900–2400 cal B.C.), which show that early farmers used livestock manure and water management to enhance crop yields. Intensive manuring inextricably linked plant cultivation and animal herding and contributed to the remarkable resilience of these combined practices across diverse climatic zones”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



DANI NADEL et al – Earliest floral grave lining from 13,700–11,700-y-old Natufian burials at Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/29/11774.abstract




Animal Behaviour – July 2013

PAPERS

JUDITH MORALES & ALBERTO VELANDO - Signals in family conflicts [“In this essay, we review for the first time the clearest evidence of animal signals found to play a role in more than one family context (e.g. mate–mate, parent–offspring and sib–sib interactions). We then argue that these signals might have coevolved in multiple family contexts because the whole network of related individuals shares genes and similar physiological mechanisms underlying signal expression and perception abilities”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 721300167X



IAN C GILBY, MICHAEL L WILSON & ANNE E. PUSEY – Ecology rather than psychology explains co-occurrence of predation and border patrols in male chimpanzees [“it has been proposed that hunting behaviour in chimpanzees evolved from intraspecies aggression. Over 32 years, chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania were significantly more likely to engage in a territorial border patrol on days when they hunted red colobus monkeys (Procolobus spp.), and vice versa, even after statistically controlling for male chimpanzee party size. We test the hypothesis that this correlation arises because hunting and patrolling are components of a species-level aggressive behavioural syndrome; specifically that predation arose as a by-product of territorial aggression in this species. However, hunting was equally likely to occur after a patrol and/or an intergroup interaction as it was before, and the occurrence of an intergroup interaction in which the chimpanzees approached strangers did not increase subsequent hunting probability”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213001929



SANDRA MOLESTI & BONAVENTURA MAJOLO – Grooming increases self-directed behaviour in wild Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus [“We analysed whether anxiety is reduced after grooming and whether this reduction differs between the donor and recipient of grooming. We collected 10 min postgrooming and matched-control (PG–MC) focal data on the donor and recipient of the same grooming interaction in wild Barbary macaques. We recorded all the occurrences of self-directed behaviours (i.e. self-scratching and self-grooming) as these are reliable indicators of anxiety. The occurrence of self-directed behaviour was greater in PGs than in MCs for both the donor and recipient. This increase in postgrooming anxiety was more evident for the recipient than for the donor. The postgrooming increase in anxiety was not due to a higher risk of receiving aggression after grooming”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213002091



PAWEL FEDUREK et al with KATIE E SLOCOMBE – Pant hoot chorusing and social bonds in male chimpanzees [“We tested the hypothesis that male chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, pant hoot chorusing, a common behaviour in these primates, is a reliable but also flexible signal of affiliative relationships. The results of our study, conducted on the Kanyawara community of chimpanzees in Uganda, show that males were more likely to join in with the pant hoot of preferred long-term social partners to form a chorus. This supports the hypothesis that this behaviour is a good indicator of strong or long-term social bonds between male chimpanzees. However, our results also show that pant hoot chorusing reliably reflects short-term affiliations between males. For instance, male dyads were more likely to be involved in affiliative behaviours, such as reciprocated grooming, joint nonvocal displays and coalitions, on days when they chorused together, compared to days when they did not”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 721300211X
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 528

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Jul 29, 2013 9:43 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 528 – 28 July 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Dolphins May Have Individual Names. 1

SCIAM NEWS – New Study of Foragers Undermines Claim That War Has Deep Evolutionary Roots. 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Surprising Origins of Evolutionary Complexity. 1

Archaeology Volunteer Wanted (Borough of Havering) 1

CONFERENCE – ICDL-EpiRob 2013 (Osaka, Aug 18-22) registration is open. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 September 2013. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 September 2013. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 28 July 2013. 2

New Scientist – 27 July 2013. 2

Science – 26 July 2013. 2

Nature – 25 July 2013. 2

PLOS One – 24 July 2013. 2

PNAS – 23 July 2013. 3

Behavioural and Brain Sciences – August 2013. 3

PaleoAnthropology – 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIAM NEWS – Dolphins May Have Individual Names

