Martin Edwards EAORC Bulletins

Reviews or summaries of the recent literature are posted here.

EAORC Bulletin 530

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sat Sep 07, 2013 12:52 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 530 – 11 August 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Dolphin Memories Span at Least 20 Years. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Why You Shouldn’t Trust Internet Comments. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – India’s Fragmented Society Was Once a Melting Pot 1

NATURE NEWS – Looking while eating: The importance of social context to social attention. 1

SCIAM NEWS – The Science of Handwriting. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Why We "Got Milk". 2

SCIAM NEWS – Survey of Earliest Human Settlements Undermines Claim That War Has Deep Evolutionary Roots. 2

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Dolphins found to remember their friends at least 20 years. 2

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Evolution punishes selfish jerks over time. 2

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Scientists probe how Inca kids were drugged for sacrifice. 2

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Did monogamy arise to prevent infanticide?. 2

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Evolution is predictable, study suggests. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 October 2013. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 September 2013. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 11 August 2013. 2

New Scientist – 10 August 2013. 3

Science – 9 August 2013. 3

Nature – 8 August 2013. 3

PLOS One – 7 August 2013. 3

PNAS – 6 August 2013. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Dolphin Memories Span at Least 20 Years

Animals remember calls of companions long after they’ve been separated

http://news.sciencemag.org/plants-anima ... t-20-years




SCIENCE NEWS – Why You Shouldn’t Trust Internet Comments

Study finds that the “wisdom of crowds” is easily manipulated

http://news.sciencemag.org/technology/2 ... t-comments




SCIENCE NEWS – India’s Fragmented Society Was Once a Melting Pot

Genetic analysis finds evidence of massive intermarriage before caste system took hold

http://news.sciencemag.org/2013/08/indi ... elting-pot




NATURE NEWS – Looking while eating: The importance of social context to social attention

David W. -L. Wu, Walter F. Bischof, Alan Kingstone

Recent studies have found that participants consistently look less at social stimuli in live situations than expected from conventional laboratory experiments, raising questions as to the cause for this discrepancy and concerns about the validity of typical studies. We tested the possibility that it is the consequences of a potential social interaction that dictates one's looking behaviour. By placing participants in a situation where the social consequences of interacting are congruent with social norms (sharing a meal), we find an increased preference for participants to look at each other. Dyads who were particularly interactive also looked more at the other person than dyads who did not interact. Recent landmark studies have shown that in real world settings people avoid looking at strangers, but we show that in a situation with a different social context the opposite holds true.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130805/ ... P-20130806




SCIAM NEWS – The Science of Handwriting

By Brandon Keim

As we jettison the pen and pencil in a digital world, we are changing the way our brain thinks about writing

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... andwriting




SCIAM NEWS – Why We "Got Milk"

When a single genetic mutation first let ancient Europeans drink milk, it set the stage for a continental upheaval

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20130805




SCIAM NEWS – Survey of Earliest Human Settlements Undermines Claim That War Has Deep Evolutionary Roots

“My last two posts discuss two new studies that contradict the Deep Roots Theory of War, which holds that war is ancient and innate. One study concludes that modern-day mobile foragers (also called nomadic hunter gatherers) are far less warlike than Deep Rooters contend. According to the other study, there is vanishingly little archaeological evidence of lethal group violence prior to 10,000 years ago.

Both of these reports support the view of anthropologist Margaret Mead that war, rather than being a “biological necessity,” is a recent cultural innovation, or “invention.” Now I’d like to present results from a new archaeological survey that further corroborates Mead’s view of warfare.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cro ... O_20130805




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Dolphins found to remember their friends at least 20 years

Dolphins can recognize their old companions' whistles even after long separation, research indicates.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/130807_dolphins




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Evolution punishes selfish jerks over time

Two biologists have published evidence that evolution doesn't favour the selfish -- disproving, they claim, a theory popularized last year.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/130801_evolution




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Scientists probe how Inca kids were drugged for sacrifice

Children of the ancient Inca Empire may have consumed intensifying doses of alcohol and coca leaf for as long as a year before a ritual slaughter.

http://www.world-science.net/exclusives/130729_inca




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Did monogamy arise to prevent infanticide?

Infanticide, the killing of infants, is widespread among apes and other evolutionary relatives of humans.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/130729_monogamy




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Evolution is predictable, study suggests

If you could hit the reset button on evolution and start over, would basically the same species appear? Yes, according to a study of Caribbean lizards published July 19 in the journal Science.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/130721_evolution




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 October 2013

PAPERS

JASON N BRUCK – Decades-long social memory in bottlenose dolphins [“Through a playback study conducted within a multi-institution dolphin breeding consortium (where animals are moved between different facilities), recognition of unfamiliar versus familiar signature whistles of former tank mates was assessed. This research shows that dolphins have the potential for lifelong memory for each other regardless of relatedness, sex or duration of association”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 6.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 11 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 10 August 2013

NEWS

Ability to perceive minds of others emerges in robot [iCub robot demonstrates that intelligent behaviour can spontaneously develop if we build machines based on living brains] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... robot.html



Arabian flights: Early humans diverged in 150 years [Most detailed analysis yet of Y chromosomes reveals how rapidly humans split into three groups in Arabia after emerging from Africa] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ga5wW1vblU



Forget doggy paddle – apes prefer breaststroke [The first detailed observations of swimming chimpanzees and orang-utans show they take to the water in the same way humans do] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ga6GW1vblU




Science – 9 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 8 August 2013

NEWS

Mammals and monogamy [Using an evolutionary tree of 230 primates as a framework, Christopher Opie of University College London and his colleagues ran simulations of evolutionary history to investigate what conditions might produce the behaviours of modern primates] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20130808




PLOS One – 7 August 2013

PAPERS

MAYUKO KATO-SHIMIZU et al – Preschool Children’s Behavioral Tendency toward Social Indirect Reciprocity [“Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers’ prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers’ prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0070915



PAUL REDDISH, RONALD FISCHER & JOSEPH BULBULIA – Let’s Dance Together: Synchrony, Shared Intentionality and Cooperation [“Over three experiments we examined the importance of shared intentionality in promoting cooperation from group synchrony. Experiment 1 compared a condition in which group synchrony was produced through shared intentionality to conditions in which synchrony or asynchrony were created as a by-product of hearing the same or different rhythmic beats. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. To examine the importance of synchrony when shared intentionality is present, Experiment 2 compared a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce synchrony with a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce asynchrony. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. Experiment 3 manipulated both the presence of synchrony and shared intentionality and found significantly greater cooperation with synchrony and shared intentionality combined. Path analysis supported a reinforcement of cooperation model according to which perceiving synchrony when there is a shared goal to produce synchrony provides immediate feedback for successful cooperation so reinforcing the group’s cooperative tendencies”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0071182



KATI KEUPER et al – Early Prefrontal Brain Responses to the Hedonic Quality of Emotional Words – A Simultaneous EEG and MEG Study [“Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80–120 ms), P2 (150–190 ms) and EPN component (200–300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0070788




PNAS – 6 August 2013

CORRESPONDENCE

KYLE MAHOWALD & EDWARD GIBSON – Short, frequent words are more likely to appear genetically related by chance http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... l.pdf+html



PAUL HEGGARTY – Ultraconserved words and Eurasiatic? The “faces in the fire” of language prehistory http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... l.pdf+html



MARK PAGEL, QUENTIN D ATKINSON, ANDREEA S CALUDE & ANDREW MEADE – Reply to Mahowald and Gibson and to Heggarty: No problems with short words, and no evidence provided http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... l.pdf+html



PAPERS

DIANA LÓPEZ-BARROSO et al – Word learning is mediated by the left arcuate fasciculus [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/32/13168.abstract



STEPHANIE L KING & VINCENT M JANIK – Bottlenose dolphins can use learned vocal labels to address each other [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 531

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sat Sep 07, 2013 12:53 pm

to me














EAORC BULLETIN 531 – 18 August 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Neandertals Were No Copycats. 1

CALL FOR PARTICIPATION – International Summer school on Agent-based Models of Creativity. 1

WORKSHOP – Cognition and Language (CLaW) 1

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 September 2013. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 18 August 2013. 2

New Scientist – 17 August 2013. 2

Science – 16 August 2013. 2

Nature – 15 August 2013. 2

PLOS One – 14 August 2013. 2

PNAS – 13 August 2013. 3

Scientific American – August 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 3




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Neandertals Were No Copycats

Discovery of finely made bone tools suggests our close cousins were doing clever things before we came on the scene

http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/ ... o-copycats




CALL FOR PARTICIPATION – International Summer school on Agent-based Models of Creativity

Place and time: Cortona (Italy), 16-20 September 2013

Registration deadline: 1st September 2013

Website: http://ai.vub.ac.be/cortona-2013/

Enquiries: cortona2013@ai.vub.ac.be

This summer school centres on agent-based models of creativity, focusing on the domains of language and music. Musical creativity underlies musical composition, Jazz improvisation, musical performance, and active listening.

The school is intended for postdocs, lecturers and predocs with a background in computer science (artificial intelligence) or computational linguistics (corpus linguistics or natural language processing) and a strong interest in music and the origins of language. There will be background lectures that introduce concepts from biology, anthropology, psychology, music theory and linguistics that are helpful to understand the nature of creativity, the role and intimate relations between language and music, and the mechanisms underlying cultural evolution. It contains technical lectures on the fundamental computational components required for language processing and technical ateliers to learn how to set up evolutionary linguistics experiments. Participants have the opportunity to present their latest research in a poster session. The school also features artistic ateliers in which participants create new creative works and engage in performance.



The Cortona Summer school promises to be an incredibly exciting event, taking place in the setting of the medieval town of Cortona (halfway between Rome and Firenze) in a monastery and Palazzone overlooking the hills and valleys of Tuscany.



Registration closes: 1 September. Decisions for registration are made on a first come first served basis so please register as soon as possible.




WORKSHOP – Cognition and Language (CLaW)

University of California, Santa Barbara, August 31-September 1 2013

The schedule for the Workshop is now available: http://www.linguistics.ucsb.edu/claw/schedule.html



CLaW will feature 13 talks and 6 poster presentations, as well as a keynote address from Luca Onnis (Associate Professor at University of Hawaii at Manoa) on topics relevant to language and cognition from empirical data-driven perspectives. CLaW is organized by SCUL (Studying the Cognitive Underpinnings of Language), an interdisciplinary research group at the University of California, Santa Barbara. See below for the keynote address abstract.

If you would like to attend, please email claw.ucsb@gmail.com to register!

There is a $10 registration fee, payable on site.



Abstract for keynote address:

Language is a complex ability comprised of multiple component skills. A sizable body of research now suggests that language learning and processing could be subserved by statistical learning (SL) abilities — implicitly tracking distributional relations in sequences of events. Languages contain many probabilistic regularities (for example, a listener who hears "the" can predict that a noun will occur after it), so sensitivity to statistical structure in the input can play an important role in mastering language.

The first generation of SL studies provided important proofs of concept that infants and adults can track statistical relations in miniature artificial grammars, but the arguably simplified nature of these learning scenarios could only offer indirect evidence that the same processes underlie the discovery of a natural language. Recently, however, a series of new studies have established more robust links between SL abilities and language. In addition, this relationship can go both ways, as language experience can modify individual preferences for statistical learning, potentially affecting subsequent learning. I will provide an overview of how corpus analyses, behavioral, and brain imaging methods can be combined to further strengthen our understanding of the underpinnings of statistical language learning.




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 18 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 17 August 2013

NEWS

First bone tools suggest Neanderthals taught us skills [Specialised tools dating back 50,000 years indicate that Neanderthals may have created polished bone implements in Europe and showed us how it's done] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... g_h4j9vblU



World's oldest temple built to worship the dog star [Pillars at Göbekli Tepe in southern Turkey seem to align with the rising of Sirius, hinting that the bright star may have triggered a frenzy of religious construction] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... g_iNz9vblU




Science – 16 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature – 15 August 2013

NEWS

Sneaky breeders make sons [Altruistic worker bees usually abstain from reproduction — unless they have a shot at making a royal baby] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20130815




PLOS One – 14 August 2013

PAPERS

TYLER K PERRACHIONE et al – Evidence for Shared Cognitive Processing of Pitch in Music and Language [“We investigated how pitch processing is shared between language and music by measuring consistency in individual differences in pitch perception across language, music, and three control conditions intended to assess basic sensory and domain-general cognitive processes. Individuals’ pitch perception abilities in language and music were most strongly related, even after accounting for performance in all control conditions”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0073372



NICOLAS FAY & T MARK ELLISON - The Cultural Evolution of Human Communication Systems in Different Sized Populations: Usability Trumps Learnability [“This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0071781



MICHAEL HASLAM et al – Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History [“Our study is the first to demonstrate that quantitative archaeological use-wear techniques can accurately reconstruct the behavioural histories of non-human primate stone tools”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0072872




PNAS – 13 August 2013

CORRESPONDENCE

JOSEPH HENRICH & JOAN B SILK – Interpretative problems with chimpanzee ultimatum game [“In an effort to compare fairness preferences in chimpanzees and children, Proctor et al have devised experiments aimed at replicating the essential features of two common experiments, the dictator game (DG) and the ultimatum game (UG). Here, we present both methodological concerns and broader interpretative issues”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/33/E3049.extract



DARBY PROCTOR, REBECCA A WILLIAMSON, FRANS B M DE WAAL & SARAH F BROSNAN – Reply to Henrich and Silk: Toward a unified explanation for apes and humans [“We appreciate the methodological concerns of Henrich and Silk, which resemble those of Jensen et al. Both critiques focus on the lack of refusals by the responders in our ultimatum game (UG), an option on which the subjects were never trained. As discussed previously, we fail to see how this lack of refusals would invalidate the behavioral change”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/33/E3050.extract



PAPERS

MARIE SORESSI et al – Neandertals made the first specialized bone tools in Europe [“Here we report the identification of a type of specialized bone tool, lissoir, previously only associated with modern humans. The microwear preserved on one of these lissoir is consistent with the use of lissoir in modern times to obtain supple, lustrous, and more impermeable hides. These tools are from a Neandertal context proceeding the replacement period and are the oldest specialized bone tools in Europe. As such, they are either a demonstration of independent invention by Neandertals or an indication that modern humans started influencing European Neandertals much earlier than previously believed. Because these finds clearly predate the oldest known age for the use of similar objects in Europe by anatomically modern humans, they could also be evidence for cultural diffusion from Neandertals to modern humans”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



