Evaluative Framework      
2 "Ecological"      
2.2 Accounts for Predation Although this factor is closely tied to the first, survival value, it is treated as a separate category here because the question of predation has been such a specific key factor in much of the discussion in the literature on bipedal origins.

Models placing hominins in habitats where they'd be safe from predation or provided plausible means to protect themselves from predators were judged best. Models which placed hominins in scenarios with increased risk of predation or made them especially vulnerable (e.g. by carrying food or infants) were judged worse.
Models Ranked by This Criterion
s4.1.1 Coastal foraging / Habitat Compulsion 9
s4.1.2 Aquarboreal Model / Habitat Compulsion 9
s3.3.1 Arboreal predation / Feeding 9
s4.4.1 Descent from arboreal Hylobatian locomotion / Habitat Compulsion 9
s4.4.2 Arboreal "upwardly mobile" hypothesis / Habitat Compulsion 9
s4.4.3 Orang-utan-like hand assisted bipedalism / Habitat Compulsion 9
s1.5.2 Weapon wielding / Forelimb pre-emption (carrying) 9
s1.4.1 Weapon Throwing / Forelimb pre-emption (carrying) 9
s2.2.1 Threat displays directed at other species / Behaviour 8
s3.2.1 Postural feeding hypothesis / Feeding 7
s5.3.1 Efficiency of moving from tree to tree / Locomotor efficiency 7
s3.1.2 Terrestrial squat feeding on the forest floor / Feeding 7
s1.5.1 Tool carriage / Forelimb pre-emption (carrying) 7
s1.1.1 General freeing of the hands / Forelimb pre-emption (carrying) 6
s2.3.1 Intra-specific threat displays / Behaviour 6
s4.1.5 Wetland USO foraging / Habitat Compulsion 5
s4.1.3 Amphibische Genalistheorie / Habitat Compulsion 5
s8.1.1 Evo Devo mutation / Random Genetic Factors 5
s9.1.1 Multi-factorial / Combination 5
s5.2.1 Biomechanical inevitability / Locomotor efficiency 5
s5.4.1 Locomotor de-coupling / Locomotor efficiency 5
s3.1.3 Other gathering / Feeding 4
s4.1.4 River Apes / Habitat Compulsion 4
s4.3.1 Variability Selection Hypothesis / Habitat Compulsion 4
s7.1.1 Iodine deficiency / Dietary Factors 4
s3.4.1 Stalking / Feeding 3
s6.1.1 Thermoregulatory Hypothesis / Thermoregulation 3
s2.4.1 Sentinel behaviour / Behaviour 3
s4.2.1 Walking on Snow or mud / Habitat Compulsion 3
s2.6.1 Copied Gimmick Idea / Behaviour 3
s1.2.2 Carrying and scavenging / Forelimb pre-emption (carrying) 2
s1.2.4 Male Provisioning / Forelimb pre-emption (carrying) 2
s2.1.1 Nuptial Gifts / Behaviour 2
s3.1.1 Seed Eating / Feeding 2
s3.4.2 Specific Hunting / Feeding 2
s5.5.1 Endurance Running / Locomotor efficiency 2
s5.1.1 Slow, long-distance walking / Locomotor efficiency 1
s1.2.1 Carrying food back to gallery forest bases. / Forelimb pre-emption (carrying) 0
s1.2.3 Migration-carrying hypotheses / Forelimb pre-emption (carrying) 0
s3.4.3 General scavenging/hunting / Feeding 0
s1.3.1 Female driven infant carrying / Forelimb pre-emption (carrying) 0
s2.5.1 Phallic Display directed at females / Behaviour 0