By Cynthia Graber

Bottlenose dolphins reacted specifically to the sound of their own individual, signature whistles when those sounds were played back to them.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podca ... B_20130724




SCIAM NEWS – New Study of Foragers Undermines Claim That War Has Deep Evolutionary Roots

By John Horgan

One of the most insidious modern memes holds that war is innate, an adaptation bred into our ancestors by natural selection. This hypothesis—let’s call it the “Deep Roots Theory of War”–has been promoted by such intellectual heavyweights as Steven Pinker, Edward Wilson, Jared Diamond, Richard Wrangham, Francis Fukuyama and David Brooks …

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cro ... O_20130722




SCIAM NEWS – The Surprising Origins of Evolutionary Complexity

By Carl Zimmer

Scientists are exploring how organisms can evolve elaborate structures without Darwinian selection.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20130722




Archaeology Volunteer Wanted (Borough of Havering)

The London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre (LAARC) is recruiting for a small team of local volunteers from the Borough of Havering for an exciting five week project.

http://volunteerteam.london.gov.uk/opportunities/584




CONFERENCE – ICDL-EpiRob 2013 (Osaka, Aug 18-22) registration is open

On behalf of the organizers of the 2013 International Conferences on Learning and Development / Epigenetic Robotics meetings, we would like to announce that registration has now opened. For more information, please visit: http://www.icdl-epirob.org/




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 28 July 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 27 July 2013

NEWS

Vendettas, not war? Unpicking why our ancestors killed [Rather than wars between groups, violence in early societies was most often due to personal clashes within the same society, a controversial study suggests] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... fVSZW3Nky0




Science – 26 July 2013

NEWS

San trackers from Namibia help researchers decipher Ice Age footprints [and challenge some conventional wisdom about the marks] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6144/324.3.short




Nature – 25 July 2013

PAPERS

JAVIER PRADO-MARTINEZ et al – Great ape genetic diversity and population history [“Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria–Cameroon/western and central/eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme”] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... E-20130725




PLOS One – 24 July 2013

PAPERS

RÉMY CRASSARD et al – Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic Occupations around Mundafan Palaeolake, Saudi Arabia: Implications for Climate Change and Human Dispersals [“The Mundafan palaeolake is situated in southern Saudi Arabia, in the Rub’ al-Khali (the ‘Empty Quarter’), the world’s largest sand desert. Here we report the first discoveries of Middle Palaeolithic and Neolithic archaeological sites in association with the palaeolake. We associate the human occupations with new geochronological data, and suggest the archaeological sites date to the wet periods of Marine Isotope Stage 5 and the Early Holocene. The archaeological sites indicate that humans repeatedly penetrated the ameliorated environments of the Rub’ al-Khali. The sites probably represent short-term occupations, with the Neolithic sites focused on hunting, as indicated by points and weaponry. Middle Palaeolithic assemblages at Mundafan support a lacustrine adaptive focus in Arabia. Provenancing of obsidian artifacts indicates that Neolithic groups at Mundafan had a wide wandering range, with transport of artifacts from distant sources”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi ... ne.0069665



RÉMY CRASSARD & YAMANDÚ HIERONYMUS HILBERT – A Nubian Complex Site from Central Arabia: Implications for Levallois Taxonomy and Human Dispersals during the Upper Pleistocene [“Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0069221



INA BORNKESSEL-SCHLESEWSKY, SYLVIA KRAUSPENHAAR & MATTHIAS SCHLESEWSKY – Yes, You Can? A Speaker’s Potency to Act upon His Words Orchestrates Early Neural Responses to Message-Level Meaning [“Here, we investigated the impact of social attributions to the speaker by measuring event-related brain potentials while participants watched videos of three speakers uttering true or false statements pertaining to politics or general knowledge: a top political decision maker (the German Federal Minister of Finance at the time of the experiment), a well-known media personality and an unidentifiable control speaker. False versus true statements engendered an N400 - late positivity response, with the N400 (150–450 ms) constituting the earliest observable response to message-level meaning. Crucially, however, the N400 was modulated by the combination of speaker and message: for false versus true political statements, an N400 effect was only observable for the politician, but not for either of the other two speakers; for false versus true general knowledge statements, an N400 was engendered by all three speakers”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0069173