GARY LUPYAN & EMILY J WARD – Language can boost otherwise unseen objects into visual awareness [“Here we investigated whether language-based activation of visual representations can affect the ability to simply detect the presence of an object. We used continuous flash suppression to suppress visual awareness of familiar objects while they were continuously presented to one eye. Participants made simple detection decisions, indicating whether they saw any image. Hearing a verbal label before the simple detection task changed performance relative to an uninformative cue baseline. Valid labels improved performance relative to no-label baseline trials. Invalid labels decreased performance”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



SUSAN C ALBERTS et al – Reproductive aging patterns in primates reveal that humans are distinct [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/33/13440.abstract



CHRISTOPHER OPIE, QUENTIN D ATKINSON, ROBIN I M DUNBAR & SUSANNE SHULTZ – Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/33/13328.abstract



ANDREW S WILSON et al – Archaeological, radiological, and biological evidence offer insight into Inca child sacrifice [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/33/13322.abstract




Scientific American – August 2013

ARTICLES

RICHARD WRANGHAM – The first cookout [Nearly 2 million years ago we started to cook our food. Is that what allowed us to develop our signature big brains?]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 532

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sat Sep 07, 2013 12:54 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 532 – 25 August 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Archaeologists Uncover First Use of Spices in European Cuisine. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Sometimes It Pays to Be a Weakling. 1

NATURE NEWS – New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Big Animal Extinction Impoverishes Soil 1

PUBLICATIONS. 1

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 October 2013. 1

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 25 August 2013. 2

New Scientist – 24 August 2013. 2

Science – 23 August 2013. 2

Nature – 22 August 2013. 2

PLOS One – 21 August 2013. 2

PNAS – 20 August 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 3




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Archaeologists Uncover First Use of Spices in European Cuisine

Charred remains in ancient pottery suggest cooks in Denmark and Germany were spicing up dishes 6100 years ago

http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/ ... an-cuisine




SCIENCE NEWS – Sometimes It Pays to Be a Weakling

Rams solve an evolutionary puzzle about why every male doesn't have super genes

http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2013 ... e-weakling




NATURE NEWS – New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China

Hong Ao, Mark J. Dekkers, Qi Wei et al.

“Here, we report a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site that was found in the northeastern Nihewan Basin in 1972. The artifact layer is suggested to be located in the Matuyama reversed polarity chron just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai polarity subchron, yielding an estimated age of ca 1.7–1.6 Ma. This provides new evidence for hominid occupation in North China in the earliest Pleistocene”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130815/ ... P-20130820




SCIAM NEWS – Big Animal Extinction Impoverishes Soil

Megafauna extinctions prove a key factor in reduced soil fertility.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/podca ... O_20130819

and

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20130819




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 October 2013

PAPERS

KARL T BATES et al – The evolution of compliance in the human lateral mid-foot [“we show that plantar pressure records with elevated lateral mid-foot pressures occur frequently in healthy, habitually shod humans, with magnitudes in some individuals approaching absolute maxima across the foot. Furthermore, the same astonishing pressure range is present in bonobos and the orangutan (the most arboreal great ape), yielding overlap with human pressures. Thus, while the mean tendency of habitual mechanics of the mid-foot in healthy humans is indeed consistent with the traditional concept of the lateral mid-foot as a relatively rigid or stabilized structure, it is clear that lateral arch stabilization in humans is not obligate and is often transient. These findings suggest a level of detachment between foot stiffness during gait and osteological structure, hence fossilized bone morphology by itself may only provide a crude indication of mid-foot function in extinct hominins”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 8.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 25 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 24 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Science – 23 August 2013

NEWS

Half of All Papers Now Free in Some Form, Study Claims [One-half of all scientific papers published each year are now available in some kind of free, "open-access" format, a new study claims, marking a tipping point in technical publishing] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6148/830.short




Nature – 22 August 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




PLOS One – 21 August 2013

PAPERS

HAYLEY SAUL et al – Phytoliths in Pottery Reveal the Use of Spice in European Prehistoric Cuisine [“Our observations are consistent with phytolith morphologies observed in modern garlic mustard seed (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb) Cavara & Grande). As this seed has a strong flavour, little nutritional value, and the phytoliths are found in pots along with terrestrial and marine animal residues, these findings are the first direct evidence for the spicing of food in European prehistoric cuisine”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi ... ne.0070583



VINCENZA BATTAGLIA et al – The First Peopling of South America: New Evidence from Y-Chromosome Haplogroup Q [“Our data not only confirm a southern Siberian origin of ancestral populations that gave rise to Paleo-Indians and the differentiation of both Native American Q founding lineages in Beringia, but support their concomitant arrival in Mesoamerica, where Mexico acted as recipient for the first wave of migration, followed by a rapid southward migration, along the Pacific coast, into the Andean region”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi ... ne.0071390



RUEDI STOOP et al – At Grammatical Faculty of Language, Flies Outsmart Men [“Using a symbolic dynamics and a surrogate data approach, we show that the language exhibited by common fruit flies Drosophila (‘D.’) during courtship is as grammatically complex as the most complex human-spoken modern languages. This finding emerges from the study of fifty high-speed courtship videos (generally of several minutes duration) that were visually frame-by-frame dissected into 37 fundamental behavioral elements. From the symbolic dynamics of these elements, the courtship-generating language was determined with extreme confidence (significance level > 0.95). The languages categorization in terms of position in Chomsky’s hierarchical language classification allows to compare Drosophila’s body language not only with computer’s compiler languages, but also with human-spoken languages. Drosophila’s body language emerges to be at least as powerful as the languages spoken by humans”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0070284



ALICE C ROY et al – Syntax at Hand: Common Syntactic Structures for Actions and Language [“Here, crossing disciplinary boundaries, we explore potential parallels between the structure of simple actions and that of sentences. First, examining Typically Developing (TD) children displacing a bottle with or without knowledge of its weight prior to movement onset, we provide kinematic evidence that the sub-phases of this displacing action (reaching + moving the bottle) manifest a structure akin to linguistic embedded dependencies. Then, using the same motor task, we reveal that children suffering from specific language impairment (SLI), whose core deficit affects syntactic embedding and dependencies, manifest specific structural motor anomalies parallel to their linguistic deficits. In contrast to TD children, SLI children performed the displacing-action as if its sub-phases were juxtaposed rather than embedded”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0072677



SEBASTIAN WALLOT, GEOFF HOLLIS & MARIEKE VAN ROOIJ – Connected Text Reading and Differences in Text Reading Fluency in Adult Readers [“In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0071914




PNAS – 20 August 2013

PAPERS

STEPHEN J GOTTS et al – Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain [“Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



BAILEY R HOUSE et al with JOAN B SILK & JOSEPH HENRICH – Ontogeny of prosocial behavior across diverse societies [“We examined the ontogeny of prosocial behavior by studying 326 children 3–14 y of age and 120 adults from six societies (age distributions varied across societies). These six societies span a wide range of extant human variation in culture, geography, and subsistence strategies, including foragers, herders, horticulturalists, and urban dwellers across the Americas, Oceania, and Africa. When delivering benefits to others was personally costly, rates of prosocial behavior dropped across all six societies as children approached middle childhood and then rates of prosociality diverged as children tracked toward the behavior of adults in their own societies. When prosocial acts did not require personal sacrifice, prosocial responses increased steadily as children matured with little variation in behavior across societies”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



ARJEN STOLK et al with PETER HAGOORT – Neural mechanisms of communicative innovation [“Using magnetoencephalography, we assess spectral, temporal, and spatial characteristics of neural activity evoked when people generate and understand novel shared symbols during live communicative interactions. Solving those communicative problems induced comparable changes in the spectral profile of neural activity of both communicators and addressees. This shared neuronal up-regulation was spatially localized to the right temporal lobe and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and emerged already before the occurrence of a specific communicative problem”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 533

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sat Sep 07, 2013 12:55 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 533 – 1 September 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Babies Learn to Recognize Words in the Womb. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Does Money Inspire Us to Cooperate?. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – What, Where, and When?. 1

NATURE NEWS – Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups. 1

NATURE NEWS – Optimal interdependence between networks for the evolution of cooperation. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Crows Show off Their Social Skills. 1

EVOLANG Call for Papers (Reminder & Extended Deadline) 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 October 2013. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 1 September 2013. 2

New Scientist – 31 August 2013. 2

Science – 30 August 2013. 2

Nature – 29 August 2013. 3

PLOS One – 28 August 2013. 3

PNAS – 27 August 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Babies Learn to Recognize Words in the Womb

Study suggests language learning begins before birth

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavi ... words-womb




SCIENCE NEWS – Does Money Inspire Us to Cooperate?

Monetary systems may have made urban societies possible by encouraging trade

http://news.sciencemag.org/economics/20 ... -cooperate




SCIENCE NEWS – What, Where, and When?

Sandra Knapp

Alfred Russel Wallace’s science of distribution provided the foundation of biogeography.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early ... ce.1240880




NATURE NEWS – Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

Luo-Luo Jiang, Matjaž Perc

“Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130821/ ... P-20130827




NATURE NEWS – Optimal interdependence between networks for the evolution of cooperation

Zhen Wang, Attila Szolnoki, Matjaž Perc

“While the consensus is that interdependence does promote cooperation by means of organizational complexity and enhanced reciprocity that is out of reach on isolated networks, we here address the question just how much interdependence there should be. Intuitively, one might assume the more the better. However, we show that in fact only an intermediate density of sufficiently strong interactions between networks warrants an optimal resolution of social dilemmas. This is due to an intricate interplay between the heterogeneity that causes an asymmetric strategy flow because of the additional links between the networks, and the independent formation of cooperative patterns on each individual network.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130820/ ... P-20130827




SCIAM NEWS – Crows Show off Their Social Skills

New findings on crows' intelligence lend perspective on how social smarts evolve

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20130826




EVOLANG Call for Papers (Reminder & Extended Deadline)

The 10th International Conference on the Evolution of Language (Vienna, April 14-17, 2014) invites substantive contributions relating to the evolution of human language. Submissions may be in any relevant discipline, including, but not limited to, anthropology, archeology, artificial life, biology, cognitive science, genetics, linguistics, modeling, paleontology, physiology, primatology, and psychology. Normal standards of academic excellence apply.

Submitted papers should aim to make clear their own substantive claim, relating this to relevant scientific literature, and briefly setting out the method by which the claim is substantiated, the nature of the relevant data, and/or the core of the theoretical argument concerned. Submissions may be theory-based, but empirical studies should not rest on preliminary results.

Submissions can be made both for podium presentations (20 minutes plus 10 minutes for discussion) and for poster presentations. They are limited to one first-authored podium presentation and one first-authored poster per person. There is no limit on second authored submissions. When submitting, please indicate whether your submission is to be considered for inclusion as a talk, as a poster, or as either of the two.

Please note the extended submission deadline: September 13, 2013!

For both podium and poster presentations, there are two possible types of submission: (a) Full papers, which can have a length of between 6 and 8 pages, and (b) Abstracts, which can be up to 2 pages long. All accepted submissions will be published in a bound proceedings volume to appear before the start of the conference.

For details concerning the submission process and submission formats please go directly to: http://evolangx.univie.ac.at/submission/

We hope to see you in Vienna!

Evolang Organising Committee




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 October 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 1 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 31 August 2013

NEWS

Why your brain may work like a dictionary [A new analysis of the links between definitions of English words has uncovered structures that may resemble how our brains represent language] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... iOoWD8yOSo



Spicy food on the menu 6000 years ago [Residues from 6000-year-old pots found in the Baltic show they were used to cook meat and fish that was seasoned with a peppery, mustard-like spice] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... iOpUD8yOSo



ARTICLES

ANIL ANANTHASWAMY – The knockout enigma: How your mechanical brain works [Your neurons are whirring with movement like clockwork. Understanding how it works may give us a new way to tinker with the brain] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... works.html



HELEN PILCHER – The third factor: Beyond nature and nurture [We're more than the product of our genes and environment, twin studies show. If we could run our lives over and over, we'd turn out differently every time] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... rture.html




Science – 30 August 2013

NEWS

European Hunter-Gatherers Dined on Domestic Pigs [A study of DNA from prehistoric pigs suggests that when Near Eastern farmers moved into Europe about 8500 years ago, native fisher-folk may have adopted the newcomers' custom of keeping domesticated pigs] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6149/950.short




Nature – 29 August 2013

NEWS

African genes tracked back [Method extends archaeological and linguistic data by tracing early human migration] http://www.nature.com/news/african-gene ... E-20130829



ARTICLES

ELEONORE PAUWELS – Communication: Mind the metaphor [Imagery can help to bridge conceptual boundaries, but it can also cause trouble — as shown by the proliferation of engineering talk in biology] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20130829




PLOS One – 28 August 2013

PAPERS

NATALIE THAÏS UOMINI & GEORG FRIEDRICH MEYER – Shared Brain Lateralization Patterns in Language and Acheulean Stone Tool Production: A Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Study [“Stone tool-making and cued word generation cause common cerebral blood flow lateralization signatures in our participants. This is consistent with a shared neural substrate for prehistoric stone tool-making and language, and is compatible with language evolution theories that posit a co-evolution of language and manual praxis. In turn, our results support the hypothesis that aspects of language might have emerged as early as 1.75 million years ago, with the start of Acheulean technology”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0072693



DAVID B ALLEN & KATHY CONKLIN – Cross-Linguistic Similarity and Task Demands in Japanese-English Bilingual Processing [“The current research more fully explores what underpins the cognate ‘advantage’ in different script bilinguals (Japanese-English). To do this, instead of the more traditional binary cognate/noncognate distinction, the current study uses continuous measures of phonological and semantic overlap, L2 (second language) proficiency and lexical variables (e.g., frequency)”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0072631