JAN VANHOVE – The Critical Period Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition: A Statistical Critique and a Reanalysis [“This paper discusses statistical fallacies common in cph research and illustrates an alternative analytical method (piecewise regression) by means of a reanalysis of two datasets from a 2010 paper purporting to have found cross-linguistic evidence in favour of the cph. This reanalysis reveals that the specific age patterns predicted by the cph are not cross-linguistically robust. Applying the principle of parsimony, it is concluded that age patterns in second language acquisition are not governed by a critical period”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0069172




PNAS – 23 July 2013

PAPERS

FEREYDOUN HORMOZDIARI et al with GREAT APE GENOME PROJECT – Rates and patterns of great ape retrotransposition [“We analyzed 83 fully sequenced great ape genomes for mobile element insertions, predicting a total of 49,452 fixed and polymorphic Alu and long interspersed element 1 (L1) insertions not present in the human reference assembly and assigning each retrotransposition event to a different time point during great ape evolution. We used these homoplasy-free markers to construct a mobile element insertions-based phylogeny of humans and great apes and demonstrate their differential power to discern ape subspecies and populations. Within this context, we find a good correlation between L1 diversity and single-nucleotide polymorphism heterozygosity (r2 = 0.65) in contrast to Alu repeats, which show little correlation (r2 = 0.07). We estimate that the “rate” of Alu retrotransposition has differed by a factor of 15-fold in these lineages. Humans, chimpanzees, and bonobos show the highest rates of Alu accumulation—the latter two since divergence 1.5 Mya. The L1 insertion rate, in contrast, has remained relatively constant, with rates differing by less than a factor of three. We conclude that Alu retrotransposition has been the most variable form of genetic variation during recent human–great ape evolution, with increases and decreases occurring over very short periods of evolutionary time”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



DIANA LÓPEZ-BARROSO et al – Word learning is mediated by the left arcuate fasciculus [“Here, we combined diffusion imaging tractography and functional MRI to study whether the strength of anatomical and functional connectivity between auditory and motor language networks is associated with word learning ability. Our results showed that performance in word learning correlates with microstructural properties and strength of functional connectivity of the direct connections between Broca’s and Wernicke’s territories in the left hemisphere. This study suggests that our ability to learn new words relies on an efficient and fast communication between temporal and frontal areas. The absence of these connections in other animals may explain the unique ability of learning words in humans”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



STEPHANIE L KING & VINCENT M JANIK – Bottlenose dolphins can use learned vocal labels to address each other [“Here, we show that wild bottlenose dolphins respond to hearing a copy of their own signature whistle by calling back. Animals did not respond to whistles that were not their own signature. This study provides compelling evidence that a dolphin’s learned identity signal is used as a label when addressing conspecifics”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract




Behavioural and Brain Sciences – August 2013

PAPERS

MARTIN J PICKERING & SIMON GARROD – An integrated theory of language production and comprehension [“Currently, production and comprehension are regarded as quite distinct in accounts of language processing. In rejecting this dichotomy, we instead assert that producing and understanding are interwoven, and that this interweaving is what enables people to predict themselves and each other”] http://journals.cambridge.org/action/di ... 5X12001495