ARJEN STOLK et al – Early Social Experience Predicts Referential Communicative Adjustments in Five-Year-Old Children [“Building on the suggestion that collaborative experiences early in life might be crucial for the emergence of mental coordination abilities, here we assess the relative contribution of social exposure to familial and non-familial agents on children’s communicative adjustments to their mental model of an addressee (‘audience design’). During an online interactive game, five-year-olds spontaneously organized their non-verbal communicative behaviors according to their beliefs about an interlocutor. The magnitude of these communicative adjustments was predicted by the time spent at daycare, from birth until four years of age, over and above effects of familial social environment”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0072667






PNAS – 27 August 2013

LETTERS

KYLE MAHOWALD & EDWARD GIBSON – Short, frequent words are more likely to appear genetically related by chance http://www.pnas.org/content/110/35/E3253.extract



PAUL HEGGARTY – Ultraconserved words and Eurasiatic? The “faces in the fire” of language prehistory http://www.pnas.org/content/110/35/E3254.extract



MARK PAGEL et al – Reply to Mahowald and Gibson and to Heggarty: No problems with short words, and no evidence provided http://www.pnas.org/content/110/35/E3255.extract



PAPERS

GABRIELE CAMERA, MARCO CASARID & MARIA BIGONI – Money and trust among strangers [“Subjects faced repeated opportunities to help an anonymous counterpart who changed over time. Cooperation required trusting that help given to a stranger today would be returned by a stranger in the future. Cooperation levels declined when going from small to large groups of strangers, even if monitoring and payoffs from cooperation were invariant to group size. We then introduced intrinsically worthless tokens. Tokens endogenously became money: subjects took to reward help with a token and to demand a token in exchange for help. Subjects trusted that strangers would return help for a token. Cooperation levels remained stable as the groups grew larger. In all conditions, full cooperation was possible through a social norm of decentralized enforcement, without using tokens. This turned out to be especially demanding in large groups. Lack of trust among strangers thus made money behaviorally essential”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



EINO PARTANEN et al – Learning-induced neural plasticity of speech processing before birth [“In infancy, long-term memory traces are formed by auditory learning, improving discrimination skills, in particular those relevant for speech perception and understanding. Here we show direct neural evidence that neural memory traces are formed by auditory learning prior to birth. Our findings indicate that prenatal experiences have a remarkable influence on the brain’s auditory discrimination accuracy, which may support, for example, language acquisition during infancy”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



MARIE SORESSI et al – Neandertals made the first specialized bone tools in Europe [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/35/14186.abstract



GARY LUPYAN & EMILY J WARD – Language can boost otherwise unseen objects into visual awareness [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/35/14196.abstract
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 534

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sat Sep 14, 2013 2:36 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 534 – 8 September 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: I Spy a Cat in a Tree. 1

SCIAM NEWS – We've Been Looking at Ant Intelligence the Wrong Way. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Wolves Howl for Friends, Challenging A Popular Theory of Animal Communication. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Maxims Are Fitter Than Maximization. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 1

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 1 September 2013. 1

New Scientist – 7 September 2013. 2

Science – 6 September 2013. 2

Nature – 5 September 2013. 2

PLOS One – 4 September 2013. 2

PNAS – 3 September 2013. 3

PLoS Genetics – September 2013. 4

Animal Behaviour – September 2013. 4

Current Archaeology – October 2013. 5

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 5




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: I Spy a Cat in a Tree

Some primates have sophisticated alarm calls

http://news.sciencemag.org/biology/2013 ... y-cat-tree




SCIAM NEWS – We've Been Looking at Ant Intelligence the Wrong Way

Unlike humans, ants don't build a unified map of the world. Instead, specialized systems, including the ability to learn from recent experience, create complex navigational behaviour

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20130904




SCIAM NEWS – Wolves Howl for Friends, Challenging A Popular Theory of Animal Communication

not all animal communication is the result of automatic, inflexible physiological events, but can be intentional and voluntary. For wolves, it is important to maintain contact with allies, even if when they’re out of visual range.

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/tho ... B_20130904




SCIAM NEWS – Maxims Are Fitter Than Maximization

By Jag Bhalla

“Maxims matter more than maximization. Much in life isn’t quantifiable, much less numerically maximizable. Words, logic, images, and patterns all can express more than numbers can. Numbers and mathematics do different things in physics than in evolution and economics. Economists, perhaps “in slavish imitation of…physicists,” unwisely ignore that evolution fitted us for maxims, not maximizations, to manage life’s complexities, uncertainties, and contradictions.”

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/gue ... O_20130902




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 1 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist – 7 September 2013

NEWS



ARTICLES

LAMBROS MALAFOURIS – Mind into matter: Where we end and the world begins [“I suggest that what is outside the head may not necessarily be outside the mind. In fact, I doubt if notions like “inside” and “outside” make any useful sense in the study of human cognition.” {This idea works if you believe our internal reality is the same as the external actuality; but why stop at the idea that my mind includes objects in the external actuality? Your mind is part of the external actuality, so it is actually part of my mind. It’s getting awfully crowded in here…}] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... egins.html



DOUGLAS HEAVEN – Voices from the past: Ancient secrets in today's words [Genome-cracking tools are helping us pull the past from modern languages, revealing ancient origins, migrations and relationships] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... words.html



LUCY EVANS OGDEN – Chance inheritance: The subtle power of birth order [Where you sit in the sequence of your siblings may affect how you turn out – influencing health, height, intelligence and even sexuality] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... order.html



REVIEWS

JONATHON KEATS – Play your way to evolutionary fitness [review of ‘Play, Playfulness, Creativity and Innovation’ by Patrick Bateson and Paul Martin] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... iyYCj8yOSo




Science – 6 September 2013

PAPERS

B M HARVEY et al – Topographic Representation of Numerosity in the Human Parietal Cortex [“Using high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging (at a field strength of 7 teslas), we described neural populations tuned to small numerosities in the human parietal cortex. They are organized topographically, forming a numerosity map that is robust to changes in low-level stimulus features. The cortical surface area devoted to specific numerosities decreases with increasing numerosity, and the tuning width increases with preferred numerosity. These organizational properties extend topographic principles to the representation of higher-order abstract features in the association cortex”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6 ... 3.abstract




Nature – 5 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




PLOS One – 4 September 2013

PAPERS

CEDRIC BOECKX & EVELINA LEIVADA – Entangled Parametric Hierarchies: Problems for an Overspecified Universal Grammar [“This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic (‘parametric’) variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed.”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0072357



JESSICA K LJUNGBERG et al – A Longitudinal Study of Memory Advantages in Bilinguals [“This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n = 178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0073029



JIPING HUANG – A Common Construction Pattern of English Words and Chinese Characters [“I analyze a list of different words in the English language, and find that the frequency of the number of letters per word linearly or nonlinearly decays over its rank in the frequency table. I interpret the linearly decaying area as a linear phase that covers 96.4% words, which is in sharp contrast to a nonlinear phase (representing the nonlinearly decaying area) that covers the remaining 3.6% words. Amazingly, the phase separation phenomenon with the same two percentages of 96.4% and 3.6% holds also for the relation between strokes and characters in the Chinese language although English and Chinese are two distinctly different language systems”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0074515




PNAS – 3 September 2013

LETTERS

BARRY W BROOK et al – Lack of chronological support for stepwise prehuman extinctions of Australian megafauna http://www.pnas.org/content/110/36/E3368.extract



STEPHEN WROE et al – Reply to Brook et al: No empirical evidence for human overkill of megafauna in Sahul http://www.pnas.org/content/110/36/E3369.extract



PAPERS

ALISSA L FERRY, SUSAN J HESPOS & SANDRA R WAXMAN – Nonhuman primate vocalizations support categorization in very young human infants [“Here, we illuminate the developmental origin of this early link between human vocalizations and cognition. We document that this link emerges from a broad biological template that initially encompasses vocalizations of human and nonhuman primates (but not backward speech) and that within 6 mo this link to cognition is tuned specifically to human vocalizations. At 3 and 4 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations promote object categorization, mirroring precisely the advantages conferred by human vocalizations, but by 6 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations no longer exert this advantageous effect. This striking developmental shift illuminates a path of specialization that supports infants as they forge the foundational links between human language and the core cognitive processes that will serve as the foundations of meaning”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



STEFAN KOELSCH et al – Processing of hierarchical syntactic structure in music [“Here, we show processing of nonlocal dependencies in music. We presented chorales by J. S. Bach and modified versions in which the hierarchical structure was rendered irregular whereas the local structure was kept intact. Brain electric responses differed between regular and irregular hierarchical structures, in both musicians and nonmusicians. This finding indicates that, when listening to music, humans apply cognitive processes that are capable of dealing with long-distance dependencies resulting from hierarchically organized syntactic structures. Our results reveal that a brain mechanism fundamental for syntactic processing is engaged during the perception of music, indicating that processing of hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is not just a key component of human language, but a multidomain capacity of human cognition”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



PEIPEI SETOH et al with RENÉE BAILLARGEON – Young infants have biological expectations about animals [“We provide an experimental demonstration that young infants possess abstract biological expectations about animals. Our findings represent a major breakthrough in the study of the foundations of human knowledge. In four experiments, 8-mo-old infants expected novel objects they categorized as animals to have filled insides. Thus, infants detected a violation when objects that were self-propelled and agentive were revealed to be hollow, or when an object that was self-propelled and furry rattled when shaken, as though mostly hollow”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



ALEXANDER J STEWART & JOSHUA B PLOTKIN – From extortion to generosity, evolution in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma [“Scientists have used the Prisoner Dilemma game, in which players must choose to cooperate or defect, to study the emergence and stability of cooperation. Recent work has uncovered a remarkable class of extortion strategies that provide one player a disproportionate payoff when facing an unwitting opponent. Extortion strategies perform very well in head-to-head competitions, but they fare poorly in large, evolving populations. Rather we identify a closely related set of generous strategies, which cooperate with others and forgive defection, that replace extortionists and dominate in large populations”] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/ ... 0.abstract



ARJEN STOLK et al with PETER HAGOORT – Neural mechanisms of communicative innovation [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/36/14574.abstract



BAILEY R HOUSE et al with JOAN B SILK & JOSEPH HENRICH – Ontogeny of prosocial behavior across diverse societies [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/36/14586.abstract



BRIAN F CODDING & TERRY L JONES – Environmental productivity predicts migration, demographic, and linguistic patterns in prehistoric California [“Here we show that environmental productivity predicts both the order of migration events and the population density recorded at contact. The earliest colonizers occupied the most suitable habitats along the coast, whereas subsequent Mid–Late Holocene migrants settled in more marginal habitats. Other Late Holocene patterns diverge from this trend, reflecting altered dynamics linked to food storage and increased sedentism. Through repeated migration events, incoming populations replaced resident populations occurring at lower densities in lower-productivity habitats, thereby resulting in the fragmentation of earlier groups and the development of one of the most diverse ethnolinguistic patterns in the Americas. Such a process may account for the distribution of ethnolinguistic diversity worldwide”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/36/14569.abstract



STEPHEN J GOTTS et al – Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/36/E3435.abstract




PLoS Genetics – September 2013

PAPERS

IRENE HERNANDO-HERRAEZ et al – Dynamics of DNA Methylation in Recent Human and Great Ape Evolution [“We performed a comparative analysis of CpG methylation patterns between 9 humans and 23 primate samples including all species of great apes (chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla and orangutan) using Illumina Methylation450 bead arrays. Our analysis identified ~800 genes with significantly altered methylation patterns among the great apes, including ~170 genes with a methylation pattern unique to human. Some of these are known to be involved in developmental and neurological features, suggesting that epigenetic changes have been frequent during recent human and primate evolution. We identified a significant positive relationship between the rate of coding variation and alterations of methylation at the promoter level, indicative of co-occurrence between evolution of protein sequence and gene regulation. In contrast, and supporting the idea that many phenotypic differences between humans and great apes are not due to amino acid differences, our analysis also identified 184 genes that are perfectly conserved at protein level between human and chimpanzee, yet show significant epigenetic differences between these two species. We conclude that epigenetic alterations are an important force during primate evolution and have been under-explored in evolutionary comparative genomics”] http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/inf ... en.1003763




Animal Behaviour – September 2013

PAPERS

MARTA B MANSER – Semantic communication in vervet monkeys and other animals [“Although this semantic approach has been criticized in terms of anthropomorphizing animal communication, understanding the underlying cognitive mechanisms is a crucial component of deconstructing animal communication systems and hence we can greatly profit from such a research trajectory. Applying linguistic concepts to animal vocal communication has opened up an enormous research field regarding the continuity between animal vocalizations and human language, integrating different disciplines”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 721300328X



STEFANO S K KABURU & NICHOLAS E NEWTON-FISHER – Social instability raises the stakes during social grooming among wild male chimpanzees [“We investigated grooming interactions among wild male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, testing RTS in these specific contexts. We found evidence to support the view that male chimpanzees employed RTS during social instability, but not under the other conditions. However, we also found that the duration of episodes (discrete parcels) of grooming was negatively related to aggression risk and in consequence suggest that the patterning of grooming interactions indicative of RTS was less to do with preventing cheating, and more to do with avoiding the elevated risks of intramale aggression during the period of social instability”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 721300287X



DANIEL NETTLE, KATHERINE A CRONIN & MELISSA BATESON – Responses of chimpanzees to cues of conspecific observation [“We carried out two experiments in which individual chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, took items of food from an array in the presence of either an image of a large conspecific face or a scrambled control image. In experiment 1 we compared three versions of the face image varying in size and the amount of the face displayed. In experiment 2 we compared a fourth variant of the image with more prominent coloured eyes displayed closer to the focal chimpanzee. The chimpanzees did not look at the face images significantly more than at the control images in either experiment. Although there were trends for some individuals in each experiment to be slower to take high-value food items in the face conditions, these were not consistent or robust. We suggest that the extreme human sensitivity to cues of potential conspecific observation may not be shared with chimpanzees”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003023



JULIA OSTNER et al – Stable heterosexual associations in a promiscuous primate [“Using long-term data, we investigated male–female and male–infant associations in wild Assamese macaques, Macaca assamensis. Group-wide and individual male–female associations were stable for at least 2 or 3 years. Association during the mating season but not before the mating season predicted male mating success, lending support to the ‘friends with benefits’ but not the ‘mating effort’ hypothesis. Mating success in turn predicted male–female association at birth as well as male–infant association before weaning. In support of the ‘paternal care hypothesis’ paternity was an independent predictor of male–infant association beyond weaning age, creating potential for true paternal care. We thus postulate that particular demographic and life history circumstances may favour male–female friendships by creating a positive feedback between male–female–infant associations driven by paternal care and male–female associations promoted by increased mating access to drive the evolution of long-term male–female bonds”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003266