Plus commentary: http://journals.cambridge.org/action/di ... al?jid=BBS




PaleoAnthropology – 2013

PAPERS

CAMILLA POWER, VOLKER SOMMER & IAN WATTS – The Seasonality Thermostat: Female Reproductive Synchrony and Male Behavior in Monkeys, Neanderthals, and Modern Humans [“Reproductive synchrony or desynchrony of primate females influences number and fitness of males in mating systems. Langur monkey populations provide a natural experiment for observing alternative female strategies of confusing or concentrating paternity. Where females escape seasonal reproductive constraints, they desynchronize fertility and show visible cues (menstruation), enabling single males to monopolize matings. This increases female fitness by reducing food competition. Where langurs are seasonally constrained, females conceal fertility, confusing paternity and reducing infanticide. These case studies illuminate how hominin females could increase male numbers and investment. Fitness payoffs to male investors will be affected by degree of reproductive seasonal constraint, and by females either concealing or confusing menstrual cues of imminent fertility. Among ancestors of modern humans and Neanderthals these strategies diverged. Under pressure of encephalization, modern human female ancestors, less seasonally constrained, pursued a strategy of cosmeticization of menstrual signals. This Female Cosmetic Coalitions model accounts for the African Middle Stone Age record of pigment use. Among Neanderthals, strategies alternated. Severe seasonality during glacial cycles tied Neanderthal males into pair-bonds, suppressing cosmetic signaling. Only during interglacials when seasonality relaxed would Neanderthal females require blood-red cosmetics. Our Seasonality Thermostat model explains why European ochre use correlates with climate through the Middle to Late Pleistocene”] http://paleoanthro.org/static/journal/c ... 130033.pdf
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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EAORC Bulletin 529

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sat Sep 07, 2013 12:51 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 529 – 4 August 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

CONFERENCE – EVOLANG 10 (10th International Conference on the Evolution of Language) 1

CONFERENCE – 5th UK Cognitive Linguistics Conference. 2

NATURE NEWS – Prefrontal cortical microcircuits bind perception to executive control 3

SCIAM NEWS – Co-Discoverer of Homo sapiens's Little Hobbit Cousin Leaves Large Scientific Legacy. 3

SCIAM NEWS – Phased Out: Human Sleep Patterns Linked to Full Moon. 3

SCIAM NEWS – Big Social Group Makes Lemurs Cannier. 3

SCIAM NEWS – How Has the Human Brain Evolved?. 3

SCIAM NEWS – How to Teach Language to Dogs. 4

PUBLICATIONS. 4

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 4

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 4

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 4 August 2013. 4

New Scientist – 3 August 2013. 4

Science – 2 August 2013. 4

Nature – 1 August 2013. 5

PLOS One – 31 July 2013. 5

PNAS – 30 July 2013. 6

Philosophy Now – July/August 2013. 6

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 7




NOTICES


CONFERENCE – EVOLANG 10 (10th International Conference on the Evolution of Language)

Vienna, 14-17 April 2014

Online registration is now open through the website.

Please visit evolangx.univie.ac.at regularly to keep up-to-date.



CALL FOR PAPERS (REMINDER & EXTENDED DEADLINE):

The 10th International Conference on the Evolution of Language (Vienna, April 14-17, 2014) invites substantive contributions relating to the evolution of human language. Submissions may be in any relevant discipline, including, but not limited to, anthropology, archeology, artificial life, biology, cognitive science, genetics, linguistics, modeling, paleontology, physiology, primatology, and psychology. Normal standards of academic excellence apply.

Submitted papers should aim to make clear their own substantive claim, relating this to relevant scientific literature, and briefly setting out the method by which the claim is substantiated, the nature of the relevant data, and/or the core of the theoretical argument concerned. Submissions may be theory-based, but empirical studies should not rest on preliminary results.

Submissions can be made both for podium presentations (20 minutes plus 10 minutes for discussion) and for poster presentations. They are limited to one first-authored podium presentation and one first-authored poster per person. There is no limit on second authored submissions. When submitting, please indicate whether your submission is to be considered for inclusion as a talk, as a poster, or as either of the two.

Please note the extended submission deadline: September 13, 2013!

For both podium and poster presentations, there are two possible types of submission: (a) Full papers, which can have a length of between 6 and 8 pages, and (b) Abstracts, which can be up to 2 pages long.

All accepted submissions will be published in a bound proceedings volume to appear before the start of the conference.

For details concerning the submission process and submission formats please go directly to: http://evolangx.univie.ac.at/submission/



PLENARISTS AND WORKSHOPS

We are pleased to welcome the following plenary speakers at Evolang X:

· Michael Arbib

· Rob Boyd

· Bill Croft

· Chris Knight & Jim Hurford

· Ann Senghas

· Joan Silk

· Kenny Smith

Evolang X will host the following half-day pre-conference workshops on April 14th:

· The comparative biology of artificial grammar learning

· Evolution of signals, speech and signs

· Evolutionary linguistics and historical language studies

· EvoMus: The evolution of language and music in a comparative perspective

· How grammaticalization processes create grammar: From historical corpus data to agent-based models



REGISTRATION, CONFERENCE FEES AND SOCIAL EVENTS:

Online registration is now possible. Early registration is € 250,- (full) and € 100,- (reduced), and will end on February 28th, 2014.