REVIEWS

PETER MACNEILAGE – Divided Brains: the Biology and Behaviour of Brain Asymmetries [Review of ‘Divided Brains: the Biology and Behaviour of Brain Asymmetries’ by Leslie J Rogers, Giorgio Vallortigara & Richard J Andrew] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213002662




Current Archaeology – October 2013

ARTICLES

VINCE GAFFNEY & MATTHEW SYMONDS – Mesolithic Timelords [Being able to predict future time is one of the most important conceptual breakthroughs ever made by humans. Received wisdom places this achievement after the dawn of farming, but excavations at Warren Field in Scotland have revealed a possible lunar calendar from 10,000 years ago]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 535

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Sep 16, 2013 8:15 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 535 – 15 September 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – TV Host’s Comments on Human Evolution Draw Fire. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: 'Mercenary' Ant Is Both Scourge and Savior. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Monkey's Alarm Calls Reveal Predator's Who and Where. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Evolution Is an Opportunist 1

CONFERENCE – Matters of the Mind: Psychology and Language Learning. 1

EMPLOYMENT – Cowan Chair in Human Social Dynamics, Santa Fe Institute. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 November 2013. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 October 2013. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 15 September 2013. 2

New Scientist – 14 September 2013. 2

Science – 13 September 2013. 2

Nature – 12 September 2013. 2

PLOS One – 11 September 2013. 2

PNAS – 10 September 2013. 3

PLoS Genetics – September 2013. 4

Biolinguistics – 2013. 4

Language and Cognition – Volume 5, Issue 2-3. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 6




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – TV Host’s Comments on Human Evolution Draw Fire

David Attenborough says humans aren’t evolving

http://news.sciencemag.org/evolution/20 ... -draw-fire




SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: 'Mercenary' Ant Is Both Scourge and Savior

For besieged fungus-farming ants, the enemy of my enemy is my friend

http://news.sciencemag.org/plants-anima ... and-savior




SCIAM NEWS –Monkey's Alarm Calls Reveal Predator's Who and Where

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20130911




SCIAM NEWS – Evolution Is an Opportunist

A computational study reveals surprising flexibility hidden within metabolic networks, providing new evidence for an evolutionary concept called exaptation

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20130909




CONFERENCE – Matters of the Mind: Psychology and Language Learning

Thursday 29th May – Saturday 31st May, 2014

University of Graz, Austria

The final call for papers has just been issued and the deadline for papers or posters is 31st October.

We are fortunate to be able to welcome 6 outstanding plenary speakers:

· Andrew Cohen, University of Minnesota, USA

· Jean-Marc Dewaele, University of London, UK

· ZoltánDörnyei, University of Nottingham, UK

· Paula Kalaja, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

· Peter D. MacIntyre, Cape Breton University, Canada

· EmaUshioda, University of Warwick, UK

We would be delighted if you could also join us for what promises to be an exciting event. More details can be found on the website for the conference: http://www.unifdz.at/pll2014/




EMPLOYMENT – Cowan Chair in Human Social Dynamics, Santa Fe Institute

The Santa Fe Institute is seeking applications and nominations for the Cowan Chair in Human Social Dynamics. This is a full-time resident faculty position at the equivalent of the assistant or associate professor level, with a flexible start date in 2014. The appointment is for 5 years, with the possibility of one renewal. Complete applications are due by November 1, 2013.

We seek individuals conducting outstanding research in the social and behavioral sciences, broadly defined, who are creative, catalytic, risk-taking deep thinkers, and who are looking to break new ground in addressing some of science and society’s most challenging problems.

SFI is a unique research environment dedicated to investigating fundamental scientific questions that transcend traditional disciplinary boundaries. We are open to applicants with an interdisciplinary focus from all scientific fields, with a preference for quantitative approaches.

Collaborative research topics relevant to human social dynamics currently active at SFI include: the origin of prehistoric states; cities, scaling, and sustainability; social network structure and dynamics; economic inequality; market dynamics; altruism and cooperation; the coevolution of institutions and cultures; technology and innovation; and computational social science. New research topics are welcome.

The job description, including application requirements, can be found at http://www.santafe.edu/about/jobs/cowan-chair-2014/.

I am happy to answer any questions that you or potential candidates might have: Jennifer Dunne, Professor, Chair of Faculty, Vice President for Science, Santa Fe Institute, jdunne@santafe.edu




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B –7 November 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B –19 October 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 15 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist –14 September 2013

NEWS

Men with small testicles make the best dads [A trade-off between investments in mating and parenting may explain why fathers who are more involved with their kids have smaller testicles] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... jWR3n5waUk




Science –13 September 2013

ARTICLES

SANDRA KNAPP – What, Where, and When? [Alfred Russel Wallace, whose contributions to science we celebrate this year, the 100th anniversary of his death, is probably best known for his role in articulating evolution by natural selection with Charles Darwin in the mid-19th century. But important as that was, it was his unique field-oriented perspective that gave birth to a whole new way of looking at the world] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6151/1182.short




Nature –12 September 2013

NEWS

Monkeys raise the alarm on predators [For the first time, researchers have shown that non-human primates emit calls in specific sequences to convey the type and location of the threat] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20130912



Babies hear a primate's call [Babies listen to lemur vocalizations in the same way that they listen to human speech] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20130912




PLOS One –11 September 2013

PAPERS

AINA RODRÍGUEZ-PUJADAS et al – BilingualsUse Language-Control Brain Areas More Than Monolinguals to Perform Non-Linguistic Switching Tasks[“We tested the hypothesis that early bilinguals use language-control brain areas more than monolinguals when performing non-linguistic executive control tasks. We do so by exploring the brain activity of early bilinguals and monolinguals in a task-switching paradigm using an embedded critical trial design. Crucially, the task was designed such that the behavioural performance of the two groups was comparable, allowing then to have a safer comparison between the corresponding brain activity in the two groups. Despite the lack of behavioural differences between both groups, early bilinguals used language-control areas – such as left caudate, and left inferior and middle frontal gyri – more than monolinguals, when performing the switching task. Results offer direct support for the notion that, early bilingualism exerts an effect in the neural circuitry responsible for executive control”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0073028



ALEXANDER M RAPP et al – Isn’t it ironic? Neural Correlates of Irony Comprehension in Schizophrenia[“We investigated the neural correlates of irony comprehension in schizophrenia by using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a prosody-free reading paradigm, 15 female patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy female controls silently read ironic and literal text vignettes during fMRI. Each text vignette ended in either an ironic (n = 22) or literal (n = 22) statement. Ironic and literal text vignettes were matched for word frequency, length, grammatical complexity, and syntax. After fMRI, the subjects performed an off-line test to detect error rate. In this test, the subjects indicated by button press whether the target sentence has ironic, literal, or meaningless content. Schizotypal personality traits were assessed using the German version of the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ). Patients with schizophrenia made significantly more errors than did the controls (correct answers, 85.3% vs. 96.3%) on a behavioural level”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0074224



DOUGLAS K BEMIS & LIINA PYLKKÄNEN – Flexible Composition: MEG Evidence for the Deployment of Basic Combinatorial Linguistic Mechanisms in Response to Task Demands[“Using magnetoencephalography, we measured neural activity evoked by the processing of adjective-noun phrases in canonical (red cup) and reversed order (cup red). During a task not requiring composition (verification against a color blob and shape outline), we observed significant combinatorial activity during canonical phrases only – as indexed by minimum norm source activity localized to the left anterior temporal lobe at 200–250 ms(cf. [1], [2]). When combinatorial task demands were introduced (by simply combining the blob and outline into a single colored shape) we observed significant combinatorial activity during reversed sequences as well”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0073949



CRISTINA D DYE et al – Children's Computation of Complex Linguistic Forms: A Study of Frequency and Imageability Effects [“Children aged 8–12 were tested on the production of regular and irregular past-tense forms. Storage (vs. composition) was examined by probing for past-tense frequency effects and imageability effects – both of which are diagnostic tests for storage – while controlling for a number of confounding factors. We also examined sex as a factor. Irregular inflected forms, which must depend on stored representations, always showed evidence of storage (frequency and/or imageability effects), not only across all children, but also separately in both sexes. In contrast, for regular forms, which could be either stored or composed, only girls showed evidence of storage. This pattern is similar to that found in previously-acquired adult data from the same task, with the notable exception that development affects which factors influence the storage of regulars in females”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0074683



CATHERINE L TAYLOR et al – Risk Factors for Children's Receptive Vocabulary Development from Four to Eight Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children[“In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4–8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0073046



ANNIE E WERTZ & TAMSIN C GERMAN – Theory of Mind in the Wild: Toward Tackling the Challenges of Everyday Mental State Reasoning[“Results from three experiments with preschool children and adults demonstrate that mental state information is indeed generated based on an approach action cue in situations that contain competing mental state information. Further, the frequency with which participants produced or endorsed explanations that include mental states about an approached object decreased when the competing mental state information about a different object was made explicit. This set of experiments provides some of the first steps toward identifying the observable action cues that are used to generate mental state representations in everyday situations and offers insight into how both young children and adults processes multiple mental state representations”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0072835




PNAS –10 September 2013

PAPERS

GABRIELE CAMERA, MARCO CASARI & MARIA BIGONI – Money and trust among strangers [prepublication now publication]http://www.pnas.org/content/110/37/14889.abstract



EINO PARTANEN et al – Learning-induced neural plasticity of speech processing before birth [prepublication now publication]http://www.pnas.org/content/110/37/15145.abstract




PLoS Genetics–September 2013

PAPERS

WILLIAM M BRANDLER et al – Common Variants in Left/Right Asymmetry Genes and Pathways Are Associated with Relative Hand Skill [“Our findings lead us to propose that handedness is a polygenic trait controlled in part by the molecular mechanisms that establish LR body asymmetry early in development”] http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/inf ... en.1003751




Biolinguistics – 2013

PAPERS

BRADY CLARK – Syntactictheory and the evolution of syntax [“Contemporary work on the evolution of syntax can be roughly divided into two perspectives. The incremental view claims that the evolution of syntax involved multiple stages between the non-combinatorial communication system of our last common ancestor with chimpanzees and modern human syntax. The saltational view claims that syntax was the result of a single evolutionary development. What is the relationship between syntactic theory and these two perspectives? Jackendoff (2010) argues that “[y]our theory of language evolution depends on your theory of language”. For example, he claims that most work within the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995) is forced to the saltational view. In this paper it is argued that there is not a dependency relation between theories of syntax and theories of syntactic evolution. The parallel architecture (Jackendoff 2002) is consistent with a saltational theory of syntactic evolution. The architecture assumed in most minimalist work is compatible with an incremental theory”]http://www.biolinguistics.eu/index.php/biolinguistics/article/view/303




Language and Cognition – Volume5, Issue 2-3

PAPERS

MICHAEL A ARBIB – Précis of How the brain got language: The Mirror System Hypothesishttp://www.degruyter.com/view ... 3-0007.xml



KLAUS ZUBERBÜHLER – Acquired mirroring and intentional communication in primates [“Arbib offers a coherent proposal of how the brain has evolved to become language-capable. Integral to the argument are mirror neurons, cells discovered in macaque brains with interesting firing patterns, and studies on gestural communication of great apes. Here, I first discuss some complexities of the recent mirror neuron literature, which suggest that ‘mirroring’ may be an ontogenetically acquired, not an evolved, feature of neurons. Second, it is now clear that chimpanzee vocal behaviour is strongly mediated by social variables, and that individuals can use vocalisations to persuade and inform others, facts that have implications for gestural theories of language evolution. I conclude with discussing research most needed for making progress in understanding how human language has evolved”] http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog ... 3-0008.xml



LEONARDO FOGASSI, GINO COUDÉ & PIER FRANCESCO FERRARI – The extended features of mirror neurons and the voluntary control of vocalization in the pathway to language [“In this commentary we will first emphasize two properties of mirror neurons and motor cortex that may have contributed to language: the generalization of the property of understanding action goals and the capacity to decode the goal of action sequences. Then we will propose, based on recent behavioural and neurophysiological data in monkeys, that the vocalization in non-human primates could have reached a partial voluntary control, thus contributing to the emergence of a communicative system relying on the coordination of gestures and utterances”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0009/langcog-2013-0009.xml



MARCO TETTAMANTI – A research program in neuroimaging for an evolutionary theory of syntax [“In this commentary, I will argue that future neuroimaging research needs in particular to: i) clarify whether linear sequential versus non-linear hierarchical structure differentially depend on mirror neurons as opposed to higher-order heteromodal cortices; ii) challenge current neuroscientific evidence on multilingualism: as it stands, syntactic processing appears to be mediated by the same neural mechanisms across languages, independently of cross-linguistic idiosyncrasies; iii) devise longitudinal studies of grammar acquisition in newborns and children; iv) recreate in the laboratory nearly-ecological conditions for the emergence of syntactic constructions through cultural and social interaction, and exploit the “experiment of nature” of pidgin and creole languages”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0010/langcog-2013-0010.xml



FRANCISCO ABOITIZ – How did vocal behavior “take over” the gestural communication system? [“In this commentary, I argue (i) that there are some peripheral homologies between the monkey and the human vocalization systems; (ii) that complex vocal learning can be achieved without need of a voluntary hand grasping circuit; and (iii) that in the monkey there are rudimentary circuits that can convey auditory information into Broca's region, via the “ventral pathway” but also via the arcuate or the superior longitudinal fasciculi”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0011/langcog-2013-0011.xml



PETER FORD DOMINEY – The tip of the language iceberg [“I will suggest that it is useful to consider two additional components of human brain function that are intricately related to the emergence of language. These are, first, the profound human motivation to represent and share the psychological states of others, and second, the related complex semantic system that represents the contents of what is communicated in language. In this sense, these two components represent part of what is under the iceberg, where language is the emerging tip”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0012/langcog-2013-0012.xml