Late registration will be € 290,- (full) and € 140,- (reduced).

We hope to be able to offer some financial support to PhD students in the form of a partial refund of their expenses, but this will depend on the funding we receive, and we shall not know about that until some time in 2014. Please do not expect much. We are doing our best, but cannot guarantee anything at this point.



The social programme will include:

• Reception in the Vienna City Hall (free for all)

• Conference Dinner in a Viennese wine tavern (Heuriger Mayer am Pfarrplatz)

• Post Conference Options: City Walk, Schönbrunn Zoo, Leopold Museum (Klimt, Schiele), Viennese Coffee Houses, Walking Tour through the Wienerwald

For further information, and for registration please go to: http://evolangx.univie.ac.at/registration/




CONFERENCE – 5th UK Cognitive Linguistics Conference

Empirical Approaches to Language and Cognition

Lancaster University, United Kingdom, 29-31 July 2014

http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/events/uk-clc5/



We invite the submission of abstracts (for paper or poster presentations) addressing all aspects of cognitive linguistics. Confirmed plenary speakers are:

· Daniel Casasanto (The New School, New York)

· Alan Cienki (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)

· William Croft (University of New Mexico)

· Adele Goldberg (Princeton University)

· Stefan Gries (University of California, Santa Barbara)

· Elena Semino (Lancaster University)

The conference aims to cover a broad range of research concerned with language and cognition. We will be especially interested in promoting strongly empirical work. To this end, we intend to organise (some of) the papers into thematic sessions, with our plenary speakers acting as discussants. The themes will be:

· embodiment

· gesture

· typology and constructional analyses of the languages of the world

· acquisition

· corpora and statistical methods

· metaphor and discourse

In addition to these themes, submissions on other aspects of the field are also welcome. These include:

· domains and frame semantics

· categorisation, prototypes and polysemy

· mental spaces and conceptual blending

· language evolution

· linguistic variation and language change

· cognitive linguistic approaches to language teaching

Cognitive linguistics is by definition highly interdisciplinary, and so in addition to primarily linguistic research, we also invite submissions that are based on disciplines such as (cognitive and social) psychology, cognitive and neuroscience, anthropology, primatology, biology, and discourse and communication studies.



Talks will be 20 minutes plus 10 minutes for questions and discussion. There will also be a poster session. The language of the conference is English. Abstracts of no more than 300 words (excluding references) should be submitted using EasyChair: https://www.easychair.org/conferences/?conf=ukclc5. Participants are allowed to submit abstracts for no more than one single-authored paper and one joint-authored paper. All abstracts will be subject to double-blind peer review by an international scientific committee. The deadline for abstract submission is 20 December 2013. Notification of acceptance will be communicated by 1 February 2014. Abstracts must be strictly anonymous, and should be submitted in plain text and/or PDF format. If you need to use phonetic characters, please make sure that they are displayed correctly.

To be able to submit an abstract you must use your existing EasyChair login details. If you have not registered with EasyChair before, please do so using the link above. Once you have created an account or signed in please follow the following steps:

1. Click on the ‘New Submission’ link at the top of the page;

2. Agree to the terms and conditions (if prompted);

3. Fill in the relevant information about the author or authors;

4. Give the title of the paper in the ‘Title’ box and then (a) enter or paste your abstract into the ‘Abstract’ box (please remember that this is plain text only) and/or: (b) upload your abstract as a PDF file by clicking ‘Choose File’ under ‘Upload Paper’;

5. At the top of your abstract, indicate whether you would prefer an oral presentation, a poster, or either. Please do this by entering “oral presentation”, “poster”, or “oral presentation/poster” at the top of your abstract, above the title.