WENDY SANDLER – Vive la différence: Sign language and spoken language in language evolution[“Here I describe findings about established and emerging sign languages that bear specifically upon the interaction between sign and speech proposed in the Mirror System Hypothesis. While supporting the central role that Arbib attributes to gestural/visual communication in understanding language and its evolution, I point out some kinks in the spiral that potentially disrupt its smooth expansion”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0013/langcog-2013-0013.xml



KAREN EMMOREY – The neurobiology of sign language and the mirror system hypothesis [“I suggest two puzzles for the Mirror System Hypothesis. First, there is little evidence that mirror neuron populations for words or for signs exist in Broca's area, and a mirror system is not critical for either speech or sign perception. Damage to Broca's area (or to the mirror system for human action) does not result in deficits in sign or speech perception. Second, the gesticulations of speakers are highly integrated with speech, but pantomimes and modern protosigns (conventional gestures) are not co-expressive with speech, and they do not co-occur with speech. Further, signers also produce global, imagistic gesticulations with their mouths and bodies simultaneously while signing with their hands”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0014/langcog-2013-0014.xml



MARIELLA PAZZAGLIA – Action and language grounding in the sensorimotor cortex [“On the basis of the argument proposed by Arbib, I will consider an evolutionary scenario according to which language emerged from a basic imitation mechanism devoted to action representation. I will review more appropriate data in patients who present with gesture and language disorders and add it to behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging evidence that suggests that specialized sensorimotor circuits underlie action processing and may ultimately even ground complex aspects of language”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0015/langcog-2013-0015.xml



HOLGER DIESSEL – Where does language come from? Some reflections on the role of deictic gesture and demonstratives in the evolution of language [“Combining evidence from linguistic typology and historical linguistics with evidence from research on social cognition, the paper argues that demonstratives constitute a universal class of linguistic expressions that are commonly used in combination with a deictic pointing gesture to establish joint attention, a cognitive phenomenon that is closely related to Arbib's notion of “complex imitation”. No other class of linguistic expressions is so closely tied to the speaker's body and gesture than demonstratives. However, demonstratives are not only used to focus the language users' attention on concrete entities in the surrounding situation, they are also used to organize the information flow in discourse, which in turn underlies their frequent development into a wide range of grammatical markers, e.g. definite articles, third person pronouns, relative markers, complementizers, subordinate conjunctions, copulas, and focus markers”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0017/langcog-2013-0017.xml



BENOÎT DUBREUIL & CHRISTOPHER STUART HENSHILWOOD – Archeology and the language-ready brain [“Michael Arbib presents a most interesting and comprehensive account of the evolution of language. The work is both impressive and convincing in its description of how the language-ready brain evolved and how languages emerged through cultural evolution. As we are in broad agreement with Arbib's evolutionary story at the neurocognitive level, we focus on an underdeveloped part of his argument: when did language evolve in the human lineage? How does Arbib's neurocognitive argument connect with what archeology teaches us about human evolution?”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0018/langcog-2013-0018.xml



CHRIS SINHA – Niche construction, too, unifies praxis and symbolization [“I propose an account based on niche construction theory, in which Arbib's language-ready brain is primarily a consequence of epigenetically-driven adaptation to the biocultural niche of protolanguage and (subsequently) early language. The evolutionary adaptations grounding language evolution were initially to proto-linguistic sociocommunicative and symbolic processes, later capturing and re-canalizing behavioural adaptations (such as serial and hierarchical constructive praxis) initially “targeted” to other developmental and cognitive domains”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0019/langcog-2013-0019.xml



MICHAEL A ARBIB – Complex imitation and the language-ready brain[“The present article responds to commentaries from experts in anthropology, apraxia, archeology, linguistics, neuroanatomy, neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neuropsychology, primatology, sign language emergence and sign language neurolinguistics on the book How the brain got language: The mirror system hypothesis”]http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/langcog.2013.5.issue-2-3/langcog-2013-0020/langcog-2013-0020.xml
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 536

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Sun Sep 29, 2013 7:10 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 536 – 22 September 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Shhh! Someone Might Hear Us. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Smaller Testicles Linked to Caring Fathers. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Long Live the Humans. 1

SCIAM NEWS – How to Understand the Deep Structures of Language. 1

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Orangutans found to plan, communicate future routes. 1

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – In parts of the world, nearly 1/4 of men admit to having raped. 1

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Will to win may form at about four years. 1

WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Norwegian boys becoming more girly—and that's good. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 2

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 22 September 2013. 2

New Scientist –21 September 2013. 2

Science –20 September 2013. 2

Nature –19 September 2013. 2

PLOS One –18 September 2013. 2

PNAS –17 September 2013. 2

Animal Behaviour – September 2013. 3

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 3




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Shhh! Someone Might Hear Us

Tamarins can whisper

http://news.sciencemag.org/plants-anima ... ht-hear-us




SCIAM NEWS – Smaller Testicles Linked to Caring Fathers

Scientists aren't sure whether men who make more sperm are genetically wired to be detached dads, or whether early life experience or the act of caring for children leads men's bodies to invest less in sperm-making, thereby causing their testicles to shrink.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20130916




SCIAM NEWS – Long Live the Humans

Modern genomes and ancient mummies are yielding clues to why the life span of Homo sapiens far exceeds that of other primates

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... A_20130917




SCIAM NEWS – How to Understand the Deep Structures of Language

By Joshua K. Hartshorne

In an alternative to Chomsky’s "Universal Grammar," scientists explore language’s fundamental design constraints

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20130918




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Orangutans found to plan, communicate future routes

Male orangutans plan their travel route up to a day in advance and communicate it to other orangutans

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... gutans.htm




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – In parts of the world, nearly 1/4 of men admit to having raped

If men are asked about it in a way that avoids the word "rape," disturbing findings can arise

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/130910_rape




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Will to win may form at about four years

“Children don’t understand competitive behavior until around age four, new research suggests—and that comprehension is linked to a more developed grasp of other people’s perspectives”

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... ompetition




WORLDSCIENCE NEWS – Norwegian boys becoming more girly—and that's good

Young schoolboys in Norway are talking about their feelings, holding hands and learning kindness, according to a social anthropologist.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... gender.htm




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 22 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist –21 September 2013

NEWS

Lost river guided early humans out of Africa [A climate model shows the Sahara desert once had three lush rivers. One led humans to the North African coast, from where they headed to the Middle East] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... j8py35waUk



Genes linked to left-handedness identified [Some of the genes involved in making sure your organs develop on the correct side of the body also determine hand preference]

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ified.html



ARTICLES

VALERIE CURTIS – Manners maketh man: how disgust shaped human evolution [A key factor in our evolution is so deeply ingrained in our lives that we barely notice it. Disgustologist Valerie Curtis lifts the lid on manners] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ution.html



TIM BAYNE – Thoughts: The inside story [What are thoughts, and what exactly is thinking? Take a trip with philosopher Tim Bayne into the fantastic, ceaseless world our minds create] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... story.html




Science –20 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Nature –19 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




PLOS One –18 September 2013

PAPERS

SANDRO M KRIEG et al – Functional Language Shift to the Right Hemisphere in Patients with Language-Eloquent Brain Tumors [“Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0075403




PNAS –17 September 2013

ARTICLES

FRANS B M DE WAAL & SERGEY GAVRILETS – Monogamy with a purpose [“Biologists … place monogamy in a broad comparative perspective to determine what factors may have promoted its evolution. Why is monogamy ten-times more common in birds than mammals? Additionally, even though relatively common in primates, why are there no primates—other than humans—in which multiple reproductive pairs live together? Primate monogamy generally entails territoriality, with both the male and the female repelling outsiders of their own sex.

Recently, two independent British teams have addressed these issues by analyzing variation in candidate traits that may have pushed species toward monogamy. Both studies used Bayesian and maximum-likelihood statistics to explore three traits: (i) paternal care, (ii) female sociality, and (iii) infanticide. The researchers used different databases, however. Kit Opie’s University College London team compared data on 230 primate species, whereas Dieter Lukas and Tim Clutton-Brock of Cambridge University covered no less than 2,545 mammalian species, including 330 primates. The teams further classified mating systems differently, with one team criticizing the classification of the other.”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/38/15167.extract



PAPERS

ALISSA L FERRY, SUSAN J HESPOS & SANDRA R WAXMAN – Nonhuman primate vocalizations support categorization in very young human infants [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/38/15231.abstract



ALEXANDER J STEWART & JOSHUA B PLOTKIN – From extortion to generosity, evolution in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma [prepublication now publication] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/38/15348.abstract



OLIVER SCHILKE, MARTIN REIMANN & KAREN S COOK – Effect of relationship experience on trust recovery following a breach [“Will people be more likely to forgive a breach of trust in an earlier or later stage of an interpersonal relationship? The present article reports behavioral and neurophysiological experiments that speak to this important question. Results show that trust recovery is facilitated with increasing relationship experience. Differential activation in the controlled social cognition system (C-system) and the automatic social cognition system (X-system) indicate that decision making is less controlled and more automatic following a later as opposed to an earlier trust breach. These findings have important implications for the study of trust recovery after a breach, as well as the neuroscience of trust.”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/38/15236.abstract




Animal Behaviour – September 2013

PAPERS

ANNE MARIJKE SCHEL, ZARIN MACHANDA, SIMON W TOWNSEND, KLAUS ZUBERBÜHLER & KATIE E SLOCOMBE – Chimpanzee food calls are directed at specific individuals [“We tested experimentally whether chimpanzee rough grunts, which function to refer to food, are produced selectively, indicating voluntary control, and whether they are directed at specific individuals. These are prerequisites for a system capable of actively informing others about external events. We conducted a field playback experiment in which we presented silently feeding male chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, with arrival pant hoots of a familiar group member. We found that subjects were significantly more likely to respond with food calls to the simulated arrival of an individual with whom the caller had a high rather than low level of friendship and where there was a large rather than small positive dominance rank difference between the individuals (i.e. caller was lower ranking). We concluded that chimpanzee food calls are not simply reflexive responses to food, but can be selectively directed at socially important individuals. Our findings are thus inconsistent with traditional views of primate vocalizations as inflexibly and indiscriminately produced”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003813
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 537

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Mon Sep 30, 2013 7:39 am

EAORC BULLETIN 537 – 29 September 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Lucy's Svelte Look. 1

NATURE NEWS – Good Agreements Make Good Friends. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Why Fish Don't Need to Be "Schooled" in Swimming. 1

PUBLICATIONS. 1

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 November 2013. 1

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 1

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 29 September 2013. 1

New Scientist –28 September 2013. 1

Science –27 September 2013. 2

Nature –26 September 2013. 2

PLOS One –25 September 2013. 2

PNAS –24 September 2013. 3

Animal Behaviour – October 2013. 3

PLOS GENETICS – September 2013. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Lucy's Svelte Look

Well-studied skeleton cast in new light thanks to fleshed-out fossil record.

http://news.sciencemag.org/paleontology ... velte-look




NATURE NEWS – Good Agreements Make Good Friends

The Anh Han, Luís Moniz Pereira, Francisco C. Santos et al.

“When starting a new collaborative endeavor, it pays to establish upfront how strongly your partner commits to the common goal and what compensation can be expected in case the collaboration is violated. Diverse examples in biological and social contexts have demonstrated the pervasiveness of making prior agreements on posterior compensations, suggesting that this behavior could have been shaped by natural selection. Here, we analyze the evolutionary relevance of such a commitment strategy and relate it to the costly punishment strategy, where no prior agreements are made. We show that when the cost of arranging a commitment deal lies within certain limits, substantial levels of cooperation can be achieved.”

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130918/ ... P-20130924




SCIAM NEWS – Why Fish Don't Need to Be "Schooled" in Swimming

The answer lies in the fish genome, suggesting that complex social behavior in other animals, including humans, is also genetically ingrained.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... O_20130923




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 22 November 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – No issue this week

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 29 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist –28 September 2013

NEWS

Real-world Civilisation game shows impact of war [A model similar to the computer game Civilisation recreates human history and shows the importance of warfare in stabilising society] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... kf8Tn5waUk



REVIEWS

MICHAEL BOND - No need for gods any more [review of ‘Big Gods: How religion transformed cooperation and conflict’ by Ara Norenzayan] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... kf9Tn5waUk




Science –27 September 2013

REVIEWS

RUUD ABMA - Rewriting Milgram [Review of ‘Behind the Shock Machine: The Untold Story of the Notorious Milgram Psychology Experiments’ by Gina Perry] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/341/6153/1454.1.short




Nature –26 September 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




PLOS One –25 September 2013

PAPERS

H ANDREW SCHWARTZ et al – Personality, Gender, and Age in the Language of Social Media: The Open-Vocabulary Approach [“We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase ‘sick of’ and the word ‘depressed’), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive ‘my’ when mentioning their ‘wife’ or ‘girlfriend’ more often than females use ‘my’ with ‘husband’ or 'boyfriend’). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0073791



CONNIE QUN GUAN et al – The Motor System Contributes to Comprehension of Abstract Language [“We show that preparation to respond in an upward or downward direction affects comprehension of the abstract quantifiers “more and more” and “less and less” as indexed by an N400-like component. Conversely, the semantic content of the sentence affects the motor potential measured immediately before the upward or downward action is initiated. We propose that this bidirectional link between motor system and language arises because the motor system implements forward models that predict the sensory consequences of actions. Because the same movement (e.g., raising the arm) can have multiple forward models for different contexts, the models can make different predictions depending on whether the arm is raised, for example, to place an object or raised as a threat. Thus, different linguistic contexts invoke different forward models, and the predictions constitute different understandings of the language”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0075183



BO YAO et al – Semantic Size of Abstract Concepts: It Gets Emotional When You Can’t See It [“In language processing, previous research has demonstrated a processing advantage for words denoting semantically “big” (e.g., jungle) versus “small” (e.g., needle) concrete objects. We investigated whether semantic size plays a role in the recognition of words expressing abstract concepts (e.g., truth). Semantically “big” and “small” concrete and abstract words were presented in a lexical decision task. Responses to “big” words, regardless of their concreteness, were faster than those to “small” words. Critically, we explored the relationship between semantic size and affective characteristics of words as well as their influence on lexical access. Although a word’s semantic size was correlated with its emotional arousal, the temporal locus of arousal effects may depend on the level of concreteness. That is, arousal seemed to have an earlier (lexical) effect on abstract words, but a later (post-lexical) effect on concrete words”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0075000