6. Type three or more keywords into the ‘Keywords’ box (these will help us choose suitable reviewers for your abstract, as well as a possible thematic session for your paper); 7. When you are done, please press ‘Submit’ at the very bottom of the page.

Since UK-CLC3, the UK-CLA publishes selected conference presentations in the series ‘Selected Papers from UK-CLA Meetings’ (ISSN 2046-9144); UK-CLC5 will continue this tradition.



KEY DATES AND INFORMATION

Abstract deadline: 20 December 2013

Decisions communicated by: 1 February 2014

Early bird registration opens: 1 February 2014

Early bird registration closes: 15 March 2014

Registration closes: 1 June 2014

Conference dates: 29-31 July 2014

Queries: uk-clc5@languageandcognition.net




NATURE NEWS – Prefrontal cortical microcircuits bind perception to executive control

Ioan Opris, Lucas Santos, Greg A. Gerhardt et al.

“During the perception-to-action cycle, our cerebral cortex mediates the interactions between the environment and the perceptual-executive systems of the brain. At the top of the executive hierarchy, prefrontal cortical microcircuits are assumed to bind perceptual and executive control information to guide goal-driven behavior. Here, we tested this hypothesis by comparing simultaneously recorded neuron firing in prefrontal cortical layers and the caudate-putamen of rhesus monkeys”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130725/ ... P-20130730




SCIAM NEWS – Co-Discoverer of Homo sapiens's Little Hobbit Cousin Leaves Large Scientific Legacy

“Leading Australian archaeologist Mike Morwood, co-discoverer of the extraordinary human “hobbits,” has died. He was 62.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/obs ... O_20130729




SCIAM NEWS – Phased Out: Human Sleep Patterns Linked to Full Moon

“It must be the moon”—the newest excuse for why you’re tired today

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20130731




SCIAM NEWS – Big Social Group Makes Lemurs Cannier

Lemurs that live in large social groups have more street smarts than their comrades with smaller social circles, evidenced by their strategy for stealing food from people.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podca ... B_20130731




SCIAM NEWS – How Has the Human Brain Evolved?

“Humans are known for sporting big brains. On average, the size of primates' brains is nearly double what is expected for mammals of the same body size. Across nearly seven million years, the human brain has tripled in size, with most of this growth occurring in the past two million years”

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20130731




SCIAM NEWS – How to Teach Language to Dogs

“Chaser, a Border Collie from South Carolina, first entered the news in 2011 when a Behavioral Processes paper reported she had learned and retained the distinct names of over 1,000 objects. But that’s not all. When tested on the ability to associate a novel word with an unfamiliar item, she could do that, too. She also learned that different objects fell into different categories: certain things are general “toys,” while others are the more specific “Frisbees” and, of course, there are many, many exciting “balls.” She differentiates between object labels and action commands, interpreting “fetch sock” as two separate words, not as the single phrase “fetchsock.””

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/dog ... B_20130731




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 4 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 3 August 2013

NEWS

Mummified Inca child sacrifice gives up its her secrets [Chemical analysis of the hair of the 13-year-old "Llullaillaco Maiden" reveals that drugs and alcohol played an important role in her last months] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... f5btW1vblU



Full moon could be to blame for a poor night's sleep [A new analysis of a 10-year-old study suggests people slumber less deeply close to a full moon, with a corresponding dip in levels of the hormone melatonin] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... f5cAG1vblU



Monogamy evolved to keep baby-killers away [Males and females of most mammal species don't stay together for life, but many primates do. We now have a good idea what drove them to evolve monogamy] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... f5cqW1vblU



ARTICLES

MICHAEL BROOKS – Quantum weirdness: The battle for the basis of reality [Reality, relativity, causality or free will? Take quantum theory at face value and at least one of them is an illusion – but which?] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ality.html




Science – 2 August 2013

NEWS

How a Fickle Climate Made Us Human [Researchers are drilling for clues to how dramatic changes in African rainfall and vegetation shaped our species] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/474.short



Out of the Kenyan Mud, an Ancient Climate Record [Scientists gather for a first look at a fresh sediment core, hoping that it will offer hard data linking environmental change to human evolution] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/476.short