YANG YU et al – Female Snub-Nosed Monkeys Exchange Grooming for Sex and Infant Handling [“We explore the strategic use of grooming as a social tool in semi-wild golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in central China, a species where two desirable resources, viz. reproductive males and infants, are restricted to the mating and birth season, respectively. We predict that females expend their grooming selectively to different individuals according to their “value”. Our results show that in the mating season, females devoted more grooming to the resident male than in the birth season, and this effect was particularly strong in non-mothers (females without newborn infants). Moreover, females were more likely to groom the resident male after copulation than during baseline social conditions. In the birth season, females devoted more grooming to other females than in the mating season, and mothers (females with newborn infants) were the most valuable grooming partners”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0074822



THIBAUD GRUBER & KLAUS ZUBERBÜHLER – Vocal Recruitment for Joint Travel in Wild Chimpanzees [“Here, we studied the use of an acoustically distinct vocalisation in chimpanzees, the ‘travel hoo’, a signal given specifically in the travel context. We were interested in how this call type was produced to coordinate travel, whether it was aimed at specific individuals and how recipients responded. We found that ‘travel hoos’ were regularly given prior to impending departures and that silent travel initiations were less successful in recruiting than vocal initiations. Other behaviours associated with departure were unrelated to recruitment, suggesting that ‘travel hoos’ facilitated joint travel. Crucially, ‘travel hoos’ were more often produced in the presence of allies than other individuals, with high rates of recruitment success. We discuss these findings as evidence for how motivation to perform a specific social activity can lead to the production of a vocal signal that qualifies as ‘intentional’ according to most definitions, suggesting that a key psychological component of human language may have already been present in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0076073




PNAS –24 September 2013

LETTERS

JEROEN B SMAERS – How humans stand out in frontal lobe scaling http://www.pnas.org/content/110/39/E3682.extract



ROBERT A BARTON & CHRIS VENDITTI - Reply to Smaers: Getting human frontal lobes in proportion http://www.pnas.org/content/110/39/E3683.extract



PAPERS

HIROSHI YAMADA et al – Thirst-dependent risk preferences in monkeys identify a primitive form of wealth [“We show that monkeys display similar risk preferences and rationality to those of humans, suggesting that despite concerns raised by earlier reports, they can serve as a model for human behavior. Standard experimental economic techniques have long allowed us to evaluate human risk attitudes, but we do not know how they relate to wealth levels, a critical variable in economic models. We find thirsty monkeys to be more risk averse and discuss implications for the role of wealth in human decision making”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/39/15788.abstract



JENNIFER S MASCARO, PATRICK D HACKETT & JAMES K RILLING – Testicular volume is inversely correlated with nurturing-related brain activity in human fathers [“Life History Theory posits a trade-off between mating and parenting effort, which may explain some of the observed variance in human fathers’ parenting behavior. The current study tested this hypothesis by measuring aspects of reproductive biology related to mating effort, as well as paternal nurturing behavior and the brain activity related to it. Both testosterone levels and testes volume were negatively correlated with paternal caregiving. In response to viewing pictures of one’s own child, brain activity in a key component of the reward and motivation system predicted paternal caregiving and was negatively related to testes volume. These results suggest that the biology of human males reflects a trade-off between mating effort and parenting effort”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/39/15746.abstract




Animal Behaviour – October 2013

PAPERS

LYNDA L SHARPE, AMY HILL & MICHAEL I CHERRY – Individual recognition in a wild cooperative mammal using contact calls [“We tested whether a wild cooperative mammal, the dwarf mongoose, Helogale parvula, could recognize individual group members from their vocalizations. We provided test subjects with a large, desirable food item and then simulated the approach of another group member using playbacks of its contact calls. Mongooses were more vigilant after hearing the calls of individuals of higher rank than themselves (that could steal their food) compared with individuals of lower rank than themselves (that could not). We showed that the mongooses were not simply responding to age-related cues that conveyed potential information on rank, and provide some evidence that they were associating the unique characteristics of the call with an individually specific characteristic of the caller (i.e. its relative rank)”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 721300345X



ALASDAIR I HOUSTON, TAMÁS SZÉKELY & JOHN M MCNAMARA – The parental investment models of Maynard Smith: a retrospective and prospective view [“although Model 2 of Maynard Smith (1977) has been used in several textbooks to explain the evolution of care, subsequent work has shown that this model is not built on a consistent view of how parental care influences future reproductive success through its effect on the sex ratio. Several models incorporate a consistent account in which opportunities to remate after desertion emerge from the analysis, rather than being specified in advance. More generally, it is not possible to consider parental care in isolation from factors such as paternity, mating preferences and mate choice behaviour. We identify various theoretical and empirical issues in the area of parental care research that we believe deserve further study if our understanding of care decisions is to advance”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003527



AUDREY MAILLE et al – Manual laterality for pointing gestures compared to grasping actions in guenons and mangabeys [“We assessed manual laterality for requesting gestures, i.e. pointing, and for grasping actions in two species of Old World monkeys, Campbell's monkeys, Cercopithecus campbelli, and red-capped mangabeys, Cercocebus torquatus, using the Bishop QHP task. The food items were placed at five positions in front of the monkeys and they were located at out-of-reach, far or close distance from the monkeys, to induce pointing gestures and grasping actions requiring full or low arm extensions, respectively. The mangabeys that exhibited the greatest skills for pointing referentially were more right-handed for pointing gestures than for grasping actions”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003035



DAVID BUTTELMANN, MALINDA CARPENTER, JOSEP CALL & MICHAEL TOMASELLO – Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, recognize successful actions, but fail to imitate them [“Cultural transmission, by definition, involves some form of social learning. Chimpanzees and other nonhuman primates clearly engage in some forms of social learning enabling some types of cultural transmission, but there is controversy about whether they copy the actual bodily actions of demonstrators. In this study chimpanzees recognized when a human actor was using particular bodily actions that had led to successful problem solving in the past. But then when it was their turn to solve the problem, they did not reproduce the human actor's bodily actions themselves, even though they were clearly capable of producing the movements. These results help us identify more precisely key reasons for the differences in the social learning and cultural transmission of humans and other primates”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003370




PLOS GENETICS – September 2013

PAPERS

WILLIAM M. BRANDLER et al – Common Variants in Left/Right Asymmetry Genes and Pathways Are Associated with Relative Hand Skill [“We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis for a quantitative measure of relative hand skill in individuals with dyslexia [reading disability (RD)] (n = 728). The most strongly associated variant … is located in PCSK6, further supporting an association we previously reported. We also confirmed the specificity of this association in individuals with RD; the same locus was not associated with relative hand skill in a general population cohort (n = 2,666).”] http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/inf ... en.1003751



IRENE HERNANDO-HERRAEZ et al – Dynamics of DNA Methylation in Recent Human and Great Ape Evolution [“We performed a comparative analysis of CpG methylation patterns between 9 humans and 23 primate samples including all species of great apes (chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla and orangutan) using Illumina Methylation450 bead arrays. Our analysis identified ~800 genes with significantly altered methylation patterns among the great apes, including ~170 genes with a methylation pattern unique to human. Some of these are known to be involved in developmental and neurological features, suggesting that epigenetic changes have been frequent during recent human and primate evolution”] http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/inf ... en.1003763
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 538

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Tue Oct 08, 2013 5:17 pm

EAORC BULLETIN 538 – 6 October 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – Reading Literary Fiction Improves Theory of Mind. 1

SCIAM NEWS – Words Are Thinking Tools: Praxotype. 1

WORLDSCIENCE – 157 scientific journals said to accept bogus report in "sting". 1

WORLDSCIENCE – Could changes to your chromosomes make you aggressive?. 1

CONFERENCE – 5th UK Cognitive Linguistics Conference. 1

FUNDING – Animal Behavior Society: 2013 Student Research & Developing Nations Research Grants. 2

LECTURE - Jakob Hohwy (Philosophy & Cognition Lab, Monash University): The self-evidencing brain. 3

PUBLICATIONS. 3

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week. 3

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 November 2013. 3

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 6 October 2013. 3

New Scientist –5 October 2013. 3

Science –4 October 2013. 3

Nature –3 October 2013. 3

PLOS One –2 October 2013. 3

PNAS –1 October 2013. 4

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 4




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – Reading Literary Fiction Improves Theory of Mind

David Comer Kidd and Emanuele Castano

Understanding others’ mental states is a crucial skill that enables the complex social relationships that characterize human societies. Yet little research has investigated what fosters this skill, which is known as Theory of Mind (ToM), in adults. We present five experiments showing that reading literary fiction led to better performance on tests of affective ToM (experiments 1 to 5) and cognitive ToM (experiments 4 and 5) compared with reading nonfiction (experiments 1), popular fiction (experiments 2 to 5), or nothing at all (experiments 2 and 5). Specifically, these results show that reading literary fiction temporarily enhances ToM. More broadly, they suggest that ToM may be influenced by engagement with works of art.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early ... ce.1239918

and

http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavi ... good-books




SCIAM NEWS – Words Are Thinking Tools: Praxotype

New word-tools can sometimes avoid the baggage built into prior terms and thinking patterns. “Praxotype” and “cognotype” might help us better model human nature’s complexities (prax- meaning action, practice; cogn- meaning thinking).

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/gue ... O_20130930




WORLDSCIENCE – 157 scientific journals said to accept bogus report in "sting"

Research journals reportedly accepted for publication a deliberately error-riddled paper, with little or no vetting.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/131004_spoof.htm




WORLDSCIENCE – Could changes to your chromosomes make you aggressive?

Chronic aggression in some boys from poorer families may stem from "epigenetic" changes in early life, studies suggest.

http://www.world-science.net/othernews/ ... ession.htm




CONFERENCE – 5th UK Cognitive Linguistics Conference

Lancaster University, 29-31 July 2014

We invite the submission of abstracts (for paper or poster presentations) addressing all aspects of cognitive linguistics. The conference aims to cover a broad range of research concerned with language and cognition. We will be especially interested in promoting strongly empirical work. To this end, we intend to organise (some of) the papers into thematic sessions, with our plenary speakers acting as discussants. The themes will be:

· Embodiment

· Gesture

· Typology and constructional analyses of the languages of the world

· Acquisition

· Corpora and statistical methods

· Metaphor and discourse

In addition to these themes, submissions on other aspects of the field are also welcome. These include:

· Domains and frame semantics

· Categorisation, prototypes and polysemy

· Mental spaces and conceptual blending

· Language evolution

· Linguistic variation and language change

· Cognitive linguistic approaches to language teaching

Cognitive linguistics is by definition highly interdisciplinary, and so in addition to primarily linguistic research, we also invite submissions that are based on disciplines such as (cognitive and social) psychology, cognitive and neuroscience, anthropology, primatology, biology, and discourse and communication studies.

Talks will be 20 minutes plus 10 minutes for questions and discussion. There will also be a poster session. The language of the conference is English. Abstracts of no more than 300 words (excluding references) should be submitted using EasyChair: https://www.easychair.org/conferences/?conf=ukclc5. Participants are allowed to submit abstracts for no more than one single-authored paper and one joint-authored paper. All abstracts will be subject to double-blind peer review by an international scientific committee. Since 2012 UK-CLA publishes selected conference presentations in the series 'Selected Papers from UK-CLA Meetings' (ISSN 2046-9144); UK-CLC5 will continue this tradition.

The deadline for abstract submission is 20 December 2013. Notification of acceptance will be communicated by 1 February 2014. Abstracts must be strictly anonymous, and should be submitted in plain text and/or PDF format. If you need to use phonetic characters, please make sure that they are displayed correctly.

Submissions:

To be able to submit an abstract you must use your existing EasyChair login details. If you have not registered with EasyChair before, please do so using the link above. Once you have created an account or signed in please follow the following steps:

· Click on the 'New Submission' link at the top of the page.

· Agree to the terms and conditions (if prompted).

· Fill in the relevant information about the author or authors.

· Give the title of the paper in the 'Title' box and then (a) enter or paste your abstract into the 'Abstract' box (this is plain text only) and/or (b) upload your abstract as a PDF file by clicking 'Choose File' under 'Upload Paper.'

· At the top of your abstract, indicate whether you would prefer an oral presentation, a poster, or either. Enter 'oral presentation', 'poster', or 'oral presentation/poster' at the top of your abstract, above the title.

· Type three or more keywords into the 'Keywords' box (these will help us choose suitable reviewers for your abstract, as well as a possible thematic session for your paper).

· When you are done, please press 'Submit' at the very bottom of the page.

Key Dates and Information:

· Abstract deadline: 20 December 2013

· Decisions communicated by: 1 February 2014

· Early bird registration opens: 1 February 2014

· Early bird registration closes: 15 March 2014

· Registration closes: 1 June 2014

· Conference dates: 29-31 July 2014

For further information visit http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/events/uk-clc5/ or contact the organisers at: uk-clc5@languageandcognition.net




FUNDING – Animal Behavior Society: 2013 Student Research & Developing Nations Research Grants

Please note the deadlines for Student Grant submissions below:

Grant site open: Monday, 23 September 2013.

Grant site activation of accounts: Monday, 11 November 2013.

Grant Site close: 14 November 2013 (midnight, Eastern Standard Time).

The grant site is NOW OPEN at: http://animalbehaviorsociety.org/ABSGrants/

Submissions will not be accepted after the closing date. Students who have paid their society dues in full prior to Monday, 11 November 2013 will be eligible to submit a grant application. All students must contact the ABS Central Office prior this date so we can verify and activate their account on the grants submission site to be able to log in and submit their materials.

Example applications are available on the grant application website here: http://animalbehaviorsociety.org/ABSGrants

If you have any questions about your membership or the submission process, contact the ABS Central Office (aboffice@indiana.edu) prior to Monday, 11 November 2013.