ARTICLES

REBECCA L CANN – Y Weigh In Again on Modern Humans [“Sampling of the human Y chromosome eliminates the curious disparity in ages of our last common male and female ancestors. [The age of the most recent man or woman from whom all living humans today descended has been the subject of considerable debate. It has been suggested that the date of our last common maternal ancestor could have be three times older than that of our last common paternal ancestor. Two papers in this issue independently redate our most recent common paternal ancestor and find that there is rather little or no disparity with the age our common maternal ancestor”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/465.short



PETER M KAPPELER – Why Male Mammals Are Monogamous [“Male mammals have a much higher potential for producing offspring per unit time than females, making it necessary to identify selective advantages that would more than compensate for the loss of potential reproduction suffered by males that confine their reproductive activities to a single female”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/469.short



PAPERS

D LUKAS AND T H CLUTTON-BROCK – The Evolution of Social Monogamy in Mammals [“Here, we show that the ancestral condition for all mammalian groups is of solitary individuals and that social monogamy is derived almost exclusively from this social system. The evolution of social monogamy does not appear to have been associated with a high risk of male infanticide, and paternal care is a consequence rather than a cause of social monogamy. Social monogamy has evolved in nonhuman mammals where breeding females are intolerant of each other and female density is low, suggesting that it represents a mating strategy that has developed where males are unable to defend access to multiple females”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/526.abstract



G DAVID POZNIK et al – Sequencing Y Chromosomes Resolves Discrepancy in Time to Common Ancestor of Males Versus Females [“We sequenced the genomes of 69 males from nine populations, including two in which we find basal branches of the Y-chromosome tree. We identify ancient phylogenetic structure within African haplogroups and resolve a long-standing ambiguity deep within the tree. Applying equivalent methodologies to the Y chromosome and the mitochondrial genome, we estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of the Y chromosome to be 120 to 156 thousand years and the mitochondrial genome TMRCA to be 99 to 148 thousand years. Our findings suggest that, contrary to previous claims, male lineages do not coalesce significantly more recently than female lineages”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/562.abstract



PAOLO FRANCALACCI et al – Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny [“Population sequencing of 1204 Sardinian males identified 11,763 MSY single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 6751 of which have not previously been observed. We constructed a MSY phylogenetic tree containing all main haplogroups found in Europe, along with many Sardinian-specific lineage clusters within each haplogroup. The tree was calibrated with archaeological data from the initial expansion of the Sardinian population ~7700 years ago. The ages of nodes highlight different genetic strata in Sardinia and reveal the presumptive timing of coalescence with other human populations. We calculate a putative age for coalescence of ~180,000 to 200,000 years ago, which is consistent with previous mitochondrial DNA–based estimates”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6145/565.abstract




Nature – 1 August 2013

NEWS

Psychology: Spot the gorilla [If it's not relevant you may miss it. This phenomenon of inattentional blindness is well documented; in a classic study, most observers asked to monitor a video of a ball game missed a gorilla on the court. But would experts also miss a gorilla?] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20130801



Sex determination for the Stone Age [A DNA-sequencing method reliably reveals the sex of ancient human remains] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20130801



ARTICLES

ANDREW CURRY – Archaeology: The milk revolution [When a single genetic mutation first let ancient Europeans drink milk, it set the stage for a continental upheaval] http://www.nature.com/news/archaeology- ... E-20130801






PLOS One – 31 July 2013

PAPERS

DANIELA BARBARA KELLER & JÖRG SCHULTZ – Connectivity, Not Frequency, Determines the Fate of a Morpheme [“To analyze the influence of language change on morphemes, we performed a large scale analysis of German and English vocabulary covering the last 200 years. Using a network approach from bioinformatics, we examined the historical dynamics of morphemes, the fixation of new morphemes and the emergence of words containing existing morphemes. We found that these processes are driven mainly by the number of different direct neighbors of a morpheme in words (connectivity, an equivalent to family size or type frequency) and not its frequency of usage (equivalent to token frequency). This contrasts words, whose survival is determined by their frequency of usage”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0069945



JIAN HUANG et al – Cortical Dynamics of Semantic Processing during Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Event-Related Optical Signals [“Using the event-related optical signal (EROS) technique, this study investigated the dynamics of semantic brain activation during sentence comprehension. Participants read sentences constituent-by-constituent and made a semantic judgment at the end of each sentence. The EROSs were recorded simultaneously with ERPs and time-locked to expected or unexpected sentence-final target words. The unexpected words evoked a larger N400 and a late positivity than the expected ones”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0070671




PNAS – 30 July 2013

PAPERS

SUSAN C ALBERTS et al – Reproductive aging patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct [“Here we carried out a unique detailed comparative study of reproductive senescence in seven species of nonhuman primates in natural populations, using long-term, individual-based data, and compared them to a population of humans experiencing natural fertility and mortality. In four of seven primate species we found that reproductive senescence occurred before death only in a small minority of individuals. In three primate species we found evidence of reproductive senescence that accelerated throughout adulthood; however, its initial rate was much lower than mortality, so that relatively few individuals experienced reproductive senescence before death. In contrast, the human population showed the predicted and well-known pattern in which reproductive senescence occurred before death for many women and its rate accelerated throughout adulthood”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



CHRISTOPHER OPIE, QUENTIN D ATKINSON, ROBIN I M DUNBAR & SUSANNE SHULTZ – Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates [“Primates are unusual among mammals because monogamy has evolved independently in all of the major clades. Here we combine trait data across 230 primate species with a Bayesian likelihood framework to test for correlated evolution between monogamy and a range of traits to evaluate the competing hypotheses. We find evidence of correlated evolution between social monogamy and both female ranging patterns and biparental care, but the most compelling explanation for the appearance of monogamy is male infanticide. It is only the presence of infanticide that reliably increases the probability of a shift to social monogamy, whereas monogamy allows the secondary adoption of paternal care and is associated with a shift to discrete ranges. The origin of social monogamy in primates is best explained by long lactation periods caused by altriciality, making primate infants particularly vulnerable to infanticidal males. We show that biparental care shortens relative lactation length, thereby reducing infanticide risk and increasing reproductive rates”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



ANDREW S WILSON et al – Archaeological, radiological, and biological evidence offer insight into Inca child sacrifice [“Examination of three frozen bodies, a 13-y-old girl and a girl and boy aged 4 to 5 y, separately entombed near the Andean summit of Volcán Llullaillaco, Argentina, sheds new light on human sacrifice as a central part of the Imperial Inca capacocha rite, described by chroniclers writing after the Spanish conquest. The high-resolution diachronic data presented here, obtained directly from scalp hair, implies escalating coca and alcohol ingestion in the lead-up to death”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



ROBERT E DEWAR et al – Stone tools and foraging in northern Madagascar challenge Holocene extinction models [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/31/12583.abstract



AMY BOGAARD et al – Crop manuring and intensive land management by Europe’s first farmers [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/31/12589.abstract



DOMNA BANAKOU, RAPHAELA GROTEN & MEL SLATER – Illusory ownership of a virtual child body causes overestimation of object sizes and implicit attitude changes [“In Exp. 1, immersive virtual reality was used to embody 30 adults as a 4-y-old child (condition C), and as an adult body scaled to the same height as the child (condition A), experienced from the first-person perspective, and with virtual and real body movements synchronized. The result was a strong body-ownership illusion equally for C and A. Moreover there was an overestimation of the sizes of objects compared with a nonembodied baseline, which was significantly greater for C compared with A. An implicit association test showed that C resulted in significantly faster reaction times for the classification of self with child-like compared with adult-like attributes”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/31/12846.abstract




Philosophy Now – July/August 2013

ARTICLES

CHRIS DURANTE – A philosophical identity crisis [what gives the person you are today continuity with previous selves? Memory continuity? Physical continuity? Or is the fact that you feel yourself to be continuous enough?]



SAM WOOLFE – The illusion of self [being human means that we tell ourselves stories about the universe, and build logical edifices out of these fictions. One of these edifices is the concept of self.]



FRANK S ROBINSON – How old is the self [Julian Jaynes proposes an interesting idea in “The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind”, but his timescales are way out.]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
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Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

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