More information about the Student Research Grants can be found on the Animal Behavior Society website here: http://animalbehaviorsociety.org/centra ... nouncement




LECTURE - Jakob Hohwy (Philosophy & Cognition Lab, Monash University): The self-evidencing brain

9 October 2013

The most exciting theory in neuroscience is that the brain is an organ for prediction error minimization (PEM). This theory is rapidly gaining influence and is set to dominate the science of the mind and the brain in the years to come. PEM has extreme explanatory ambition, and profound philosophical implications. Here, I assume the theory, briefly explain it, and then I develop the idea that PEM implies that the brain is essentially self-evidencing. This means it is imperative to define an evidentiary boundary between the brain and its environment. This boundary defines the mind-world relation, opens the door to global skepticism, and makes the mind transpire as more inferentially secluded and neurocentrically skull-bound than many would nowadays think. PEM's strongly neurocentric character means it deflates contemporary hypotheses that cognition is extended and embodied, but in spite of this it can accommodate the kinds of cases that fuel these hypotheses.

As usual, the fun will start at 1630 in room S37, 7 George Square,.




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – No issue this week




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 5 November 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 6 October 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist –5 October 2013

REVIEWS

DEBORA MACKENZIE Is happiness found in our minds or in our wallets? [Comparative review of: ‘Hardwiring Happiness: The new brain science of contentment, calm, and confidence’ by Rick Hanson; ‘Scarcity: Why having too little means so much’ by Sendhil Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir; and ‘The Great Escape: Health, wealth, and the origins of inequality’ by Angus Deaton] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... lKcMH5waUk



ARTICLES

DAVID ROBSON - Hunter, gatherer… architect? Civilisation's true dawn [The discovery of huge temples thousands of years older than agriculture (e.g. Wadi Faynan & Gobekeli Tepe) suggests that culture arose from spiritual hunger, not full bellies] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... -dawn.html




Science –4 October 2013

NEWS

Brain Stimulation Sparks 'Machiavellian' Choices [A study establishes a specific brain region, the right lateral prefrontal cortex (rLPFC), as a crucial nerve center for fairness] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6154/25.short




Nature –3 October 2013

NEWS

Chimps ignore watching eyes [Unlike humans, chimpanzees do not alter their behaviour significantly when eyes are gazing down on them] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v5 ... E-20131003




PLOS One –2 October 2013

PAPERS

JOHN C J HOEKS et al – Questions Left Unanswered: How the Brain Responds to Missing Information [“The present study looks at the neural correlates of the pragmatic processes invoked by partial answers to questions. Two experiments are presented in which participants read mini-dialogues while their Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs) are being measured. In both experiments, violating the dependency between questions and answers was found to lead to an increase in the amplitude of the P600 component. We interpret these P600-effects as reflecting the increased effort in creating a coherent representation of what is communicated. This effortful processing might include the computation of what the dialogue participant meant to communicate by withholding information. Our study is one of few investigating language processing in conversation, be it that our participants were ‘eavesdroppers’ instead of real interactants”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0073594



SHRAVAN VASISHTH et al – Processing Chinese Relative Clauses: Evidence for the Subject-Relative Advantage [“Recently, several self-paced reading studies have presented surprising evidence that object relatives in Chinese are easier to process than subject relatives. We carried out three self-paced reading experiments that attempted to replicate these results. Two of our three studies found a subject-relative preference, and the third study found an object-relative advantage. Using a random effects bayesian meta-analysis of fifteen studies (including our own), we show that the overall current evidence for the subject-relative advantage is quite strong (approximate posterior probability of a subject-relative advantage given the data: 78–80%). We argue that retrieval/integration based accounts would have difficulty explaining all three experimental results”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0077006



MARJORIE DOLE, FANNY MEUNIER & MICHEL HOEN – Gray and White Matter Distribution in Dyslexia: A VBM Study of Superior Temporal Gyrus Asymmetry [“The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS) in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0076823




PNAS –1 October 2013

PAPERS

PEIPEI SETOH, DI WU, RENÉE BAILLARGEON & ROCHEL GELMAN – Young infants have biological expectations about animals [“In four experiments, 8-mo-old infants expected novel objects they categorized as animals to have filled insides. Thus, infants detected a violation when objects that were self-propelled and agentive were revealed to be hollow, or when an object that was self-propelled and furry rattled when shaken, as though mostly hollow. We describe possible characterizations of infants’ expectations about animals’ insides, including a characterization that emphasizes human predator–prey adaptations”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/40/15937.abstract



SHIGETO DOBATA & KAZUKI TSUJI – Public goods dilemma in asexual ant societies [“This study reports experimental evidence for the “public goods dilemma” between cooperators and cheaters in an asexual ant society, in which cheating is always more rewarding for individuals but cooperation at the cost of individual fitness leads to better performance of groups. Although this dilemma provides the basic principle of social evolution, its experimental demonstration with underlying genetics and fitness evaluation for both cooperators and cheaters still lacks in societies other than microbial ones. By showing the striking evolutionary convergence between microbial societies and insect societies in fitness consequences and in phenotypic plasticity of cooperators against cheaters, our result suggests that a wide range of scales of cooperative systems could be understood in a unified manner”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/40/16056.abstract
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

EAORC Bulletin 539

Postby AlgisKuliukas » Thu Oct 17, 2013 9:37 am

EAORC BULLETIN 539 – 13 October 2013




CONTENTS

NOTICES. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Were Most Cave Paintings Done by Women?. 1

SCIENCE NEWS – 2000 Years of Parallel Societies in Stone Age Central Europe. 1

NATURE NEWS – Infant cortex responds to other humans from shortly after birth. 1

NATURE NEWS – How Cognitive Plasticity Resolves the Brain's Information Processing Dilemma. 1

NATURE NEWS – Competitive environments sustain costly altruism with negligible assortment of interactions. 2

SCIAM NEWS – Reading Literary Fiction Improves Empathy. 2

SCIAM NEWS – What Do Babies Really Know?. 2

SCIAM NEWS – A New Frontier in Animal Intelligence. 2

COGLING LIST – Open Access publishing has it upsides and its downsides. 2

PUBLICATIONS. 2

Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 December 2013. 2

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 November 2013. 3

Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 13 October 2013. 4

New Scientist –12 October 2013. 4

Science –11 October 2013. 4

Nature –10 October 2013. 5

PLOS One –9 October 2013. 5

PNAS –8 October 2013. 5

Animal Behaviour – October 2013. 6

Scientific American – November 2013. 7

To unsubscribe from the EAORC Bulletin. 7




NOTICES


SCIENCE NEWS – ScienceShot: Were Most Cave Paintings Done by Women?

Majority of handprint "signatures" in cave art belong to females, study suggests

http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/ ... done-women




SCIENCE NEWS – 2000 Years of Parallel Societies in Stone Age Central Europe

Ruth Bollongino et al.

Debate on the ancestry of Europeans centers on the interplay between Mesolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. Foragers are generally believed to have disappeared shortly after the arrival of agriculture. To investigate the relation between foragers and farmers, we examined Mesolithic and Neolithic samples from the Blätterhöhle site. Mesolithic mitochondrial DNA sequences were typical of European foragers, whereas the Neolithic sample included additional lineages that are associated with early farmers. However, isotope analyses separate the Neolithic sample into two groups: one with an agriculturalist diet and one with a forager and freshwater fish diet, the latter carrying mitochondrial DNA sequences typical of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. This indicates that the descendants of Mesolithic people maintained a foraging lifestyle in Central Europe for more than 2000 years after the arrival of farming societies.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/early ... ce.1245049




NATURE NEWS – Infant cortex responds to other humans from shortly after birth

Teresa Farroni, Antonio M. Chiarelli, Sarah Lloyd-Fox et al

Here we study the haemodynamic response in cortical areas of newborns (1–5 days old) while they passively viewed dynamic human or mechanical action videos. We observed activation selective to a dynamic face stimulus over bilateral posterior temporal cortex, but no activation in response to a moving human arm. This selective activation to the social stimulus correlated with age in hours over the first few days post partum. Thus, even very limited experience of face-to-face interaction with other humans may be sufficient to elicit social stimulus activation of relevant cortical regions

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131004/ ... P-20131008




NATURE NEWS – How Cognitive Plasticity Resolves the Brain's Information Processing Dilemma

Diankun Gong, Weiyi Ma, Keith M. Kendrick et al

A key unresolved question in cognitive science is whether the brain uses asynchronous or synchronous patterns of information transmission. Using an auditory learning task combined with electrophysiological recordings, we reveal for the first time that cognitive plasticity during learning transforms an asynchronous into a synchronous transmission pattern to achieve rapid, error-free performance. We also present a new model showing how the brain may resolve its information processing and transmission dilemma.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131004/ ... P-20131008




NATURE NEWS – Competitive environments sustain costly altruism with negligible assortment of interactions

C. Patrick Doncaster, Adam Jackson, Richard A. Watson

Competition hinders the evolution of altruism amongst kin when beneficiaries gain at the expense of competing relatives. Altruism is consequently deemed to require stronger kin selection, or trait-selected synergies, or elastic population regulation, to counter this effect. Here we contest the view that competition puts any such demands on altruism. In ecologically realistic scenarios, competition influences both altruism and defection. We show how environments that pit defectors against each other allow strong altruism to evolve even in populations with negligible kin structure and no synergies. Competition amongst defectors presents relative advantages to altruism in the simplest games between altruists and defectors, and the most generic models of altruistic phenotypes or genotypes invading non-altruistic populations under inelastic density regulation. Given the widespread inevitability of competition, selection will often favour altruism because its alternatives provide lower fitness. Strong competition amongst defectors nevertheless undermines altruism, by facilitating invasion of unrelated beneficiaries as parasites.

http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131003/ ... P-20131008




SCIAM NEWS – Reading Literary Fiction Improves Empathy

By Julianne Chiaet

How important is reading fiction in socializing school children? Researchers at The New School in New York City have found evidence that literary fiction improves a reader’s capacity to understand what others are thinking and feeling.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131009




SCIAM NEWS – What Do Babies Really Know?

By Christof Koch

A new study finds a possible brain signature of consciousness in infants as young as five months

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131009




SCIAM NEWS – A New Frontier in Animal Intelligence

By Justin Gregg

Evidence that some animals are capable of “mental time travel,” suggests they have a deeper understanding of the world around them.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/artic ... B_20131009




COGLING LIST – Open Access publishing has it upsides and its downsides

One of the downsides is publishers who unscrupulously solicit manuscripts for publication in non-peer reviewed outlets with little or no quality control. Here you can access a list of potential, possible, or probable predatory scholarly open-access publishers:

http://scholarlyoa.com/publishers/

Chris Sinha, General Editor, Language and Cognition




PUBLICATIONS


Proceedings of the Royal Society B – 7 December 2013

PAPERS

ELISABETH BOLUND et al – Divergent selection on, but no genetic conflict over, female and male timing and rate of reproduction in a human population [“We used a pedigreed human population from preindustrial Finland to estimate sexual conflict over age at first and last reproduction, reproductive lifespan and reproductive rate. We found that the phenotypic selection gradients differed between the sexes. We next established significant heritabilities in both sexes for all traits. All traits, except reproductive rate, showed strongly positive intersexual genetic correlations and were strongly genetically correlated with fitness in both sexes. Moreover, the genetic correlations with fitness were almost identical in men and women. For reproductive rate, the intersexual correlation and the correlation with fitness were weaker but again similar between the sexes. Thus, in this population, an apparent sexual conflict at the phenotypic level did not reflect an underlying genetic conflict over the studied reproductive traits”] http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 2.abstract




Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B – 19 November 2013

PAPERS

MICHAEL HASLAM – ‘Captivity bias’ in animal tool use and its implications for the evolution of hominin technology [“In this review, potential factors contributing to captivity bias in primates (including increased contact between individuals engaged in tool use, guidance or shaping of tool-use behaviour by other tool-users and increased free time and energy) are identified and assessed for their possible effects on the behaviour of the Late Pleistocene hominin Homo floresiensis. The captivity bias concept provides one way to uncouple hominin tool use from cognition, by considering hominins as subject to the same adaptive influences as other tool-using animals”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 1.abstract



CRICKETTE M SANZ & DAVID B MORGAN – Ecological and social correlates of chimpanzee tool use [“We examined seasonal patterns of several types of tool use exhibited by a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population residing in central Africa, to determine whether their technical skills provided access to fallback resources when preferred food items were scarce. Chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle exhibit a diverse repertoire of tool behaviours, many of which are exhibited throughout the year. Further, they have developed specific tool sets to overcome the issues of accessibility to particular food items. Our conclusion is that these chimpanzees use a sophisticated tool technology to cope with seasonal changes in relative food abundance and gain access to high-quality foods. Subgroup sizes were smaller in tool using contexts than other foraging contexts, suggesting that the size of the social group may not be as important in promoting complex tool traditions as the frequency and type of social interactions”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 6.abstract



JACKIE CHAPPELL et al – The development of tool manufacture in humans: what helps young children make innovative tools? [“Here, we will explore the concepts underlying tool making, and the kinds of information and putative cognitive abilities required for children to manufacture novel tools. We will review the evidence for novel tool manufacture from the comparative literature and present a growing body of data from children suggesting that innovation of the solution to a problem by making a tool is a much more challenging task than previously thought”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 9.abstract



D M FRAGASZY et al – The fourth dimension of tool use: temporally enduring artefacts aid primates learning to use tools [“All investigated cases of habitual tool use in wild chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys include youngsters encountering durable artefacts, most often in a supportive social context. We propose that enduring artefacts associated with tool use, such as previously used tools, partly processed food items and residual material from previous activity, aid non-human primates to learn to use tools, and to develop expertise in their use, thus contributing to traditional technologies in non-humans. Therefore, social contributions to tool use can be considered as situated in the three dimensions of Euclidean space, and in the fourth dimension of time”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 0.abstract



JAMES J H ST CLAIR & CHRISTIAN RUTZ – New Caledonian crows attend to multiple functional properties of complex tools [“We experimentally provided subjects with naturalistic replica tools in a range of orientations and found that all subjects used these tools correctly, regardless of how they had been presented. In a companion experiment, we explored the extent to which normally co-occurring tool features (terminal hook, curvature of the tool shaft and stripped bark at the hooked end) inform tool-orientation decisions, by forcing birds to deploy ‘unnatural’ tools, which exhibited these traits at opposite ends. Our subjects attended to at least two of the three tool features, although, as expected, the location of the hook was of paramount importance”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 5.abstract



I TESCHKE et al – Did tool-use evolve with enhanced physical cognitive abilities? [“In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced physical cognitive abilities evolved in conjunction with the use of tools, by comparing the performance of naturally tool-using and non-tool-using species in a suite of physical and general learning tasks. We predicted that the habitually tool-using species, New Caledonian crows and Galápagos woodpecker finches, should outperform their non-tool-using relatives, the small tree finches and the carrion crows in a physical problem but not in general learning tasks. We only found a divergence in the predicted direction for corvids”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 8.abstract



W C MCGREW – Is primate tool use special? Chimpanzee and New Caledonian crow compared [“I systematically compare the two taxa, going beyond simple presence/absence scoring of tool-using and -making types, on four more precise aspects of material culture: (i) types of associative technology (tools used in combination); (ii) modes of tool making; (iii) modes of tool use; and (iv) functions of tool use. I emphasize tool use in nature, when performance is habitual or customary, rather than in anecdotal or idiosyncratic. On all four measures, the ape shows more variety than does the corvid, especially in modes and functions that go beyond extractive foraging. However, more sustained field research is required on the crows before this contrast is conclusive”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 2.abstract



MARY W MARZKE – Tool making, hand morphology and fossil hominins [ Is it the case: “(i) that humans have unique patterns of grip and hand movement capabilities compatible with effective stone tool making and use of the tools and, if this is the case, (ii) that there exist unique patterns of morphology in human hands that are consistent with these capabilities. Comparative analyses of human stone tool behaviours and chimpanzee feeding behaviours have revealed a distinctive set of forceful pinch grips by humans that are effective in the control of stones by one hand during manufacture and use of the tools. Comparative dissections, kinematic analyses and biomechanical studies indicate that humans do have a unique pattern of muscle architecture and joint surface form and functions consistent with the derived capabilities”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 4.abstract



TERUO HASHIMOTO et al – Hand before foot? Cortical somatotopy suggests manual dexterity is primitive and evolved independently of bipedalism [“People have long speculated whether the evolution of bipedalism in early hominins triggered tool use (by freeing their hands) or whether the necessity of making and using tools encouraged the shift to upright gait. Either way, it is commonly thought that one led to the other. In this study, we sought to shed new light on the origins of manual dexterity and bipedalism by mapping the neural representations in the brain of the fingers and toes of living people and monkeys. Contrary to the ‘hand-in-glove’ notion outlined above, our results suggest that adaptations underlying tool use evolved independently of those required for human bipedality”] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 7.abstract



J A J GOWLETT – Elongation as a factor in artefacts of humans and other animals: an Acheulean example in comparative context [“Elongation is a commonly found feature in artefacts made and used by humans and other animals and can be analysed in comparative study. Whether made for use in hand or beak, the artefacts have some common properties of length, breadth, thickness and balance point, and elongation can be studied as a factor relating to construction or use of a long axis. In human artefacts, elongation can be traced through the archaeological record, for example in stone blades of the Upper Palaeolithic (traditionally regarded as more sophisticated than earlier artefacts), and in earlier blades of the Middle Palaeolithic. It is now recognized that elongation extends to earlier Palaeolithic artefacts, being found in the repertoire of both Neanderthals and more archaic humans”]

http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... 4.abstract




Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience – 13 October 2013

NOTHING OF INTEREST




New Scientist –12 October 2013

NEWS

Reading literary fiction makes you a nicer person [Understanding the lives of literary characters can help readers better understand the thoughts and feelings of people in the real world] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... erson.html



ARTICLES

BOB HOLMES - Life's purpose: Can animals guide their own evolution? [It's heretical, but it might just be true: organisms may be able to direct the evolutionary path their descendants take] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... ution.html



MOHEB COSTANDI – The mind minders: Meet our brain's maintenance workers [A roving band of cells take care of business in the brain, giving rise to our fertile and flexible minds. Meet the microglia] http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg2 ... rkers.html




Science –11 October 2013

NEWS

Farming's Tangled European Roots [The transition from foraging to farming in Europe was long and messy, according to two papers published in Science this week] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6155/181.short



GUIDO BRANDT et al – Ancient DNA Reveals Key Stages in the Formation of Central European Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity [“The processes that shaped modern European mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation remain unclear. The initial peopling by Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers ~42,000 years ago and the immigration of Neolithic farmers into Europe ~8000 years ago appear to have played important roles but do not explain present-day mtDNA diversity. We generated mtDNA profiles of 364 individuals from prehistoric cultures in Central Europe to perform a chronological study, spanning the Early Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age (5500 to 1550 calibrated years before the common era). We used this transect through time to identify four marked shifts in genetic composition during the Neolithic period, revealing a key role for Late Neolithic cultures in shaping modern Central European genetic diversity”] http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6155/257.abstract




Nature –10 October 2013

NEWS

Amazon ecology: Footprints in the forest [Researchers are tracking just how much impact ancient peoples had on the Amazon] http://www.nature.com/news/amazon-ecolo ... E-20131010




PLOS One –9 October 2013

PAPERS

XI YU et al – An fMRI Study of Grammatical Morpheme Processing Associated with Nouns and Verbs in Chinese [“the processing of Chinese nominal classifiers and verbal aspect markers were investigated in a sentence completion task and a grammaticality judgment task to look for converging evidence. The Chinese language constitutes a special case because it has no inflectional morphology per se and a larger classifier than aspect marker inventory, contrary to the pattern of greater verbal than nominal paradigmatic complexity in most European languages. The functional imaging results showed BA47 and left supplementary motor area and superior medial frontal gyrus more strongly activated for classifier processing, and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus more responsive to aspect marker processing. We attributed the activation in the left prefrontal cortex to greater processing complexity during classifier selection, analogous to the accounts put forth for European languages, and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus to more demanding verb semantic processing”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0074952



JOHANNES KIZACH, ANNE METTE NYVAD & KEN RAMSHØJ CHRISTENSEN – Structure before Meaning: Sentence Processing, Plausibility, and Subcategorization [“The aim of this study was to test whether a wh-filler extracted from an embedded clause is initially attached as the object of the matrix verb with subsequent reanalysis, and if so, whether the plausibility of such an attachment has an effect on reaction time. Finally, we wanted to examine whether subcategorization plays a role. We used a method called G-Maze to measure response time in a self-paced reading design. The experiments confirmed that there is early attachment of fillers to the matrix verb. When this attachment is implausible, the off-line acceptability of the whole sentence is significantly reduced. The on-line results showed that G-Maze was highly suited for this type of experiment. In accordance with our predictions, the results suggest that the parser ignores (or has no access to information about) implausibility and attaches fillers as soon as possible to the matrix verb. However, the results also show that the parser uses the subcategorization frame of the matrix verb. In short, the parser ignores semantic information and allows implausible attachments but adheres to information about which type of object a verb can take, ensuring that the parser does not make impossible attachments. We argue that the evidence supports a syntactic parser informed by syntactic cues, rather than one guided by semantic cues or one that is blind, or completely autonomous”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0076326



HANI D FREEMAN et al with SARAH F BROSNAN – Different Responses to Reward Comparisons by Three Primate Species [“Here we test the response of two New World primate species with different parental strategies to unequal outcomes in both individual and social contrast conditions. One species tested was a cooperative breeder (Callithrix spp.) and the second practiced bi-parental care (Aotus spp.). Additionally, to verify our procedure, we tested a third confamilial species that shows no such interdependence but does respond to individual (but not social) contrast (Saimiri spp.). We tested all three genera using an established inequity paradigm in which individuals in a pair took turns to gain rewards that sometimes differed from those of their partners … None of the three species tested responded negatively to inequitable outcomes in this experimental context. Importantly, the Saimiri spp responded to individual contrast, as in earlier studies, validating our procedure”] http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0076297




PNAS –8 October 2013

PAPERS

PETER TURCHIN et al with SERGEY GAVRILETS – War, space, and the evolution of Old World complex societies [“We developed a model that uses cultural evolution mechanisms to predict where and when the largest-scale complex societies should have arisen in human history. The model was simulated within a realistic landscape of the Afroeurasian landmass, and its predictions were tested against real data. Overall, the model did an excellent job predicting empirical patterns. Our results suggest a possible explanation as to why a long history of statehood is positively correlated with political stability, institutional quality, and income per capita”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/41/16384.abstract



LINDSEY J POWELL & ELIZABETH S SPELKE – Preverbal infants expect members of social groups to act alike [“Adults and children conform to members of their social groups and expect others to do the same, but the earlier development of this expectation is unknown. Through looking-time experiments with 7- to 12-month-old infants, we show that preverbal infants expect members of social groups to act alike. Our findings further reveal that this expectation is specific to social groups, as infants did not expect similar actions from socially unrelated individuals or from groups of inanimate objects. Thus, an expectation that social affiliates will share behaviors arises early in human development, prior to language or to extensive experience with different social groups”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/41/E3965.abstract



TRENTON KRIETE et al – Indirection and symbol-like processing in the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia [“Here, we provide an example of how the structure and functioning of the prefrontal cortex/basal ganglia working memory system can support variable binding, through a form of indirection (akin to a pointer in computer science). We show how indirection enables the system to flexibly generalize its behavior substantially beyond its direct experience (i.e., systematicity). We argue that this provides a biologically plausible mechanism that approximates a key component of symbol processing, exhibiting both the flexibility, but also some of the limitations, that are associated with this ability in humans”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/41/16390.abstract



CHRISTINA MOUTSIANA et al – Human development of the ability to learn from bad news [“We reveal a striking valence-dependent asymmetry in how belief updating develops with age. In the ages tested (9–26 y), younger age was associated with inaccurate updating of beliefs in response to undesirable information regarding vulnerability. In contrast, the ability to update beliefs accurately in response to desirable information remained relatively stable with age. This asymmetry was mediated by adequate computational use of positive but not negative estimation errors to alter beliefs”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/41/16396.abstract



GESA HARTWIGSEN et al – Perturbation of the left inferior frontal gyrus triggers adaptive plasticity in the right homologous area during speech production [“We demonstrate that a virtual lesion of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) decreased activity in the targeted area and increased activity in the contralateral homologous area during pseudoword repetition. This was associated with a stronger facilitatory drive from the right IFG to the left IFG. Importantly, responses became faster with increased influence of the right IFG on the left IFG. Our results shed new light on the dynamic regulation of interhemispheric interactions in the human brain. Particularly, these findings are of potential importance for understanding language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, indicating that homologous right hemisphere areas actively contribute to language function after a left hemisphere lesion”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/41/16402.abstract



EVELINA FEDORENKO, JOHN DUNCAN & NANCY KANWISHER – Broad domain generality in focal regions of frontal and parietal cortex [“One of the oldest debates in cognitive neuroscience concerns the degree of functional specialization present in the human brain. Prior work has discovered several highly specialized components dedicated to particular mental functions, like face recognition or motion perception. However, our cognitive versatility suggests the additional existence of more general-purpose machinery. Building on prior neuroimaging evidence, along with neurophysiological evidence from non-human primates, we searched for such domain-general brain regions in humans. Seven diverse demanding cognitive tasks produced overlapping activation at the individual-subject level in a number of frontal and parietal brain regions. Thus, human cognition arises from hardware that includes not only specialized components, but also very general-purpose ones that plausibly enable us to solve novel problems”] http://www.pnas.org/content/110/41/16616.abstract




Animal Behaviour – October 2013

REVIEWS

CLARE CUNNINGHAM – [Review of ‘Tool Use in Animals. Cognition and Ecology’ by Crickette M. Sanz, Josep Call & Christophe Boesch (eds)] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003758



BERND HEINRICH – [Review of ‘The Spirit of the Hive: The Mechanisms of Social Evolution’ by Robert E. Page, Jr.] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003916



PAPERS

K J MACLEOD, J F NIELSEN & T H CLUTTON-BROCK – Factors predicting the frequency, likelihood and duration of allonursing in the cooperatively breeding meerkat [“In this study, we investigated the factors predicting the frequency of allonursing in meerkats, Suricata suricatta, whether or not subordinate females invest in allonursing, and how much time they invest. Around half of all litters born to dominant females were allonursed. Litters born later were more likely to be allonursed than those born early in the season. Group size, litter size, rainfall and maternal condition were not associated with the likelihood that a litter was allonursed. Subordinate females were more likely to allolactate if they were (or had recently been) pregnant. This effect was stronger if they were also highly related to the litter's mother, suggesting that females may gain indirect benefits from allolactating. Older females and those that had recently returned to the group following eviction were also more likely to allolactate”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213004156



RALF H J M KURVERS et al – Contrasting context dependence of familiarity and kinship in animal social networks [“We collected detailed behavioural data (personality, dominance, familiarity) and high-resolution genetic data from a flock of 43 captive barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis, to understand how these traits affect association patterns in two different evolutionary and ecologically highly relevant contexts: foraging and mate choice. Using a novel analytical framework for node label permutations, we found that barnacle geese preferentially associated with close kin and other individuals familiar from earlier in life when foraging, but selected unfamiliar partners during mate choice. We found no effect of either personality or dominance on foraging associations or mate choice”] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ar ... 7213003874




Scientific American – November 2013

ARTICLES

LARS WERDELIN – King of the Beasts [Africa was once home to many more, and many more varieties of, large carnivore. Around two million years ago a decline began – was the rise of Homo sp. Responsible?]



FERRIS JABR – Why the brain prefers paper [a text is more than just one damn word after another, it is a landscape of ideas that the form of the text helps us to map. Are electronic readers less effective than books at mapping this landscape?]
Waterside hypotheses of human evolution assert that selection from wading, swimming and diving and procurement of food from aquatic habitats have significantly affected the evolution of the lineage leading to Homo sapiens as distinct from that leading to Pan. (p118)
Kuliukas, A., Morgan, E. (2011). Aquatic scenarios in the thinking on human evolution: What are they and how do they compare?. In: Vaneechoutte, M., Verhaegen, M., Kuliukas, A. (2011). Was Man More Aquatic in the Past?
User avatar
AlgisKuliukas
 
Posts: 443
Joined: Wed Oct 26, 2011 10:24 pm

PreviousNext

Return to Reviews of the Literature

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest

cron